Operations and management are two interrelated terms. Delving deep into their functionality, attainment of efficiency in the organisational tasks enhances the essence of the term management. Countering the above sentence, management can be placed before the term operations. In other words, adopting efficient and effective managerial techniques by the managers of organisations, results in the execution of the operations in a fruitful manner (Slack, 2015, p.12). This problem statement of the study is to speculate operational management adopted by organisations, such as, Kellogg's to achieve their goals and objectives. One of the focuses of the assignment is on the theoretical framework upon the managerial aspect, which adds maximum value to the role of manager as
Overview of the organization: Under the guidance of John. A. Bryant, Kellogg’s has achieved accolades and glory as America’s one of the reputed food manufacturing companies. Providing innovative quality of foods to the customers across the globe reflects its expanded business (Kelloggs.co.uk, 2016). The tagline “Nourishing families so that they can flourish and thrive”, projects the attempt to influence the lifestyle of the customers. This is owing to the presence of skilled and efficient employees, whose functionality bears resemblance with the motto to gift a healthy lifestyle to the public domain.
a) Defining and comparing the roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager
Managers and leaders are different from each other for specific and distinctive roles, responsibilities, personalities, status in respective organizations and so on. In this respect, it is to be justified that both leader and manager have distinctive responsibilities in a respective organization named Kellogg’s (Colla et al. 2014, p.964). However, the chief functions and characteristics of leader and manager of this organization are discussed in this context in order to represent a proper definition of these two respective persons and also to clarify their responsibilities within the organization as well.
It is to be specified that in leadership, leaders lead every people or worker of a respective management. Moreover, it needs to be highlighted that leaders should follow all the rules and regulations while leading respective staffs or employees of Kellogg’s company. On the contrary, managers need to manage the overall management system of a respective organization. Moreover, they invent new and unique rules and strategies for the organization which are followed and led by respective leaders and employees (Liden et al. 2014, p.1434). However, in order to compare the responsibilities and functions of both the people, some respective points should be justified in this context below:
Functions: Manager and leader of every respective organization including Kellogg’s Company are different regarding their functions. It means, they have to perform different roles and characteristics. It is to be mentioned that managers need to perform all of the five characteristics including planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. On the other hand, leadership is a specific and essential part of these five characteristics (Smith, 2014, p.1592). It means leader has to lead all the employees of his or team in order to help the manager to perform all such five characteristics.
For instance, in Kellogg’s Company, a respective customer has faced trouble regarding late delivery issue. He got his cornflakes for two days late and for this, the customer lost his hope upon the company. As a result, a respective manager instructs and directs a respective leader to lead his employees so that they never are late in delivery products to the customers.
Concerns: As the characteristics and roles of a leader and manager are different, accordingly the concerns of both the person must be differentiated (Van Wart, 2014, p.101). In this respect, it has been observed that a manager’s concern is to manage his or her respective business organization by improving and developing various strategies and planning of business prospect. Moreover, a manager has to observe working prospects and style of all individual employee including leaders. But, a leader’s concern is to lead or to train his or her team members and employees within his or her team so that they can be able to work influentially for the organization as well. Along with this, he or she needs to observe and manage satisfactory elements of few employees or staffs that are within his or her team as well. Therefore, it is clear that manager should have to perform and manage huge responsibilities while leader’s responsibility is quite small.
Essentialities: A manager of respective company should concentrate on his responsibilities and it is essential that he needs to evaluate and follow significant strategies and job performance to highlight the organization’s business prospect (Day et al. 2014, p.63). On the contrary, it should be defined that leader should help the manager by performing their own responsibilities influentially and fundamentally.
Once in Kellogg’s Company, a respective leader did not concentrate much on his work and did not provide effective training to his team members. As a result, the employees failed to produce high quality milk products for a respective customer. In this respect, an operations manager directs the leader to provide effective training to his employees, or else he would sack that leader from the company. Therefore, it is clear that manager and leader have differences in their responsibilities and functions.
