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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Overview and background of the research

Corporate strategy is define as a direction which organisation take with an aim to achieve success in marketplace for a long term. It generally focus over the need of an organisation to adopt changes in its operations so that company can survive in its marketplace. The formation of corporate strategy involves the development of scope as well as purpose for the organisation so that it can perform its operations in a most efficient manner. This report is based on the issue which is faced by ASDA due to poor corporate strategy. As the female employees of ASDA are over strike for removing the issue of gender bias from their workplace. So in order to identify the main reason behind this issue research is conducted. This research also focuses toward the importance of employees motivation within workplace and way through which it influence the work done by them.

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Employee motivation is the methods for motivating employees for action and efforts related to work activities. It is energy level, creativity and commitment which company workers bring at jobs. It is very important for entity to provide motivation to their work so that both organisation as well as individual goal and objectives can be achieved. Company usually performs number of action in order to keep its employees motivated and aligned toward the goals of organisation. Because a happy and motivated employee is more productive then a worker who doesn't have an inner urge to work. So, in order to keep employees motivated company must provide some reward over their performance like salary hike, incentives promotion and many more. These actions support an employee to achieve their targets in order to get appreciation and appraisal from senior management. This in turn will help company in achieving their goals as well as competitive advantage at marketplace.

1.2 Overview and background of organisation

ASDA is a well known British Supermarket which offers a variety product related to grocery items and is consider as a second largest supermarket in Britain. It serve its customers through its number of store and online services that includes superstores, super-centre, supermarket, petrol filling stations and depots across UK boundaries. In addition to these core supermarket services, company also provide a number of other services such as mobile phone as well as financial services through EE network. Its marketing promotion is generally based upon its pricing strategy as it provide product or services at relatively lower price with a tag-line that  “Save Money. Live Better”. ASDA is operating its business in retail industry from year 1949 and has a great history of customer satisfaction as well as quality services. But apart from this company is facing an issue related to its employees i.e. the women workers working in ASDA has filed case against organisation where they was discrimination among pay between male and female. The male employees working in same position got high pay as compared to female. So in order to identify the solution to problem this research is conducted which support in determining several areas where improvement can be made in order to resolve this issues. As the major concern in this problem is that employees are demotivated toward their work which is required to remove in order to retain and maintain the employees within the organisation for longer period of time. These issues can be rectified using Corporate strategy which help ASDA in setting up certain rules and regulations to guide actions taken by company. This further support company in performing their operations in a planned and more reliable manner which in turn will provide it an opportunity to achieve desired result.

1.3 Rationale of research

Corporate strategy is very essential for a company as it support in solving the issues that are usually faced by company. Current research is conducted to determine the role of corporate strategy in improving the functionality of an organisation and removing the issues faced by an organisation. Main reason behind performing this investigation over corporate strategy is to determine benefit of this concept for an organisation and what impact does a company have when it implement business model of corporate strategies. This research is focused over ASDA and issues which is faced by company. As the female employees of ASDA has assumed that their pay is below the male worker and because of which they file a case against company to remove this culture of differentiation on the bases of gender. This has affect the reputation as well as performance of company for a large extend. By conducting this research, investigator will be able to determine the ways to overcome this issues and methods through which ASDA can regain its goodwill at marketplace. In addition this it will also help in determining the role of Corporate Strategy in motivating employees and keeping them satisfied. This research is based on primary investigation that is conducted through collecting fresh data and because of which this research contains a relevant information. Research focuses on developing an understanding related with the ways in which Corporate Strategy support a company in formulating their objectives and improving operations for achieving success.

1.4 Research aims & objectives

Research Aim: 

“To ascertain the issues related to gender gap and its impact on employee motivation within workplace. A study on ASDA.”

Research objectives:

  • To identify the issues related to raise gender gap within ASDA
  • To ascertain the impact of equal pay legislation on organisational policies and employees of ASDA
  • To evaluate factors that need to be considered by ASDA while developing corporate strategy to motivate its female workers
  • To determine unique corporate strategy which helps ASDA in resolving its issue

1.5 Research questions

Research Questions:

  • What are the main issues which raise gender gap within ASDA?
  • How equal pay legislation impact on organisational policies and employees of ASDA?
  • Which factors need to be considered by ASDA while developing corporate strategy to motivate its female workers?

Chapter 2: Literature Review

A literature review is also called narrative review which includes knowledge from substantive findings and theoretical as well as methodological contributions of particular topic.

2.1 Issues which raise gender gap within ASDA

As per BBC report given by Kamal Ahmed, it has evaluated that there were issue arise in ASDA related to gender gap. More than 1000 women claimed that they did not get same pay as male are getting being their job is of same value and position. There was difference in pay as women worker could be compensated six years of back pay. ASDA mentioned that they follow policies for equal pay and treating all staff equally. After fighting against it also there was 19.7% gap between male and female earning if measured in terms of hourly (Asda faces mass legal action over equal pay for women, 2019).

