Introduction to International Tourism Development

Eco tourism refers to nature based tour program wherein customers get information related to nature as well as traditional culture that is prevailing in natural areas. It is based on education and interpretation features that help to minimize the negative impact on natural and socio-cultural environment. The present report is based on British tourism industry wherein customers like to prefer different international eco tourism in order to enhance their learning. Currently, value of tourism accounts for £126.9bn of UK GDP.  Further, in 2014, total revenue from tourists was £125.2bn*. In addition to this, top 10 source markets consist of US, Germany, Spain, Norway along with Italy and France. Furthermore, tourism industry of UK employs 3.1m people as it is the third largest employment sector of UK. 10% of all businesses come under tourism business that facilitates to increase the overall rate of return in industry. Other than this, main tourist destination in UK is London (Abu and et. al., 2012).

The main purpose of this report is to analyze the importance and trend of Eco tourism. With this, contribution of Eco-tourism towards economy will also be identified. On the other hand, positive as well as negative aspect of tourism will be focused that proves to be very effective to ensure its development in order to increase the attention of tourists. Furthermore, the current report will focus on British customers' preferences for international Eco-tourism over British Eco-tourism. Also, the reason because of which customers prefer international Eco-tourism will be identified (Acton, 2013).

This report will provide an overview about Eco-tourism destinations such and India, Australia and Antarctica. The main reason behind selection of these destinations is the large scope for tourism. It has unique culture and natural beauty that attracts the visitors from different countries. These destinations are providing in-depth knowledge to visitors related to nature and cultural values. These destinations have rich scope for tourists who want to get information related to past history as well as culture (Beaver, 2005). With this, British tourists come to know about several kinds of culture and wild life that aids to enhance their learning as well as knowledge. Furthermore, current report provides detail aspect of eco tourism wherein different types of tourism are also explained. In addition to this, types of tourists are also specified that facilitates to provide services on the basis of buyers' specification. Other than this, recommendations are also given on the basis of problems that are being faced in Eco-tourism (Ecotourism, 2015).

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Tourism refers to activities that are performed by the agents or management in order to provide travel services to visitors or customers. It consists of staying in hotels, travelling as well as going at different destinations (Bhatia, 2002). The most important aspect, that is, entertainment is also included in the tourism that proves to very helpful in increasing the attention of visitors.

According to Macintosh and Goeldner, “tourism is the set of activities that render bucket of services including transportation, accommodation and drinking as well as eating”. 

On the basis of UNWTO, tourism can be defined as “the activities related to traveling to and spending time in places outside of home for not more than one subsequent year for the purpose of business or leisure”. It depicts that tourism is the sector which provides different types of services in single form thereby visitors can be able to meet their expectations in an effectual manner (Clarke and et. al., 2012). Further, with the help of tourism, all related sectors also grow to a great extent like hotels, entertainment and transportation. It contributes towards delivering good quality of services to a large number of buyers that aids to increase an overall rate of return of industry in the marketplace. However, there is numerous tourism that helps to meet demand of visitors in an accurate manner. This includes adventure travel, Bicycle tours, cultural tourism as well as Eco-tourism. Along with that, medical, space and sex tourism are also included in these sectors which help to cater the needs of tourists (Coleman and Crang, 2002).

The aforementioned tourism proves to be effective in order to render services on the basis of specific demand of visitors. For example, adventure travel includes backpacking, camping and climbing as well as cycling (Ecotourism: Principles, practices and policies for sustainability, 2012). It gives good experience to people who want such type of tourism facilities. On the other hand, cultural tourism provides detail information related to different types of culture with the help of old buildings, museums and other related factors. It contributes towards increasing knowledge of customers and enhances their learning for the same (Cooper and Hall, 2008). This also includes heritage tourism that assists to meet the demand of customers effectively and increases sales turnover of tourism industry to a great extent as well. In addition to this, Eco-tourism is another effective tourism wherein visitors are provided with good experience of natural beauty. In this regard, selected destination as India is the most suitable place. Owing to this, British tourists can easily gain good amount of information (EcoDestinations – UK, 2014). On the other hand, Australia is another attractive destination for Eco-tourism. It includes different places such as Lluka, Coral Bay and Coombabah, Queensland. Along with that, Robertson, Wee Jasper is the lucrative place that gives experience of wonderful wild life (Cooperrider and Whitnety, 2005).