Solidity: As manager should be effective and energetic in order to manage the whole business organization, he is mostly stable in the Kellogg’s Company. Moreover, every employee should follow and respect the manager of the company as well. On the contrary, leader is less stable than the manager of the company as he does not have to observe and perform all the working prospects, rather he only observes and leads the employees of his team or specific team members (Muenjohn and Armstrong, 2015, p.111).
Therefore, from the above discussion, it has been cleared to all the readers that both leader and manager are highly distinctive regarding their duties, responsibilities, position, status, working attitudes and so on within the company.
b) Examining role of a leader and the function of a manager that is applied in different situations
The managers play a crucial role in the organisational success. The attainment of glory and reputation credits the contribution of the manager. Simultaneously, situational crisis puts the blame on the managerial incapacity to tackle situation crisis through spontaneous approaches. This is even applicable for the manager of Kellogg’s (Child, 2015, p.23).
The term leader can be aligned with the role played by the managers. Speculating this matter, an individual, due to his attitude attains the designation “leader”. Possessing of a pleasing, caring and understanding personality qualifies the manager of Kellogg’s as a leader among the employees. This motive of the manager helps the employees to clarify their doubts regarding organisational issues.
A pleasing personality enhances the personal skills of the manager of Kellogg’s. Caring and understanding prepares him for the professional life (Roche et al. 2014, p.476). These attributes assists the manager to identify the problems encountered by the employees to carry out the allocated tasks. Personal visits to the workplace intimate the manager about the performance of the employees. This action makes the manager and the employees as an integral part of the organisation, Kellogg’s.
Frequent training programmes are organized by the managers of Kellogg’s. These training are personally taken by the managers. As a process of these training, the managers transfer their skills to the employees, so that they can be an asset for the organisation. This sharing of the preconceived skills strengthens the bondage between the managers and employees, a crucial component of the organisational culture (Vidyarthi et al. 2014, p.235).
After completion of the training programmes, post training tests are taken by the managers of Kellogg’s. This step helps in assessing the capability of the employees to make practical application of their learnt skills. This method projects the professional approach of the managers. Here, the parameter of leader proves appropriate. “Tests” possess two connotations. On one hand, it judges the capability of the employees in terms of their efficiency to perform the organisational tasks. On the other hand, it tests the ability of the managers to handle the employees in accordance with the organisational requirements (Daft, 2014, p.34).
Maintenance of consistency in the exposure of friendly attitude helps the managerial authority of Kellogg’s to attract large number of customers towards the brand. The attribute of “friend”, qualifies the manager as one among the general public. However, striving to serve the customers in a better way makes the manager a leader. Here the aspects of manager and leader come together in an equal alignment. Delving deep into the alignment, the placement seems appropriate according to their functionality.
In order to lure the customers, means such as feedback, survey, customer portals are adopted by the manager of Kellogg’s (Kelloggs.co.uk, 2016). These means intimate the manager about the specific needs, demands and requirements of the customers. Introducing attractive and prospective schemes for the customers also accounts as one of the responsibilities of the manager in terms of customer attraction. This means aids in the escalation of the sales revenue and profit margin, which enhances the reputation of the brand as well as the manager.
In times of crisis, it is natural for an individual to lose control over their own self. However, patience and cautiousness enables the individuals to overcome the adverse situations. In case of the manager of Kellogg’s, these sentences establish a contradiction. Upon encountering situational crisis, the manager immediately calls upon a meeting with the stakeholders and shareholders (Kelloggs.co.uk, 2016). This action enhances the parameter of spontaneity within the role of the manager. This spontaneous action acts assistance in the achievement of effective resolutions for the workplace problems.
Instead of losing calm, the manager attempts to seek ways for overcoming the adversities. This approach qualifies the manager as the leader. Along with this, it also enhances his individuality. The exposure of this behavioral conduct, by the manager, acts as a lesson for the employees. Specifically, it teaches the employees to handle every situation with confidence and patience. Moreover, it upgrades the status of the manager among the employees (Roche et al. 2014, p.476). Perseverance, dedication and commitment are the other attributes, which uplifts the status and reputation of the manager of Kellogg’s. Upon encountering failure, the manager toils hard to regain the lost glory. Herein lays the effectiveness of the saying, “Failure is the stepping stone of Success”.
