Organizational behaviour is considered as key activities of the management where high authorities make plan in order to improve workplace environment so that employees can feel satisfied and can perform their work in effective manner (Besharov and Smith, 2014). In the absence of healthy workplace atmosphere people may feel demotivated and may get failed to work with efficiency. Present study is based on A David & Co Limited which is the small and medium size firm. It conducts its operations in the food and beverages industry. Company is planning to raise its revenues and increase satisfaction level of the consumers. For that it is very important that it retain its skilled people in the organization for longer duration. Current assignment will discuss influence of culture, politics and power on team and individual behaviour. Furthermore, it will evaluate the theories of motivation that can support the firm in aching its goal. In addition, report will evaluate the ways that help in cr
P1 Influence of organizational culture, politics and power on individual and team behaviour
Organizational culture is the value, beliefs of the firm that creates environment in the workplace. This environment impact on the behaviour of employees significantly. Each firm has its own cultural aspects and accordingly it makes connection with its employees. Organizational culture impact on individual and team performance as well to great extent (Bolman and Deal, 2017). Handy's model of culture explain the four main types of culture that follows in workplace: Power, role, task and person culture.
- Power culture: It is the culture in which company gives power to limited people only, all these are at higher position and take decision for the firm. These authorities allot workers to the workers and they force people to perform their work as per the guidance provided by their seniors (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters, 2015). Power plays significant role in organization. If the person has power then individual is able to make decision in the firm.
- Task culture: It is the type of culture where people have to work in a team. They are responsible to compete particular task within specified period of time. In this type of culture high authorities concentrate on specific needs of people and provide them necessary training so that individual can complete their work in effective manner.
- Person culture: In this culture employees work for their own. Employees believe that they are important to the firm (Pinder, 2014). They are more concern for their own and do not concern about the common goal of entity. They perform their work just to get monitory benefits. They do not think about the organizational goal.
- Role culture: It is much more based on rules and regulation. In these people have to workers under highly controlled environment. Role or designation of person determine its power in the firm. In this type of culture employees have to work under the highly defined structure (Lichtenberg, Lachmann and Fosshage, 2016). Power of decision making is in the hand of higher authorities and lower level workers have to follow their instruction.
A David & Co Limited is the small size firm which follows task culture in its workplace. A group is created and team members are allotted in this group. Each team are given specific task which they have to complete within specified period of time (Anwar and et.al., 2017). They get supervision from their higher authorities and give proper training so that they can perform their work effectively.
Culture, power and politics are the essential aspects in the business unit. These components can influence overall business performance of the firm to great extent. Recently A David & Co Limited is implementing task culture in the firm. This culture helps in allotting the work to each individual as per their capabilities. All people work in a group and all they work together for completing the given task in appropriate manner. But this type of culture some time create difficulty for the business unit (Rurkkhum and Bartlett, 2018). In this culture all people have to work their own work thus, they do not communicate with other departments. In such condition sometimes communication gap create difficulty for the business unit and increases mistake in the firm. Task culture influence working of individuals because all people perform their own work in efficient manner. This helps in making them comfortable and allotting them work as per their capabilities. Higher authorities supervise performance of each individual that helps in identifying mistakes on time and resolving these issues quickly. This helps in motivating people and team members. This enhances coordination among all team members those who are working together for completing the task. This helps in improving performance level of individuals and team members (Trybou and et.al., 2014).
Power and politics are another most important aspect of the business unit. There are many persons in A David & Co Limited those who are responsible to take decision in the business. Power and politics sometimes create negative environment in the firm. Some of the managers promote their favourite employees in the business unit thus, talented people fail to get promotional opportunities (Thomas and Vohra, 2015). It demotivates them and they become negative towards the brand. This affect their performance in the firm and they fail to put their hard efforts for accomplishing the goal.
P2 Motivational theories
Motivation plays significant role in the business unit, it helps the manager in retaining skilled labour in the business unit for longer duration and enhancing their loyalty towards the brand.
Content theory of motivation
It is the most commonly used motivational theory which believes that if manager take care of needs of employees then it can be beneficial for the managers in motivating the people and making them positive towards the brand (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2017).
Mazlow's motivational theory
Each person has different needs, there are five common needs which makes the person satisfied. These needs are self-esteem, safety, love and self-actualization. If managers know specific needs of the employees and take action in such manner so that these requirements of them can be accomplished then it would change the mind of workers and can make them positive towards the brand. Business adopt this motivation theory which can supports in satisfying the employees and retaining them in the workplace for longer duration.