For example, Macquarie Island has Rabbits, penguins and natural reserve as well as great wild life that attract number of tourists towards the same. Here, natural reserve gives piece in the mind of people and enhance their learning towards wild life which leads to meet their expectations in an effectual manner. Furthermore, Antarctica is another most effective place for Eco-tourism where environment is highly preserved. Here, all visitors are provided with strict guidelines to visit Antarctic so as to protect the environment in an effectual manner. The most popular place of Antarctica is Elephant Island that has past story (Dale and Oliver, 2005). Furthermore, dormant volcano provides thermally heated water wherein people can take bath. In addition to this, penguins are another main attraction which provides great experience to visitors along with the natural beauty.

India is the another attractive place for  Eco-tourism as it consists of different places such as Corbett National Part in Uttar Pradesh and Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh. Along with that, Gir National Part and Sanctuary in Gujarat are the effective ways to enhance learning of visitors towards natural beauty of state.

India is the another attractive place for  Eco-tourism as it consists of different places such as Corbeet National Part in Uttar Pradesh, Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh. Along with that, Gir National Part and Sanctuary in Gujart are the effective ways to enhance learning of visitors towards the natural beauty. and culture. Furthermore, another attractive places such as Kerala, TAJ MAHAL, Sariska Tigar Reserve and Ajansata & Ellora Caves are the effective means to provide information for culture as well as natural beauty. It also provides information related to historical heritage beauty (Deuschl, 2006). 

British customers prefer international Eco-tourism over British Eco-tourism as they want to access good quality of services in affordable prices. It can be made possible with the help of attraction location like India, Australia and Antarctica. With this, visitors can be able to get in-depth knowledge about the natural beauty. On the other hand, visitors prefer international  Eco-tourism due to poor promotion. Because of poor promotional strategies, tourists are attracted towards another areas like Australia which provide good experience to them. It leads to increase their level of satisfaction and give value for their money (Gratton, Shibli and Coleman, 2005). On the other hand, threat to local culture is the common barriers that create hurdles in the growth of  Eco-tourism. Furthermore, visitors who visit the country, make use of resources which leads to create situation of no infusion to local economies. Owing to this, Eco-tourism has not been developed effectively. It generate need to visit outside country with effective package system. In this regards, other countries like India promotes its  Eco-tourism to a great extent which forces visitors to access tourism facilities (Jayawardena, 2013).

On the other hand, countries like Antarctica and Australia have to potential to provide great experience to visitors which cannot be possible with  Eco-tourism of UK. On the other hand, travel agent make it possible for these counties to  promote their natural beauty to visitors. However, there are several types of barriers such as environment damages, safety and lack of regulations create barriers for agents to meet expectations of customers. For example, at Antarctica, visitors are provided strict guidelines to visit. Owing to this, they cannot be able to access services in an effectual manner (Korstanje and Clayton, 2012). It may create hurdles in satisfying their need in an effectual manner. However, Eco-tourism is the nature based tourism wherein environment is preserved in an effectual manner. It can be critically evaluated that while going for tour tourists make use of transportation facilities. It damages environment because of air and noise pollution. However, with the help of tourism, transportation or travel industry also increase its productivity (Kennell and Chaperon, 2013).

Furthermore, safety issue is also the constraint which forces management to make use of authenticated sources in their industry. For example, increasing impact of terrorists is also the great threat for industry. Owing to this, travel agents face problem in provides service to large number of visitors. In addition to this, lack of regulation from the government with regards to  Eco-tourism is also constraint (Lennon., 2003). For instance, services provides do not have any kind of certification thereby there can be fraud in their transaction. This is the major disadvantage for tourists because they cannot file the complaints to authority if their trip is not satisfactory. Also, visitors are not sure that whether services provider are providing genuine Eco-tourism experience or not. In fact it has been found that, services providers are causing harm for environment in direct or indirect manner (Simm, 2013). 

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Furthermore, UK  Eco-tourism is not generated due to less natural destination. This is the reason visitors want to prefer services from other countries like India, Antarctica as well as Australia. With this, natural life can be enjoyed by tourists for particular  span of time. It can be critically evaluated that high prices and environment factors such as flood, earthquake and other natural disaster (Lima and Martins, 2012). On the other hand, people with higher income generally prefer  Eco-tourism as it is highly educated. This is the reason they want to get huge experience from different countries. It is because they do not get good exposure in UK this leads to create problem in satisfying their need in an effectual manner (Strangerhood and Mobility: Personal to Social, 2010). It generate need of tourism development in the country thereby they can effectively access to good quality of services. In addition to this, safety issue can result in conflict among different parties such as agents, locals and tourists. With this, customers like to avoid such type of tour as they do not like to take risk. Generally buyers prefer cost effective pleasant plan thereby they get huge knowledge with regards to natural beauty as well as wild life (Nunkoo and Smith, 2014). 