Viewing it from another perspective, failure is the outcome at the initial stages of leadership. Giving up at these situations contradicts the true essence of the aspect of leadership. On the contrary, taking a lesson from failure and searching out ways for attaining success falls within the major functionalities of a leader (Daft, 2014, p.56). This proves apt for the manager of Kellogg’s. Maintaining this approach qualifies him as successful in the personal as well as professional life.
c) Applying theories and models of situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency
Leadership models and theories are highly influential in order to manage both the leadership and operations management of a respective company. However, leadership approach includes three leadership models significantly. Those models are situational, systems and contingency leadership models. These models help both the manager and leader to manage and to lead all the employees of a respective organization.
Leadership theory of situational: Leadership theory includes two respective steps to lead all the employees and staffs of the organization. Those are directive and supportive. Directive step signifies possible and effective direction to the employees through which the employees get clear identification and clarification of their working responsibilities and prospects (Dinh et al. 2014, p.36). Moreover, the leaders follow this directive part through two more significant steps of the theory. Telling and coaching are two respective and significant parts of directive step of the theory. It is to be highlighted that leaders of Kellogg’s Company provide lectures and specific speeches to the employees in order to make them understand their job responsibilities. This way of their delivering speech is known as telling part of the theory. After that, both the employees and their leader converse in order to clear their confusions which is known as coaching.
Supportive step includes participating and delegating steps reflectively (Meuser et al. 2016, p.1374). Leaders support their employees by participating in their individual working prospects. This also helps the leaders to build up well-mannered and friendly relationship with their employees. Moreover, with the step of delegating, the leaders delegate how the employees are working and help them in this manner.
Leadership theory of systems: Systems leadership theory is evaluated with Katz and Kahn Open system theory. Environment, input, output, medium and feedback are some significant steps of this theory which are essential in order to maintain every system of the organization. It is to be mentioned that environmental factors of a respective business company are highly influential and designated in terms of maintaining systems of the organization chiefly (Antonakis and House, 2014, p.746). Moreover, it should be highlighted that leaders should include some respective and influential resources that may help the organization to grow up their financial prospects and to highlight quality products. At the same time, the leaders must have clear identification of possible and effective medium sources. In this respect, it is to be informed that output or outcomes highly depend upon the input and medium aspects of the organization. At the end, feedback comes from the customers whether they are satisfied for the business products or not (Schuller et al. 2016, p.123). If the other steps are maintained by the leaders identically, the feedback of customers should be surely positive and if there contains some wrong strategies, the organization will fail to get positive and influential feedback from the customers.
Contingency model: Contingency model is highly specified with Fiedler’s theory model. Fiedler’s theory model includes three respective and highlighted steps which help the leaders of Kellogg’s Company to lead and help their employees or staffs formatively (McFarland et al. 2016, p.108). These three parts include identification of appropriate style of leadership, identification of effective situation and identification and selection of adequate style of leadership according to respective situation.
Appropriate style of leadership must be selected by the leaders in order to lead their employees in significant procedures. In this respect, they need to highlight and to observe situational aspects in order to understand some situations within the organization (Miner, 2015, p.116). At the end of this theory, leaders should apply and select leadership style which is highly influential in order to handle specific situations within the company as well.
However, in order to maintain and to handle the respective positive or negative or any other type of situations within the organization, the leaders need to follow such above mentioned leadership model or theories or they need to highlight some respective parts or steps of those models. In this way, they gain success and achievement in their leading style and leadership management.
a) Explaining key approaches to operations management and the roles of leaders and managers
Key approaches to operations management: Operations management includes efficient management system which helps respective organizations including Kellogg’s Company to operate their business prospects. This management system highlights every internal and external business environmental factors. Along with this, the management includes certain and relevant resources through influential mediums and as a result, they get possible and influential outcomes or outputs as well (Brown et al. 2013, p.134). However, it is to be mentioned that the chief target of the organization is satisfy customers with highlighted and good quality business products which is possible only by operating business prospects efficiently.
