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INTRODUCTION TO INTERNATIONAL HEALTH CARE POLICY

Numerous health care policies are formulated so as to protect the health of people from several diseases and risks and this is also effective in terms of making people aware about health hazards. The present study is thus made on national (UK) and international (India) contexts where approaches to health care policy formation is analyzed. The study has also discussed the influence of funding on policy formation process and along with that impact of cultural and social aspects on health care perspectives. Furthermore, the research study has also mentioned practical barriers to provision of health care in national context. Lastly, diverse contemporary issues present in health care sector are also discussed along with its impact. The researcher has also stated practical responses which it could give to contemporary issues in both national and international context.

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Task 1 - Understand health care policy formation in an international context

1.1 Analyze approaches to health care policy formation in international context

In India, certain sorts of health care policies are developed as the rate of mortality is high in the country so, on that context; certain amendments are remarked in the list. There are numerous entities that have collaboration with health care entities in which they ensure to deliver adequate and prominent services to the patients. Here, certain approaches are mentioned that assists India to formulate suitable

Health care policies:

The nation's services are assessed on such basis, the areas of gaps can be defined and accordingly, certain reforms can be added in national policies (Health and safety legislation, 2013).

Health care provisions of private health services can be ascertained on that basis changes can be made in health care policies.

On the basis of national priorities, India formulates provisions in health care policies which assist in managing quality services to the patients (Woolhandler, Campbell and Himmelstein, 2003).

1.2 Critically assess the influence of funding on policy formation in a national context


Public funding: The level of public funding aids UK health care system to analyze the value of services since, this is entirely integrated with purchasing power of patients and all the service provisions are determined on that basis only.

Private funding: In order to develop suitable health care policies, the health care department of UK considers assistance from private funding which involves engagement of several private bodies (Starfield, Shi and Macinko, 2005).

Charity funding: NHS is the only entity that provides services free of cost services to the patients and the health care institution collects funds from charitable agents so that best services can be delivered to the patients.

Non-governmental funding: While health care system of UK determines norms, it clearly assesses the opportunities of non-governmental funding.

1.3 Critically evaluate health care policy in one national context

It is being observed that UK health care system has been considering the aspects of WHO (World health Organizations) for facilitating varied amenities for public welfare. As per the research, health care provisions at NHS are highly efficient since it provides all types of medical amenities to the patients. The policies are even integrated with diversified approaches wherein, it considers several health care dimensions (Lavis and et.al., 2005). On the other hand, UK health care system involves private and public bodies to specify things related to better health care service provision. Besides this, while formulating the policies, NHS determine the areas where funds would be collected for managing services aspects.

Task 2 Understand the social and cultural context of health care

2.1 Assess the impact of culture on health care

Cultural factors at UK have been impacting health care aspects in pessimistic and optimistic both the ways as it includes religious beliefs, class structure and social priorities. Still there are ranges of people in cities of UK that have different social values and they generally do not allow service providers for specific actions like blood and organ transplantation. This not only affects service efficiency but also reduces the interest of service providers in delivering better services. At the same time, it is also observed that mentality of people towards religious aspects is still narrow and sometimes patients refuse to get treatment from socially backward people (Epping-Jordan and et.al., 2004). This happens due to their concern towards religious facets. On the other side, the service efficiency of health care providers also affects when they are asked to work for more than the standard hours.

2.2 Assess the impact of society on health care

Society has a great impact on health care aspects likewise, if people are educated enough, then they can assist the health care institution to develop awareness in the society. Society indeed posses impact on health care services as people chooses social and cultural backgrounds on top priority. It is also explored through many research processes that class structure is the main aspect which is being considered in health care areas where rich people get luxury treatment and poor people are treated poorly treatment as requisite (DesRoches and et.al., 2008). Besides this, many private health care service providers gives preference to serve rich people initially who are able to pay for the amenities and thus, it probably represents social and cultural unequal distribution in the society. Social beliefs also cause mental disability to patients if they are suffering from communicable and other hazardous syndromes like AIDS and HIV.

2.3 Analyze the attitude to health care

The attitude of people have been changing related to concept of illness and this also leads them to make people aware about different health hazards. As per contemporary scenario, the concept of health is changing and people are becoming more conscious about their health which also leads them to adapt different things to maintain fitness (Blumenthal and Hsiao, 2005). The concern of people towards illness is also fluctuating and this probably also assists in encouraging people towards health standards. Maintaining health actually plays crucial role for people since through they are able to manage their personal and professional life balance. On the other hand, attitude towards health and medical professionals are also transformed as people contact to such professionals on regular basis for managing health properly.

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2.4 Evaluate the cultural and social impacts on and attitudes towards health care in one national context

Practitioners working at NHS are highly concerned about cultural and social aspects and hence for that purpose they manage cultural facets in service provision. On the other side, it is also observed that NHS of UK also gives preferences to social priorities and according to that they give specific treatment to indifferent customers. Social consequences have been impacting the level of health care services and this has yet changed many amendments in health care policies and practices (Beach and et.al., 2005). On the other hand, it is also observed that cultural and social forces both have been transforming the degree of effectiveness in service provision and sometimes the impacts of social indifferences demoralizes the interest of service users in health care facets.

Task 3 Understand heath care provisioning

3.1 Describe how health care policy is translated into practice in international context

Health care policies in UK have changed the way of delivering prominent services to the patients as now the entity is engaged with many professional bodies so that proper services could be delivered to service users. Thus in that context, certain General Practitioners are allowed to work with NHS and they typically delivers similar services as per specific geographic areas. NHS is working on the basis of several policies and strategies which are being translated into practice through the assistance of specific entities (World Health Organization, 2007). The largest charitable trust has also established many of the hospitals which provides emergency services to the patients and hence this substantially reduces the level of mortality ratio in health care concerns. Certain policies and norms at local and national level are developed by NHS which encourages the level of health care services in international context.