Travel and tourism industry is the one that contributes huge amount of success to the economy. Tourists can be categorized on several basis as per the type of tourism and this also gives an opportunity to the industry to serve different services (Abu and et.al., 2012). In India, tourist usually prefer to visit the country for getting more knowledge about historical and heritage properties. India is populous due to its cultural aspects and this persuades tourists from several grounds and as a result, it contributes success to tourism industry. India has been providing valuable tourism to customers as per the type of interest which further also aids in retaining customers for longer period (Acton, 2013).

On the other hand, tourism of Australia plays significant part in world's tourism industry because it is responsible for 73% of the total direct tourism GDP. The major and popular tourism destinations in Australia includes coastal cities like Sydney and Melbourne which provides different type of tourism to the travelers (Beaver, 2005). From many research studies, it has been observed that people visit Australia due to the coastal cities where they get relaxation and relief by visiting different beaches and resorts. Medical amenities in the country are also populous which further also encourages the ratio of tourism. People sometimes visit the country so as to avail the best services in case of having any health problem. Medical tourism is also another category of tourism which is required for those customers who desire to seek special medical treatment (Bhatia, 2002). Many health or medical tourists also makes trips simply to stay for few days in healthier climate.

Australia is also populous for education tourism where in most of the students visit the country for the purpose of availing better education from successful institutions. The level of education in Australia is prominent; therefore it attracts students to develop their career from several grounds (Clarke and et. al., 2012). At the same time, the country also provides huge opportunities for business growth and development; hence for such purpose, businessman visits the country for expansion and diversification purposes. Therefore, it can be said that tourist traveling with relation to business is known as business tourist and business tourism is a part of the business world.  There are also group of people who travel to attend workshops and seminars to up grade the skills. Sometimes, tourists get into tourism services especially when it is given by the companies in the form of incentives and remunerations (Coleman and Crang, 2002).

Cultural tourism is high in demand since people often desires to get knowledge about the cultural aspects and as a result, this assists them to visit different places. Such type of tourism takes place so as to experience the essence of assorted cultures and valuable beliefs. Cultural tourists also prefer to witness the World Heritage Sites of the traveled country. India and Antarctica both are also famous for eco-tourism and for those tourists who love nature or who love green like traveling to South Africa and other similar destinations (Cooper and Hall, 2008). People lie in such category travel throughout the world in search of destinations. Australia seems to be emphasized towards leisure tourism where in tourists want to rejuvenate and revitalize the level of comfort. They enjoy a break from mundane routine of life. Example of this type of tourism are cruising while vacationing or simple relaxing on a beach (Cooperrider and Whitnety, 2005).

Tourism takes place on wider extent for acquiring more opportunities for sustainability in the same sector. From colonial days the idea of travel has been more natural to Australians than to people long established at one place. People who once broken away from their homes, were prone to continue their search for wealthy and security; thus for such purpose, they visit different places continuously (Dale and Oliver, 2005). The initial emphasis in tourism for purposes of pleasure was strongest on travel to resorts near the main population centers.  Australia as a whole also serves different types of tourism where in sports tourism is one that persuades customers to visit the country on wider extent. This not only develops better relationships between country and visitors but also it assists in developing huge interaction between local tourists and country specific guides (Deuschl, 2006). 

Sometimes, people visit to different countries as a authentic source and they also get more opportunities to avail information about monuments and historical backgrounds. Georg Simmel first has conceptualized stranger hood in contemporary societies as an indeterminate condition of migration perspective (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2009). The history and theory of tourism has adopted this heuristic term to describe tourists guests and analyze the phenomenon of hospitality. There should be a prominent relationship between tourists and local authorities so that information about different types of tourisms can be delivered respectively. The concept of stranger hood reveals that people usually visit to different places for the purpose of migrating in search of better life. This also assists them to manage manage different aspects of travel and tourism. The major problem that arises in tourism industry is conflict between two different countries which sometimes does not allow the tourists to visit different places (Gratton, Shibli and Coleman, 2005). This could be termed as another category of restriction which probably hampers the efficiency of tourism industry.

The form of embodiment is yet another concern present under tourism where in people travel to different nations due to several intangible aspects. Varied things manifests them and due to that they demand more for travel and tourism services. Antarctica tourism started with sea tourism in the year 1960s (Jayawardena, 2013). The country provides sea tourism to the customers through cruises and private yacht trips. Most of the people in summer season desires to visit the place under eco- tourism. One of the major form of tourism that lies under Antarctica tourism is youth tourism where in group of young people travel with minimum luggage on a limited budget. But they are very passionate and adventurous while visiting to different places. They generally have no specific travel schedule and they tend to travel independently (Korstanje and Clayton, 2012). This type of tourism is often seen in cities of India which are popular for adventurous tourism.