Regarding the key approaches to operations management, it is to be signified that supply chain management is a significant part of operations management. Operations management is never fulfilled without supply chain management. In supply chain management, every internal and external environment of a respective business organization is overseen by the leaders and managers. This is because, supply chain management includes all the steps and functions that a management should perform in order to produce significant and high quality products and to deliver those products to customers. High quality production of business products and delivering customers involve choosing and selecting raw materials, purchasing, factorizing, processing, and producing (Seuring, 2013, p.1513). In this way, the organization can be able to highlight their working significance and prospects through supply chain and operations management.
In this regard of operations management, it has been specified that all the operations of a respective company are done by this management. The chief target of this management is to fulfill the requirements and needs of the customers by providing them fruitful and resulting products. Moreover, this management system tries to evaluate the business prospects of the organization by reputing their market value in its marketplace (Rushton et al. 2014, p.115). Basically, this economic value is highly depended upon the customers’ reports and feedback for an organization. But, it is to be informed that if management of Kellogg’s Company works influentially and fruitfully in order to produce high quality products and reach those products to customers in time or before time, customers will definitely provide their positive feedback and report regarding the company's’ products and services. On the other hand, if the employees and staffs and the management of the company cannot be able to produce high quality products or failed to reach the required products to the customers in time or before time, the customers never provide positive, rewarding as well as remarkable feedback or reports for the organization which usually mark the business prospects of the management as negative (Dale, 2015, p.114).
Roles of leaders and managers: Operations manager has definite and selective working prospects in order to manage all the operations of a respective business organization. Operations manager needs to highlight respective plans, and then the plans should be organized, controlled, directed to the employees and leaders by him. In this respect, it is to be defined that this is the direct tasks of a respective manager (Langabeer II and Helton, 2015, p.106). He should also perform some indirect working prospects for the improvement and development of the organization regarding economic prospects, identification of customers’ expectations and customers’ satisfaction. Moreover, it is to be designated that operations manager needs to discuss and interact with other managers of financing, accounting, engineering and so on. But, in operations management, human resource management, assets management, cost management, production management all are chiefly included within a respective organization named Kellogg’s.
Leader has to perform their duties regarding leadership of employees and staffs. In this regard, it has been clarified that leader of Kellogg’s Company must follow effective and influential rules and regulations and strategies that are invented and implied by the manager of the company significantly (Picard, 2014, p.104). As a matter of fact, leadership is an designated and effective step of managing the whole management of the company. This is because, leaders have to lead and direct only few employees of their individual team.
b) Explaining the importance along with value of operations management
Operations management has importance and values in order to continue business prospects within a respective business organization. In this context, the importance and values of operations management are highly defined.
Producing high quality products: Operation management helps to evaluate the processing and producing system of a respective management (Mir and Pinnington, 2014, p.202). In this respect, an operations manager should plan some influential strategies in order to control and handle all the employees and working prospects of the employees influentially.
Employee relations: Employee relationships should also be well-mannered in respect of providing highlighted business services and products to the customers. This is because, if the employees do not have good relationship among them, they cannot be able to invent new strategies and styles and to discuss regarding any trouble or difficulty. However, operations manager therefore, tries to build significant and friendly relationship among all the employers and employees.
Costing: It is to be signified that customers expect high quality products in discounted rates or in low price rates. However, this field is also designated and observed by operations management so that they can be able to fulfill customers’ expectations (Crane et al. 2014, p.130). Moreover, operations manager should fix up costs and prices of significant products according to customers’ expectations if he wants to satisfy customers and to increase economic growth and prospects.
Customers’ satisfaction: Operations manager of Kellogg’s Company also helps the business organization to satisfy their customers through effective working prospects and highlighted working style. In this respect, it must be signified that if the customers are not satisfied with the business products and services of the company, they do not provide remarkable and rewarding reports or feedback to the organization. For this reason, the organization may lose its reputation in the marketplace. Therefore, operations management manages to satisfy customers which another chief importance of this management system (Stadtler, 2015, p.20).