Herzberg two factor theory
It is another type of motivational theory. It explains that there two major factors that can motivate the workers. These are hygiene and motivation (Besharov and Smith, 2014). If managers provide correct wages and attractive incentives, safe environment then employees can feel motivated and they will be loyal towards the brand. By this way they will put their hard efforts in order to perform their work with full efficiency. This is the way that can supports in encouraging people and retaining them in workplace for longer duration.
Process theory of motivation
Process theory is another model of motivation which describes that changes are helpful in encouraging people and changing their behaviour towards the brand. Positive changes always motivate employees and make them positive towards the firm (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters, 2015).
Goal setting theory
A David & Co Limited takes support of goal setting theory in order to boost their workers in workplace. Company gives incentives and additional monitory benefits to the workers so that their needs can be fulfilled and they feel encouraged (Lichtenberg, Lachmann and Fosshage, 2016). Managers set goal for the staff members and on the bases of these goals performance of individuals are measured in business unit. When people put their hard efforts in order to accomplish these objectives then they get additional benefits from the managers. It motivates them and make them loyal towards the brand. Mangers of cited firm makes them able to face realistic challenges and contribute well in the accomplishment of objective. This is the way that supports in managing people well and changing their behaviour towards the corporation.
It is another theory of motivation which explains that punishment and extinction are two major aspects which can motivate employees to great extent (Anwar and et.al., 2017). If person is performing well then higher authorities need to give them extinction but if they are making any mistakes then managers have to punish so them. This punishment supports them in learning new things and avoid repeating same mistake in the future. This is the way that motivate people in organization and make them able to improve their level of performance.
These motivational theories support the firm in managing their operations well and retaining skilled labour in workplace for longer duration (Rurkkhum and Bartlett, 2018). If people do not get motivation on time then it may affect their performance level and they may feel uncomfortable in business unit. In such condition many people think to leave their jobs. Entity has to encourage its employees by giving monitory and non-monitory benefits. This helps firm in increasing satisfaction level of staff members and making them loyal towards the brands. Motivation is beneficial for the growth of business, because if people are motivated then they will deal with consumers well. This makes customers loyal and they can make frequent buyers of entity. By this way sales revenues of the entity can get increased and support the corporation in gaining competitive advantage (Trybou and et.al., 2014).
P3 Effective team development
Effective team is the group of people those who contribute well in achieving the business objective. If all the employees put their best efforts and work hard then they can support the corporation in gaining success. There are various elements that assist in creating an effective team. A David & Co Limited concentrates on its workers and treat them well. It always focuses on that its employees feel satisfied. Motivation is the major factor that helps in creating effective team (Thomas and Vohra, 2015). If A David & Co Limited encourages its workers by giving them monitory rewards then people will feel happy and they will be satisfied with the business unit. This enhance their confidence and they coordinate well with other workers. Hertzberg motivational theory is the great way to motivate the workers in order to build an effective team. Managers of A David & Co Limited can provide job security to staff members. If people are working without any fear in workplace then they will be able to perform well. This creates healthy workplace environment that supports in minimizing conflicts and developing team spirt. But if this motivational factor is missing then it may create difficulty because needs of workers will not be fulfilled and they will not be able to perform well in a team (Lichtenberg, Lachmann and Fosshage, 2016).
In order to develop an effective team, A David & Co Limited has to take support of Tuckman theory of team development:
- Forming: manager of cited firm has to make all the employees aware with their responsibilities so that they can perform well in workplace. It is the first phase in which people do not have much knowledge about their role in business unit. By making them aware HR manager can guide them well to work better.
- Storming: It is the second phase when employees get to know about their duties but manager has to evaluate different situation and accordingly has to behave with all workers (Tuckman Forming Storming Norming Performing model, 2017).
- Norming: It is third phase all employees fulfil their commitment towards the job and contribute in achieving goal of the corporation.
- Performing: It is the last stage where all employees are able to perform in team and support each other.
Furthermore, conducting meeting with employees is another way to build team effectives. Managers have to understand their thinking of people towards the firm. For that they have to arrange face to face meeting with all employees and have to insist them to share their views. When people share their ideas and company implement these ideas then employees feel valued. This encourages them to perform well (Thomas and Vohra, 2015). This raises effectives of team and all team members work together in order to accomplish common goal of business unit. Giving promotions, recognitions and rewards are the best way to create a effective team. Managers of A David & Co Limited can measure performance of workers and can align them in a team. On the bases of their capabilities task need to be allotted. This assist in utilizing human resource well. When people are given jobs as per their talent then they become able to perform well in a team. Incentives, recognitions make the person able to be positive towards the brand (Lichtenberg, Lachmann and Fosshage, 2016). By this way skilled people stay in the firm for longer duration.