Special interest tourist also prevails in different destinations as per the type of tourism. For instance- people nurture particular passion in different things bird watching, fishing during the Sardine Run and food and wine services (Lennon, 2003). Unemployment is also the another issue that arises under tourism industry which affects purchasing power of customers and as a result, this reduces the demand for specific tourism. All the countries are suggested to emphasize greatly on multi tourism so that customers can be attracted for different types of tourism. There should be close monitoring on travel and tourism services so that customers can be retained for longer span. From the discussion, it can be stated that all the above mentioned three destinations are famous for different authentic purposes (Lima and Martins, 2012). Locals also tries to maintain friendly relationships with the tourists so that they can reflect the cultural aspects to the tourists about their country. In the concept of stranger hood, the degree of migration increases which further also helps people to derive more opportunities for livelihood.

British customers prefer to visit more for eco-tourism so as to see the destinations from the point they are populous under tourism (Nunkoo and Smith, 2014). All the three countries are critically emphasizing on providing better services to British customers so as to get into collaborative tourism. People from Britain visit India frequently because India is among the 17 mega- diverse countries that are custodians of 70% of the world's biodiversity. From the view points of British customers, eco tourism is the form of tourism that grabs the attention of those tourists who are interested in ecological and social concerns. Thus, in general ecotourism focuses on the way tourists can live harmoniously with the planet. From many research studies, it is being evaluated that people from Britain love to visit different places where cultural heritage, flora and fauna are the main attractions (Pitt and Hinks, 2001). 

This is also the promotion of economical and social opportunities for local communities. Specific sort of tourism has been growing rapidly over the last decades (Power, Wehaln and Davies,  2008). Yet, while eco tourism has the potential to create positive environmental and social impacts, it can unfortunately be as damaging if mass tourism is not done in proper manner. Varied market research shows that eco-tourists are particularly interested in wilderness settings and pristine areas. In the last 10 years, tourism sector experiences in fragile nature and cultural areas which have benefited other aspects of tourism in similar destinations. These approaches seems to have an influence on the larger tourism market (Robie, Kidwell and Kling, 2003). Hence, from the above discussion it is clear that all the tourists helps the industry to grow and prosper from diversified dimensions.

There are different types of development theories which helps government and company to make strategies related to the development of Eco-tourism. These theories are:Laissez-fair theory describes that there should be minimum intervention of government in the operations performed by company. Organizations should be free to make their policies and strategies related to Eco-tourism (Jamal and Stronza, 2009). This freedom does not related to adopt any actions which put their impact on the safety of human and society. Further, it suggests company to maintain their quality of products and services by focusing on standards of living. This approach should be avoided because the less intervention of government can enhances the chance of illegal use of environment, nature and heritage places (Pitt and Hinks, 2001). Further, it also includes the factors that leads to easy profit which can be dangerous for the safety of destinations and environment (Weaver, 2006). The second one is The diffusion paradigm: This process leads to spread out of economic growth from one location to number of another locations. This approach describes the process of introducing tourists about the destination of touring along with attract them to visit there. It describers about the two side of development (Keitumetse, 2009). First is demand side, which generated through tourist agents and trip advisory by informing citizens about the areas of tourism (The different types of tourists in tourism industry, 2010.). On the other hand, the supply is achieved by the ways which is related to development of tourist destinations. Supply side includes government and private-public companies which are responsible for taking decisions related to development of Eco-tourism. This process put their impact on society and environment which is related to positive and effective changes. Further, it suggests to adopt the concept of development which is also beneficial for the growth of neighborhood cities (Weaver, 2006).

Dependency theory: This theory describes that the richer countries are growing more and more along with the poorer countries are becoming more poor. For that, it is necessary for world capitalist system to equally division of labor in between the both types of countries (Mowforth and Munt, 2008). In this manner, government needs to focus on the development of Eco-tourism in developing countries which is beneficial for economic growth of that countries (Power, Wehaln and Davies, 2008). This theory is focused on the equal development of society and environment. Further, it is focused on making plans to maintain the development of underdeveloped areas. For that, government needs to provide the resources such as investment, expert guidance, innovative ideas and technology transfer.

