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Parkinson Disease

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INTRODUCTION

In recent times, Parkinson disease increases among the individuals with the very high pace. Statistics show that more than 10 million people worldwide are suffered from Parkinson disease. Trends regarding such disease present that Parkinson disease increased in the past years with higher percentage among the men who over the age of 70 years (Is Parkinson’s Disease on the Rise, 2017). Changes which take place in the environment and lifestyle of individuals is one of the main reasons due to which level or ratio of Parkinson Disease increased over the time frame. Hence, with the aim to reduce the level of such disease now government has also taken initiatives by investing money in projects such as $250,000. Moreover, treatment of such disease is very costly and thereby impose financial burden on individual. The report is based on the case scenario of Diana who is suffering from the disease of Parkinson. Hence, report will shed light on the symptoms which indicates that Diana is suffering from Parkinson disease. Further, it will develop understanding about Levett- Jones’ Clinical Reasoning cycle. By this, priorities of nurses can be assessed towards such patients in the best possible way.

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Stating Parkinson’s disease and its symptoms

Parkinson disease may be defined as a chronic disease which implies for the movement disorder. In such disease, situation of individual relation to the movements worsen over the time frame. In this, nerve cells of the brain die which is recognized as neurons. Parkinson disease closely influences neurons in the brain which is termed as substantia nigra. From assessment, it has been identified that as Parkinson disease increases then dopamine produced decrease to the significant level. Hence, it can be stated that such disease and dopamine produced in the brain are negatively correlated or associated with each other. Due to the decrease in the amount of dopamine individuals face difficulty in controlling their movements. Symptoms of Parkinson disease are highly differ from one individual to another (Almeida, O. P. & et.al., 2016). Thus, main symptoms of Parkinson disease include tremor of hands, arms, legs and face. It entails that when legs, hands and other body parts of individual shivers then there is a symptom of Parkinson. Further, bradykinesisa, rigidity and postural instability are the major symptoms that give clear indication regarding Parkinson disease.

In accordance with Levett- Jones’ Clinical reasoning cycle first nursing priority is to collect cues or information by considering the current situation of patients. Moreover, without having proper information regarding this nurses are not in situation to provide individual with better care or services (Postuma & et.al., 2016). Hence, it is the accountability of nurses to identify or collect information from Diana. Thus, nurses are required to collect information about fatigue, bradykinesia, tremor, emotional outbursts and unsteady gait. By considering such model, it can be stated that nurses lay emphasis on the collection of information by considering the specific level or criteria. By this, can identify the level of issues and thereby would become able to establish goals (Cole & et.al., 2016). Besides this, second main priorities of nurses are to give proper medication to and other patients who are suffering from Parkinson disease. It is the priority because medication is the way which in turn helps in making on symptoms.

Nursing priority 1

Goals

  • Specific: The main objectives of is to assess symptoms which in turn indicates the level; of Diana’s disease. By this, nurse would become able to find out the suitable way to deal with it.
  • Measurable: To measure this level, nurses need to evaluate the disease level; on the basis of specific scale. In this, by evaluating symptoms of scale can easily identity the extent to which Diana is suffering from Parkinson.
  • Achievable: By taking action plan in relation to dealing with such disease can suitable cues regarding disease.
  • Realistic: Such goal is realistic because by asking questions from Diana regarding the several aspects bradykinesia, unsteady gait and tremor etc. nurses can collect appropriate regarding the Diana disease level.
  • Time-bound: Nurses have accountability to gather information about disease in first two meetings. Moreover, in nurse fails to gather information within the suitable time frame then it may result into delay in treatment. This in turn places negative impact on the health aspect.

Nursing implications / Taking actions

In the given case situation, there are several symptoms which have been experienced by Diana that entails that she is from Parkinson disease. Out of 12, fatigue level of Diana accounts for 12 which is not a good indicator. On the other side, bradykinesia, unsteady gait and tremor of Diana is out of 12. Emotional outbursts of Diana are 12 out of 12 which is not good for her from the perspective of health. Hence, collection of information in relation to such aspect is one of the main priorities of nurses (Poortvliet & et,al., 2015). Along with this, it is also the accountability of nurses is to gather information regarding the medical and surgical history. Moreover, selection of treatment is highly influenced from the past medical experience. Hence, it can be stated that it is the priority of nurses to use specific scale for gathering suitable information or clues in relation to disease.