2.2 Impact of equal pay legislation on organisational policies and employees of ASDA

According to business advice report (2019), it has said EU law was placed which ensure principle of equal pay between male and female workers when equal value is applied. It is effective in UK in which it can relied on employee against public and private sector. Equality act 2010, where staff seek contract in terms of equal base for doing work. This helps in increasing productivity of organisation in smooth manner (What implications does the Asda equal pay ruling have for business, 2019).

2.3 Factors that need to be considered for developing corporate strategy to motivate its female workers

According to Roy Saunderson (2019), the factors that need to be considered for developing corporate strategy to motivate its female workers area are as follows:

Reward Equally and fairly

It is very important factors that need to be considered. Here, deserving worker should be awarded, increase in pay and providing benefits to motivate them. ASDA can consider such factors for increasing efficiency of workers and organisation. They can establish qualitative criteria in order to evaluate awards and performance.

Respect and Courtesy

Each and every women working in an organisation need to be respected and treated in better manner. This helps corporate for achieving their set goal and objectives. ASDA need to consider such factors for motivating their staffs and workers so that employees feel respected to work in organisation (Top 10 ways to motivate women in your workforce, 2019).

Chapter 3 : Research Methodology

Methodology refers to theoretical and systematic analysis of methods, which is applied to conduct a study on specific topic. It provides description of different modes of data collection, which helps in gathering, analysing and interpreting the information, in research work. It includes primary and secondary resources which are used to collect specific information on chosen topic. Therefore, both methods give opportunity to researchers to conduct their research work in more precise and specific manner. They can obtain effective outcomes for addressing objectives of selected topic and give recommendation for further improvement as well.

3.1 Primary Data Collection

When data is collected for first time by researcher then it is called primary data collection. It is specific and original work of research. Under this method, researchers are used to conduct survey in own manner by choosing a sample from total population. There are different methods for primary collection available such as interview, focus group, questionnaire, survey. Concept of these methods can be described in following manner:-

Interview: It is conducted through telephone, mail or personally. In personal interview, there is face to face interaction where interviewer asks various questions. They get more reliable information through personal meeting. As it is time consuming and expensive where sample is taken from geographical area. Here, information is taken in depth  and there is no misinterpretation. Sometimes, respondent can give wrong information to interviewer. In telephonic interview, interviewer collect information by contacting individual on telephone and ask questions orally. The main advantage of telephonic interviews are cheaper, less time consuming, flexible and no requirement of staffs.

Questionnaires: In this type of method, questionnaire is sent to respondents who can read, reply and understand. The questions are printed on definite order and format which has to be filled by concerned person. The questionnaire should be short, simple, logical sequence and avoidance of technical terms. The advantage of such type of questionnaires are free from bias, adequate time to give answers, easily approachable to respondents. It also carry some disadvantages such as time consuming, chances of errors, inflexible and low rate of return.

3.2 Secondary Data Collection

When data are collected by other than user taken from published or unpublished sources is called secondary data collection (Wright and Brown, 2013). It includes publication of government, public records, journals, report of banks, magazines. For conducting secondary research, project-makers can obtain data from internal and external sources. Here, sales report; financial statements; customer details; feedback from retailers, distributors and more, are some internal sources which provided specific knowledge about company. Similarly, Governmental reports like population census and tax records; business journals; internet access etc. consider as external source for obtaining secondary information. Both of these sources help in gathering specific and reliable information on a particular topic.

It can be concluded that researcher use both technique for data collection in research for achieving their aim and objectives. Under this process, project-managers of ASDA have formulated a questionnaire related to employee motivation and reduce gender gap within business. This format has further fill up  by 20 respondents who are selected randomly from total population (stakeholders).

Questionnaire

Name:

Age:

Gender:

Q1) Do you think unequal wages on the basis of gender can arise discrimination at workplace?

a) Yes

b) No

Q2) Does gender gap affect organisational culture and policies of a company?

a) Yes

b) No

Q3) In what manner, issue related to unequal pay in ASDA effects its policies?

a) Influence other workers' perception

b) Create difficulties to recruit new talented workers

c) Create negative publicity of business at marketplace

Q4) What is the main reason behind female staff turnover in ASDA?

a) Unequal pay scale between male and female workers

b) Unequal treatment

c) Ineffective organisational policies

Q5) According to you, which law allows female workers of ASDA to raise their voice against discrimination?