Leadership is another major aspect which aids in making an effective team. Leaders are the person those who lead team members and guide them well. If leaders give correct guidance to workers and give proper training to staff members. Then skills of people will be raised and these people will be able to work better in business unit. Manager of A David & Co Limited has to adopt participative leadership style. They have to involve people in decision making process and has to take their suggestion (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters, 2015). By this way staff members feel involved and they share their innovative ideas with management. This enhances team bonding and all the employees work together for achieving the common gaol of cited firm.
P4 concept and philosophies of organizational behaviour
Human resource manager is the person who manage human resources in the organization. It is responsibility of HR manager that to take correct decision so that behaviour of employees can become positive towards the workplace. Organizational behaviour is the fundamental concept which is related with people and organization. It is the application of identifying the behaviour of people towards the firm (Pinder, 2014). The main objective of A David & Co Limited is to enhance its revenues and sustain in the market for longer duration. It is small and medium size firm which is operating in the food and beverages industry. There are many big firms such as Starbucks etc. those which are operating in the same industry. These firms are giving tough competition to the A David & Co Limited. In such condition it has become essential for cited firm that to implement new ideas and manage staff members well so that they perform well and can help in gaining competitive advantage (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters, 2015).
For example, if A David & Co Limited plans to implement new technologies in workplace. Then at the time of implementing changes people resist modification. It is the tough situation for HR manager but adopting participative leadership approach and Path goal theory managers can implement modifications in the firm significantly. Managers can involve employees in decision making process. They can make them aware with the importance of changes in the corporation. This can raise awareness of people and they can become loyal (Rurkkhum and Bartlett, 2018). This supports in making them positive and changing their behaviour. Apart from this, if government makes changes in laws then it becomes essential for the firm to make changes in working practices. But this creates difficulty for the workers because they have to work in the new environment. Providing rewards and recognition is the great concept which assist the higher authorities in making people positive and influencing their behaviour, If people get additional benefits for their hard efforts then they put more efforts. This makes them satisfy towards the brand and they retain in business unit for longer duration (Thomas and Vohra, 2015).
Market needs can get changed any time. Food and beverage is the sector where consumers teste can be changed any time. In such situation it is essential for the firm that to be ready to accept challenges and work better in new environment. Some time such type of condition makes people negative. HR mangers arranges training for the workers so that they can learn new things and can develop their skills. This enhances their confidence and they get to know about market requirements. It is the concept which supports the A David & Co Limited in changing behaviour of employees and making them loyal toward the corporation. One of the main critical situation is economic slowdown (Trybou and et.al., 2014). Inflation or deflation impact negative on buying behaviour of consumers. In such condition they fail to spend large amount in food and beverages. Some time company terminates its workers in order tp recover cost. But in such type of complex situation if A David & Co Limited develops healthy relationship with workers. Then people will support the firm and they will find new ideas through which they can deal with consumers well and can change their perception. This supports in attracting more people and maintain profit of the corporation.
Organizational behaviour is the big concept which analyses the factors that influence team and individual performance in business unit (Morgenroth, Ryan and Peters, 2015). It always works to hire skilled candidates and train them so that they perform well. Furthermore, it tries to retain skilled people in workplace for longer duration so that they contribute well in accomplishing goal of the corporation.
From the above study it can be concluded that human resource management plays significant role in business unit. HR manager always try to retain skilled people in organization by providing them reward and recognition. This encourages people and raise their confidence as well. If people are getting correct guidance and opportunities then they become positive and retain in the corporation for longer duration. Maslow’s and path goal motivational theories assist the small size entities in encouraging staff members and enhancing their satisfaction. That enable firm in effective achievement of goal. If people are getting close attention, monitory rewards, healthy workplace environment then it can form an effective team.
- Anwar, M. A., Osman-Gani, A.M., Fontaine, R. and Rahman, M.S., 2017. Assessing organizational citizenship behaviour through constructing emotional intelligence.Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration.9(2). pp.105-117.
- Besharov, M.L. and Smith, W.K., 2014. Multiple institutional logics in organizations: Explaining their varied nature and implications.Academy of Management Review.39(3). pp.364-381.
- Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E., 2017.Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons
- Lichtenberg, J .D., Lachmann, F. M. and Fosshage, J. L., 2016.Self and motivational systems: Towards a theory of psychoanalytic technique(Vol. 13). Routledge