3.2 Analyze the organizations involved in health care on a national and international level

In India, numerous health care organizations are involved in delivering health care services such as different professional bodies and charitable trusts and this also assists in managing the flow of funds in diversified activities. These bodies are concerned with many aims and objectives so that the role of health care provision can be fulfilled. Similarly in UK, NHS is the major entity that delivers health care services to the patients and all the services are efficiently served to the patients. Charitable funds are also playing crucial roles in the same thing where they are involved in managing appropriate services to the patients (Larrison and Sullivan, 2013). It is also observed that NHS is integrated with different international bodies which allows the medical concerns to pay adequate attention towards quality and effective services.

3.3 Explain the structure of health care delivery in a chosen national context

Health care is organized in prominent manner where the top authorities and service practitioners are allowed to delegate duties and responsibilities to the care providers. On the other side, NHS has also facilitated residential care services where people get medical services at their subsequent resident in case of emergencies and specific cases (Ham, 2009). This has been helping NHS to acquire attention of patients and on the other side, it is also useful in developing the standards of services. Patients are even provided with adequate rights where they can also assess the efficiency and quality of treatment and if required, they can demand for modifications.

3.4 Analyze practical barriers to provision of health care in a national context

In order to enhance the level of services, NHS has made certain provisions in health care context whereby they also face different types of barriers such as funding issues, transportation costs and safety issues (Garland, and Garland, 2006). The health care entity is unable to manage transportation costs and providing care services at resident usually increases the level of costs. Apart from this, safety issues are also generating from people as nowadays people want so many aspects to be considered on health provisions. Usually NHS faces issues at the time of war and conflicts which restricts them to provide health care services to the patients.

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Task 4 Understand the role of public health and health promotion in the provision of health care services

4.1 Assess national and international socio-political issues in the promotion of public health

Social and political aspects are changing frequently which leads the company to make arrangements for testing of products and services. At the same time, government policies and norms are changing which leads the health care providers to make arrangement for drug testing for increasing the level of quality (Estes and Harrington, 2008). Apart from this, in order to maintain the interest of society, NHS communicates with several pharmaceutical companies so that only specified drugs and medicines can be produced. On the contrary, it is also observed that NHS tests all the medicines prior serving it to the patients.

4.2 Analyze the impact of international campaigns and national policies on the demand for health care

UK and India both the countries are engaged in promoting health care standards for the public, hence for that purpose, all the concerned entities are engaged in facilitating several campaigns on national and international basis. Public health is being promoted by NHS through making the people aware about health hazards and this further also assists in publicizing ways to eradicate problems from the society (Larrison and Sullivan, 2013). NHS and Indian drug industry both subsequently integrates priorities and politics which also aids them to introduce many new services for public health. Hence campaigns usually assists people to get to know different facets in health and social care context.

4.3 Evaluate the role of health promotion in determining health care service demand in a national setting

Promoting health care services assists NHS and other health care entities to identify the needs of health care services as surveyors conducts survey on different grounds and on that basis, they identify the areas and need of health care amenities. Such promotion also develops the attitude of people towards health and demand for health care and hence they often switch to better life style. NHS conducts different surveys on geographical basis and through that, the care center analyzes the areas where specific drugs are required to be provided (Lavis and et.al., 2005). Therefore from the discussion, it is clear that health promotion plays imperative role in augmenting awareness level which also boosts the prosperity level of economy.

Task 5 Understand contemporary issues in health and social care

5.1 Identify contemporary issues in health and social care

Lack of transparency is one of the chief issue observed in health and social care context where patients sometimes do not get proper information about their health which further leads to other complications.

Since people are highly concerned about social and cultural aspects; therefore this develops difficulties for care practitioners in serving better services to the patients (Health and Sustainable Development: Addressing the Issues and Challenges, 2012).

Unethical actions are also increasing in health and social aspects where care practitioners get involved in unfair practices and thus it affects the overall standard of service provision.

Apart from these issues, gender difference is a common challenge which NHS is facing on several grounds.

5.2 Evaluate the impact of issues on national and international policy

Health care policies are basically developed with several actions and plans so that the main goals in health care aspects can be acquired. The policies are different, hence the impacts are also different. All the concerned issues can impact the level of services of NHS and this can also affect interest of people in medical services (Health and safety risk – Do not underestimate the consequences, 2013). Similarly in terms of impacts, service care professionals are not able to determine the aspects which should be included while formulating health care policies in national and international both contexts. Gender difference thus can also affect the motivation level of people and it could result to switch over in services.

5.3 Evaluate practical responses to contemporary issues in national and international context

In order to reduce the impacts of contemporary issues, it is imperative for NHS to include patients as well in service provision so that transparency can be made. This can also assist NHS to attract patients towards health care services (Health and safety of health care staff, 2013). However on the other hand, Indian health care concerns can ignore social and cultural aspects up to some extent while managing challenging and critical cases so that lives can be protected. It is also suggested to the health care entities that they should manage services integrated with social and political contexts which further can also reduce the possibilities of potential barriers.

Conclusion

Concluding the study, it can be said that global health issues are generating at faster pace which often transforms attitude of health and social care. Apart from the above description, some national and international socio-political issues are also assessed in the research study along with the ways to reduce such things in health care concerns. From many research studies, it is analyzed that the demand for health and social care services have been increasing due to international health care campaigns and this is also NHS to augment the value of amenities as compared to other entities. Apart from this, it is also analyzed that most of the care providers also learn many ways to provide effective services to the patients. Hence this is particularly required to manage health standards in the economy.

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