a) Equal Pay Act 1970

b) Equality Act 2010

c) Sex Discrimination Act 1984

Q6) Which is the most effective strategy ASDA can use to resolve its issue?

a) Develop employment policies as per equal pay legislations and other laws

b) Promote an effective organisational culture

c) Build effective corporate strategy

Q6) Which is the best way by which management of ASDA can motivate its female staff?

a) Show consistent respect and courtesy

b) Reward equally and fairly

c) Highlight female leaders who have no titles

Q7) What are the main factors ASDA need to concern while formulating corporate strategies?

a) Eliminate discrimination

b) Women empowerment

c) Reduce gender gap

Q8) Do you think corporate strategy helps ASDA in retaining its talented, especially female staff workers?

a) Yes

b) No

Q9) Provide recommendation for ASDA in creating equality and providing job satisfaction to both male and female workers, to achieve their retention?

Chapter 4 : Critical Review Of Results

4.1 Critical review on the basis of secondary research

The information which is gathered under secondary research are analysed through perception of various researchers, under this part. As in present research, issues related to female staff turnover are evaluated in ASDA, therefore, critical review of articles chosen for the same, can be analysed as beneath:-

Issues which raise gender gap within ASDA:

Impact of equal pay legislation on organisational policies and employees of ASDA:

Factors that need to be considered for developing corporate strategy to motivate its female workers:

4.2 Critical review on the basis of primary research

Under this part of research, critical evaluation has done on the basis of reviews and feedback of respondents. These respondents have been chosen randomly from a sample of total population. They have given their viewpoint on chosen topic which would organisation to take effective decision for resolving issues. Therefore, in context of present research, analysis of data which has gathered through primary research can be described in following manner:-

Theme 1: Gender gap can arise discrimination at workplace

Q1) Do you think unequal wages on the basis of gender can arise discrimination at workplace?

Frequency

a) Yes

18

b) No

2

Interpretation: In an organisation, any type of inequality on the basis of salary, wages, race, caste-ism and more, create discrimination at workplace. According to survey on 20 respondents, as mentioned in above graph, 18 users are agreed on this statement. They have stated that if a company runs unequal policies related to pay scale, gender and more, would create feeling of discrimination under workers. It will also negatively impact on performance of them which affect profitability and growth of business as well. While, remaining 2 respondents are agreed with same argument. As they believe that discrimination usually arise when a firm doesn't concern on developing relationship among workers, belongs to different background.

Theme 2: Gender gap affects organisational culture

Q2) Does gender gap affect organisational culture and policies of a company?

Frequency

a) Yes

17

b) No

3

Interpretation: Gender gap refers to an issue which arise when a company give employment to male staff more as compare to female workers. So, it creates discrimination under employees especially when female staff got less salary rather than of male. Therefore, it creates conflicts among workers and impact on their performance in negative manner. In addition to this, it also create negativity at workplace which affect organisational culture and policies too. As per this mentioned graphical representation, it has interpreted that out of 20 respondents, 17 are in favour of this statement. They also thought that any type of discrimination at workplace will definitely affect organisational culture. It would impact on individual behaviour also which affect their performance and productivity too. While rest of 3 respondents don't think the same. They have believed that discrimination could not affect culture in vast manner.

Theme 3: Issues can affect entire policies

Q3) In what manner, issue related to unequal pay in ASDA effects its policies?

Frequency

a) Influence other workers' perception

8

b) Create difficulties to recruit new talented workers

5

c) Create negative publicity of business at marketplace

7

Interpretation: Issues related to unequal treat employees on the basis of gender can affect entire business. As in case of ASDA, it has faced problems related to female staff turnover, which have occurred due to unequal payment. In this regard, some female workers have raised their voice on such discrimination against the respective company. Therefore, it affects perception of other staff also and create negative publicity of business also. This would also create difficulties in front of management to attract new recruiters to work with ASDA. It has interpreted from this given graph that out of 20 respondents, 8 are in favour with concept of influencing perception of other staff. They have stated that remaining workers think negatively about company and will not to work more for longer period. While, 5 users have stated that rumours about discrimination under workplace of a company, may create difficulties for HR administration. As they will face issues related to introduce talented workers within business. In addition to this, remaining 7 respondents are thought that it will affect reputation of company by creating negative publicity at marketplace.

Theme 4: Reason behind female staff turnover

Q4) What is the main reason behind female staff turnover in ASDA?