Evaluation

For making appropriate evaluation of goals nurse will continuous take feedback from the patient such as Diana. Moreover, Diana has better idea regarding the extent to which she is facing difficulty due to having Parkinson disease. In this, the main objectives of nurse are to discover information regarding the problems which are facing by Diana. In this way, by collecting suitable clues or information through the means of feedback nurse can find out the suitable level of disease.

Nursing Priority 2

Goals

  • Specific: The main goals of nurses are to provide patients with proper medication on the basis of symptoms which are identified above. Hence, control and management of the symptoms can be assured through the means of proper medication.
  • Measurable: Nurses can measure the impact of medication by taking feedbacks from the patient and evaluating the symptoms (Sheard & Ash, 2015). Moreover, by making comparison of symptoms in against to the specific nurse can measure the impact of medicine.
  • Achievable: In order to achieve the goal nurses are required to recommend medicine or drug by considering the level of tremor, bradykinesia, unsteady gait etc.
  • Realistic: Goal in relation to offering suitable treatment to the patient is highly realistic. Moreover, there are several medi-care facilities are available in turn helps in reducing the impact of Parkinson
  • Time-bound: Nurse has priority to recommend suitable medicine to the patient after 2 initial check-ups.

Nursing implications / Taking actions

According to the cycle, at this stage, nurse has accountability to evaluate the level of symptom carefully. Moreover, nurse can recommend suitable drug only when he / she has idea regarding the level at which symptoms of disease lie. Actions which are taken by the nurse at this level are highly significant (Sheard & Ash, 2014). Moreover, if patient does not receive proper on time then consequences will be serious. For instance: Due to having high of such disease there is the possibility that Diana would not become able to eat, drink and get out of bed independently. Hence, it is the man priority of the health and social care professionals to provide patients with better on time.

Evaluation

To assess the extent to which medicine has placed positive impact on patient nurse will take reviews from the patients. Moreover, such disease has high level of influence on the body movements of an individual. In this, by asking questions from Diana regarding this nurse can gather suitable information regarding the improvement. Hence, through the means of evaluation nurses can assess whether they need to reduce the dosage of drugs or not. In this way, by conducting suitable evaluation nurses can take suitable decision for further treatment.

CONCLUSION

From the above report, it has been concluded that Parkinson diseases are most common among the individuals now a day. Such disease is very harmful which in turn closely influences the health aspect of an individual. Besides this, it can be inferred that gathering information the patient problem is one of the main priorities of nurses. It can be revealed from the report that without having enough or suitable information individual is not in situation to diagnose problem in an effectual way. Further, it has been articulated that by considering that in the care sector nurses have accountability to give medicines to the patients on the basis of their symptoms level. Moreover, suitable drugs and medicines reduce involuntary movements which causes to Parkinson disease. In this way, appropriate medicines or care helps in reducing the impact of disease to the significant level.

REFERENCES

  • Almeida, O. P. & et.al., 2016. Affective Disorders, Psychosis and Dementia in a Community Sample of Older Men with and without Parkinson’s Disease. PloS one, 11(9), p.e0163781.
  • Cole, M. H. & et.al., 2016. Use of a short-form balance confidence scale to predict future recurrent falls in people with Parkinson disease. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 97(1). pp.152-156.
  • Follett, J. & et,al., 2016. Parkinson Disease-linked Vps35 R524W Mutation Impairs the Endosomal Association of Retromer and Induces α-Synuclein Aggregation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 291(35). pp.18283-18298.
  • Poortvliet, P. C. & et,al., 2015. Deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease in Australia: current scientific and clinical status. Internal medicine journal. 45(2). pp.134-139.
  • Postuma, R. B. & et.al., 2016. The new definition and diagnostic criteria of Parkinson's disease. The Lancet Neurology. 15(6). pp.546-548.
  • Pringsheim, T. & et,al., 2014. The prevalence of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Movement disorders. 29(13). pp.1583-1590.
  • Sheard, J. M. & Ash, S., 2014. Current practice in nutrition assessment for the management of Parkinson's disease in Australia and Canada. Nutrition & Dietetics. 71(2). pp.92-99.
  • Sheard, J. M. & Ash, S., 2015. Current practice in nutrition diagnosis and intervention for the management of Parkinson's disease in Australia and Canada. Nutrition & Dietetics. 72(1). pp.30-35.
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