At the end of this discussion, it should be mentioned that all the above mentioned topics are observed and cared by the operations management of Kellogg’s company in order to influence and improve every aspects of the business strategies and to increase number of customers. As a result, their economic growth will also surely be implied within the business service.
c) Assessing the business factors that impact upon operational management and decision-making
Organizing: Among all the chief factors of business, organizing is adequate in order to affect the operational management system of the organization. This is because, managers should organize their target plans and objectives in order to tackle and control all the employees and staffs of the organization as well (Sharma et al. 2014, p.433).
Branding: A chief objective that affects the operations management of the company is none other than the branding process. This is because; branding is a respective way of marketing and spreading business information to all the customers and would-be customers influentially. This system also impacts upon the operations management as this management operates all the functions and roles of a respective company.
Teaming: Management should also create teamwork. Rather, teamwork impacts upon the operations management as working together invents and represents significant and high quality business products in order to satisfy all the customers (Purce, 2014, p.123). Team works help the employees to work encouragingly and energetically. Regarding a particular teamwork, it is to be identified that the employees can work on a similar project and therefore, they can be able to avoid possible risks and confusions significantly. Moreover, they clear their confusions and troubles by discussing with each other and also help each other remarkably. However, if teamwork is ineffective, operations management will be fall down to evaluate business prospects of the organization.
Directing: Another factor is directing all the employees and leaders in order to influence and represent significant and high quality products and to fulfill the expectations of the customers. In this respect, it should be highlighted that if the directions are wrong, negative reflection will fall upon operations management of the organization. In this regard, it should be informed that if the direction process is maintained and highlighted, the operations management will also be improved and developed accordingly (Anderson et al. 2015, p.133). As a matter of fact, Kellogg’s Company will get their benefits regarding market value, reputation, customers’ satisfaction, producing significant and fruitful products etc.
Management and leadership is a significant part of operations management system in every organization including Kellogg’s Company. This management system may include a number of objectives and targets which are signified and relevant for the development of all the organizations. In this respect, it is to be highlighted that human resource management, different roles and characteristics of leaders and managers within an organization, theories and models of leadership management, operations management, importance and values of operations management, environmental factors of operations management are significant and influential in order to highlight all the business objectives of management and; leadership and operations as well.
- Anderson, D.R., Sweeney, D.J., Williams, T.A., Camm, J.D. and Cochran, J.J., 2015. An introduction to management science: quantitative approaches to decision making. Cengage learning.
- Antonakis, J. and House, R.J., 2014. Instrumental leadership: Measurement and extension of transformational–transactional leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), pp.746-771.
- Brown, S., Bessant, J.R. and Lamming, R., 2013. Strategic operations management. Routledge.
- Child, J., (2015). Organization: contemporary principles and practice. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
- Colla, C.H., Lewis, V.A., Shortell, S.M. and Fisher, E.S., 2014. First national survey of ACOs finds that physicians are playing strong leadership and ownership roles. Health Affairs, 33(6), pp.964-971.
- Crane, A., Palazzo, G., Spence, L.J. and Matten, D., 2014. Contesting the value of “creating shared value”. California management review, 56(2), pp.130-153.
- Daft, R.L., (2014). The leadership experience. London: Cengage Learning.
- Dale, B., 2015. Total quality management. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Day, D.V., Fleenor, J.W., Atwater, L.E., Sturm, R.E. and McKee, R.A., 2014. Advances in leader and leadership development: A review of 25years of research and theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), pp.63-82.
- Dinh, J.E., Lord, R.G., Gardner, W.L., Meuser, J.D., Liden, R.C. and Hu, J., 2014. Leadership theory and research in the new millennium: Current theoretical trends and changing perspectives. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(1), pp.36-62.
- Karlsson, C. ed., 2016. Research Methods for Operations Management. Abingdon: Routledge.