Frequency

a) Unequal pay scale between male and female workers

7

b) Unequal treatment

6

c) Ineffective organisational policies

7

Interpretation: As ASDA faces issues related to female staff turnover therefore, researchers have analysed that there are various reasons behind the same. It includes unequal pay scale, unfair treatment with workers, ineffective organisational policies etc. These factors arise discrimination among workers of ASDA on the basis of their gender as well as create job dissatisfaction among them also. So, it increases high-staff turnover rate within respective company, which impact negatively on performance and productivity of ASDA also. As per review of 7 respondents out of 20, it has evaluated that unequal pay scale of this company is the main reason behind female staff turnover. As it impact negative on job satisfaction of workers while working within its workplace. Other than this, 6 respondents have believed that treating unequally the workers and discriminate them on the basis of gender, will be main cause behind same. While, rest 7 respondents have stated that due to ineffective policies related to employment, human resource allocation, reward and compensation etc. increases staff turnover rate within ASDA.

Theme 5: Legislations help workers in raising their voice against discrimination

Q5) According to you, which law allows female workers of ASDA to raise their voice against discrimination?

Frequency

a) Equal Pay Act 1970

9

b) Equality Act 2010

6

c) Sex Discrimination Act 1984

5

Interpretation: In order to improve conditions of workers within an organisation and prevent them from discrimination, Government of UK has made various laws. It includes Equal Pay Act 1970, Equality act 2010, Sex Discrimination Act 1984 and more. All these laws give opportunity to workers to get equality at workplace. In context with ASDA, it has interpreted from perception of 9 respondents out of 20, that Equal Pay Act aid its female workers to raise their voice against discrimination. As this law has amended all organisations which are run in territorial boundary of UK to give equal wages to staff as per their role. While other 6 respondents have stated that Equality Pay Act affects minds of people more. They gain rights to demand equal treatment from management if any type of partiality happens with them. Other than this, remaining 5 respondents are in favour with Sex Discriminate Act. As it prevents them from activities which create discrimination on the basis of sex.

Theme 6: Ways to motivate workers

Q6) Which is the best way by which management of ASDA can motivate its female staff?

Frequency

a) Show consistent respect and courtesy

8

b) Reward equally and fairly

5

c) Highlight female leaders who have no titles

7

Interpretation: In order to reduce staff turnover rate, it is essential for a company to motivate workers by concerning on various factors.

Theme 7: Corporate strategies helps in retaining workers

Q8) Do you think corporate strategy helps ASDA in retaining its talented, especially female staff workers?

Frequency

a) Yes

17

b) No

3

Interpretation: Form the above mention graph it can be analysis that ASDA must take some decision or changes, so that they able to reduce the employees turnover ratio in appropriate manner. The researcher of respective company conduct research on 20 respondent and form that 17 respondent think that they must design new strategies. By it help ASDA able to retain their talented employees, especially female staff. According to this they can make policies, rules, programmes to reduce female employees turnover. On the other hand 3 respondent out of 20 think that they didn't need to design any new strategies to retain employees especially female workers.

Chapter 5 : Recommendation

5.1 Recommendation

In order to eliminate discrimination which has arisen due to ineffective employment policies, it is recommended to ASDA to build effective corporate strategies. Corporate strategy is strategic plan which clearly define goal and ways for achieving strategic management. It is important for organisation to implement and make strategy which are beneficial for both stakeholder and shareholder. ASDA has faced issue related to equal pay between male and female because of ineffective policies related to salary. Here, as women has filed case against ASDA to provide them equal pay and treat equally. In order to solve such issue, it has used Porter Value Chain Model as corporate strategy which has two activities given below:

Primary Activities

It is related with physical creation, maintenance, sale and support product and service. It consists of inbound logistics, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, operations, service. Such elements are very important for ASDA in order run different activities in organisation. It improve corporate performance of entity effectively and efficiently.

Support Activities

These activities support primary functions of organisation. For example, procurement helps in operations activities of organisation and also supports marketing, sales etc. It consists of purchasing, technological development, human resource development and infrastructure. Such  elements are important for ASDA to be considered while implementing corporate strategy. This improves internal as well as external implications of entity.

References

  • Aditjandra, P. T., Cao, X. J. and Mulley, C., 2012. Understanding neighbourhood design impact on travel behaviour: An application of structural equations model to a British metropolitan data. Transportation research part A: policy and practice. 46(1). pp.22-32.
  • Blyton, P. and Jenkins, J., 2012. Life after Burberry: shifting experiences of work and non-work life following redundancy. Work, Employment and Society. 26(1). pp.26-41.
  • Carrero, I. and Valor, C., 2012. CSR-labelled products in retailers' assortment: A comparative study of British and Spanish retailers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management. 40(8). pp.629-652.
  • Wilson, F. M., 2018. Organizational behaviour and work: a critical introduction. Oxford university press.
  • Wright, C. F. and Brown, W., 2013. The effectiveness of socially sustainable sourcing mechanisms: Assessing the prospects of a new form of joint regulation. Industrial Relations Journal. 44(1). pp.20-37.

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