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Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

Global trends of the educations have direct impact on post-graduation studies of students of developing nations. Some of the major countries which are facing the crucial issues is providing services but on the other hand some developed countries are giving best educational facilities to students of whole world. India, China, Russia Brazil and Thailand are the major nations are which facing issues in providing better educational services to students of their countries. It is reflected that global trend of education in very high in developed countries as compare to developing nations. So, it attracts students towards the foreign universities. Educational universities of Thailand do not provide appropriate opportunities of placement, campus, training and other sports activities of growth and development of students, etc (Hazelkorn, 2015). Therefore, this nation is facing the issue of study in abroad. So, author has decided to conduct study on this subject. Consequently, researcher wants to disclose the actual reasons and factors that influence Thai students towards the UK universities. Regarding this, researcher has been used a very systematic process for conducting investigation in effective manner and this process is describing the following report.

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1.2 Aim and objectives

Aim:

The aim of this dissertation is to conduct exploratory study of different factors which influence Thai students to complete their higher studies in UK.

Research objectives

  • To investigate major purposes influencing Thai students to study in the city of Birmingham.
  • To examine motivational factors of Thai students studying in the city of Birmingham
  • To explore other personal factors of Thai students which affect their decision to further their study in the city of Birmingham.

1.3 Research question

  1. What are the major purposes influencing Thai students to study in the city of Birmingham?
  2. What are the motivational factors of Thai students studying in the city of Birmingham?
  3. Which personal factors of Thai students that affect their decision to further their study in the city of Birmingham?

1.4 Project rational

Study in abroad is one of the major research issue which is affecting the education trend of entire globe. It is affecting the growth and development of countries their students are moving towards the foreign universities. As per the survey and data of reports it can say that most of the students try to get education from UK and US universities. So, these countries have been developed in education sector in very well manner. But most of the countries are suffering from the skilled and intelligent students. So, these countries cannot get skilled and experienced employees for their nation. Therefore, study in abroad is one of the major issue for developing nation.

It is an issue because government of the developing countries do not provide appropriate facilities to students for their higher education. Most of the attractive factors and qualitative services of foreign universities motivate students of developing nations towards the foreign universities. So, it is considered as major research issue.

It is an issue now because Thai students are moving towards the UK universities for higher education. It has negative impacts on development of this nation. Government of Thai is investing huge amount of money in improving the education system of this nation. But, still there are number of factors which are increasing attraction of students toward the UK universities. So, researcher wants to disclose these factors. It is the major reason behind the selection of this subject as a current research.


For resolving this issue researcher will focus on current and past information of the Thai students. Along with this author will also try to find out number of factors which are influencing students to get higher studies from UK universities. Regarding this researcher will use number of theories and models which will help in resolving research question in effective manner. Along with this, author wants to make a useful to readers who are interested in the area of studying aboard and foreign education and to understand the factors that influence the decision making of Thai students (Hazelkorn, 2015).

1.5 Focus and purpose

As per the aim of the current study researcher wants to know the number of factors which are influencing Thai students for moving towards the UK universities. For attaining this aim researcher will focus on motivational and personal factors of Thai students which affect their decision to further their study in the city of Birmingham. Along with this, author will also focus on major reason because of them students re not taking interest in taking higher education in Thai. Focus will also be given on number of attractive factors of UK universities because of them students of Thai are attracting towards these universities. Identifying the major factors which motivate Thai students to complete their studies from foreign universities is the major purpose of the current study.

1.6 Framework and analysis

Conducting research on present subject is not an easy task for researcher so, author will use the number of research methods as per the requirements of the subject. So, research methodology so the current research will be based on the following framework and analysis of the research methods:

Research philosophies: It can be defined as a paradigm which helps in conducting in-depth research on study on abroad. It will help in understanding the actual phenomenon because of them Thai students actually wants to move towards the UK universities for higher studies. There are two types of research philosophies positivism and intrepretivism. For conducting current investigation researcher will sue positivism because it focuses on the objectives of the study rather than subjectivity of the concept. So, it will play important role in attaining aim (Goddard and Melville, 2004).

Research design: It can be defined as a research plan which helps in completing investigation in effective manner. There are three types of research designs descriptive, exploratory and casual. For the current investigation author will select exploratory research design because it uses both primary and secondary data for getting a new results. It is a complete new study which have never ever conducted by any researcher in past so, author has decided to complete it using this design (Kumar, 2014).

Approach of the study: There are basically two types of the research approach inductive and deductive. In which inductive approach helps in completing research in specific to general manner so, it helps in developing theories on specific research subject. But on the other hand deductive approach focuses on general to specific research studies. So, for completing research investigation in effective manner researcher will use deductive research approach because it will help in completing general study on reason behind the influence of students towards the foreign studies. Afterwards researcher will move towards the Thai students who are attracting UK universities for higher studies. It will focus on hypothesis rather than research question (Daniel and Sam, 2011).