India is a country in which different parts experience different type of climate. This extraordinary asset in the form of varied climates can be en-cashed to promote tourism in the country by attracting tourists from far and near. Usually tourists find different types of climate in the Great Plain of North India, the snow covered Himalayas, in the peninsular plateau area and in the coastal regions. There are climatic variations from one state to another and even from one district to another. These climatic variations are of great advantage to engage tourists in a variety of activities during their stay in the country (Robie, Kidwell and Kling, 2003). On the other hand historical and cultural resources also attracts tourist from different countries of the world. These are man-made places and features which are found in almost all parts of the country. These places are related to historical, religious or cultural events.

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Tourism industry of Australia is plays very significant role in the economic development of country. Tourism in Australia is driven by individuals desire for adventure and hungriness to discover places of natural and cultural significance, beauty or intrigue People from different countries of the world visits Australia due to its range of unique attractions, which include the largest coral reef system in the world, tropical rainforests, seemingly endless deserts, and a rich Indigenous heritage. Australia is also a relatively safe country for tourists to travel through and our infrastructure is generally very well set up for tourism. The impact of tourism can be stated as it has created many employments opportunities for people and has contributed a lot to the revenue generation (Samuel and Agyei, 2006). On the other hand there are some negative impact which tourism had on Australia. It includes ecological problems that were created during development of coastal strips. Further it has also created many waste management problems for the country. Australia needs protect the environment as the survival of its tourism industry completely rely on environment. Now government of the country is taking protective measures in order to protect the environment.

On the basis of identified issues, recommendations can be given for development of  Eco-tourism in United Kingdom.  In this regards, there should be appropriate regulatory framework for management of tourism facilities.  It enables visitors to ensure their own security as well as safety. Similarly, countries should develop strong plan in order to create awareness about the  Eco-tourism that aid to increase attention of visitors. With this, country can be able to increase scope of transportation, hotels and other related industry. Owing to this, they can be able to increase overall GDP. It proves to be effective create employment in the country and ensure overall development of the same (Lane, 2007). Further, In order to promote the  Eco-tourism different types marketing and promotional strategies should be adopted. In this regards, brochure can be used along with internet thereby customers can be able to get detail information related to attractive destinations. It leads to meet their expectations in an effectual manner. It can be critically evaluated that internet  is being used to provide information, however it does not provides detail information. Owing to this visitors faces problem while accessing the holiday packages. Internet is the attractive means by which all customers get detail information related to services that are being offered in the holiday plan. Owing to this, internet should be used to provide detail of Eco-tourism.

It can also be recommended for each counties like India, Australia as well as Antarctica to provide flexible services for tourists. It leads to increase sales turnover as well as overall profitability of  Eco-tourism. Furthermore, UK should be have proper development of natural destination and should provide good wild life experience for their tourists. In addition to this, all countries should make efforts to promote their local culture thereby visitors can be able to access good quality of services (Hemmington and King, 2000). Furthermore, strict rules and regulations should be made for travel agent so they can conduct fraudulent activities at the time of rendering services. It leads to generate positive attitude among customers. On the other hand,  insurance policies and safety measures need to be adopted by the tourism industry of UK so as to increase employment and number of visitors. Furthermore, independent agent companies should be developed thereby tourists can be able to provide book their effective trip. Similarly, holiday packages should be planned in accordance with season thereby customers can be able to access good quality of services in affordable prices. Other than this, attractive offers should be there in the light of specific requirement of customers so as to increase sales turnover. In addition to this, different options can be given to visitors with regards to wild life, cultural beauty and natural reserve. With this, tourists industry can grow at rapid speed that aid to meet expectations of customers in an effectual manner (Gospe, 2008). 

The aforementioned report concludes that Eco-tourism is the effective means to attract customers and promote education among them related to nature and wild life. It facilitate to increase employment in the country and increase living standard of people. It can also be said that, independent tourists/ company should be appointed for country so as to provide good quality of services to tourists. Furthermore, environment friendly resources should be used while providing services. It aid to give high level of satisfaction among tourists and increase overall rate of return of industry. Furthermore, India, Australia and Antarctica are the most attractive places to provide great experience among visitors. Further, development of Eco-tourism make it possible for country to promote education and reviews its culture among residents. On the other hand effective regulatory framework is the  key to increase level of satisfaction among workforce. It also make it possible for visitors to file their complaints and value their money in an effectual manner. In addition to this, customers are provided detail information related to services with the help of attractive means such as internet, brochure. It proves to be effective to create awareness among them and make them able to take quick purchase decision. It can also be said that, good promotion strategies leads to increase number of visitors and promote tourism to a great extent. 

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