Research strategy: For completing investigation in effective manner author will use both qualitative and quantitative research strategy. Qualitative study will help in understudying the research issue using number of theories and models. On the other hand quantitative techniques will resolve the research problem using the number of statistical methods. Therefore, both studies will play important role in getting answers of every research question.

Data collection methods: For completing research in appropriate way author needs to collect facts and figures using appropriate methods of data collection. There are number of methods by which author can collect facts and figures. For completing research information author will use both primary and secondary data collection methods. In which primary data collection methods will help in collecting new and fresh data about the research subject (Flick, 2011). Questionnaire survey will be used by researcher for collecting primary data. On the other hand, secondary data collection method will play important role in getting historical information about the research subject which have already discovered by researches in past research studies. Literature review will be the major source for getting secondary information about the subject.

Sampling: As per the above discussion author will sue primary data collection methods for obtaining new and fresh data. Regarding this investigator needs to select sample from research universe. Study will focus on only those Thai students who are studying or studies from UK universities. Regarding this, researcher will use random number sampling methods because it will provide equal chance to each and every candidate to select in a research sample. Author will select 30 students for collecting primary data so, sample size will be 30 which will represent the characteristics of whole research universe (Kumar, 2014).

Data analysis: For conducting exploratory research study researcher will use both thematic and statistical analysis methods. Thematic analysis will help in completing qualitative research study in effective manner. But on the other hand, for resolving research issue and determining factors which are influencing Thai students towards the UK universities researcher needs to apply statistical method. These technique will help in analyzing numerical information in most effective manner (Lillis, 2008).

1.7 Dissertation structure

For completing whole study researcher will use a very specific structure which will comprise number of chapters. A brief discussion of these chapters are described as under:

Chapter 1 – Introduction: It can be considered as brief discussion of the whole research study. It comprises aim, objectives, focus, purpose and rational of the study. It helps in understanding the research behind the research. Further, this chapter will also provide appropriate support in getting information about the framework and analysis of the research methodology. Afterwards it also includes a systematic structure of the whole exploration investigation (Goddard and Melville, 2004).

Chapter 2 –Literature review: It is one of the important chapter for collecting secondary data on current research subject. This chapter will comprise historical research studies and their findings which are relevant to the current subject. It will help in getting insights to develop appropriate hypothesis or questionnaire for resolving research problem. Overall, it is one of the important chapter for understanding research subject.

Chapter 3 – Research Methodology: It comprises number of research method which will be required for completing investigation in effective manner. It helps in completing whole research in effective manner. This chapter will help in knowing about the data collection and analysis methods which will help in resolving research problem in effective manner (Kumar, 2014).

Chapter 4 –Data analysis: This chapter will comprise number of methods which will be used by researcher for analyzing facts and figures of the research subject. For the current research study author will comprise thematic and statistical analysis methods for examining collected facts and figures in effective manner. It will disclose the actual findings of the current research study.

Chapter 5 -Conclusion: The current study is based on different factors which are influencing the Thai students for moving towards the UK universities for higher education. So, it will comprise the conclusion and recommendations of the current study which will help in completing investigation in more effective manner (Daniel and Sam, 2011).

1.8 Significance of the study

Study on abroad is the major aim of current research and regarding this researcher has focused on Thai students which are moving towards the UK universities. So, findings of the current research will be beneficial for all those students who want to conduct future research on similar subjects. Along with this, it is also significant for those who are doing PhD on similar themes so, this study will be beneficial for understanding their research problem. Along with this, using the findings of current study future researcher will complete research on students of other nations who are moving towards the UK universities.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Literature review can be defined as a process of collecting secondary information about the research subject. It plays important role in getting insights from theoretical framework about the research issues which will resolve it in appropriate way. Further, it will also help in conducting whole investigation using specific process (Coulter and Roggeveen, 2012). According to the research aim and objectives literature will be based on different motivational and personal factors which influence Thai students towards the higher education of UK. There are number of sources which plays important role in obtaining secondary information about the current subject which will provide appropriate solution for making meaningful conclusion for the present study. These sources includes, websites of Thai and UK universities, books, journals, articles, blogs and news, etc (Ziderman, 2015). Author will include different theories for analysing the current subject and determining research gap for the present study.

1. Background of higher education

Global perspective on higher education

Knight, 2015 has concluded that “Globalization is one of the powerful factor which has direct impact on postsecondary education” (Knight, 2015). There are number of global trends that has direct influence on higher education, mass enrollments, mass higher education system around the world. There are some major countries which are facing some challenges with respect to higher education and these are India, China, Russia Brazil and Thailand. Raffe and Croxford, 2015 has concluded that economic growth and tertiary education has strong relationship with each other (Raffe and Croxford, 2015). There are some specific measures which have reflected that higher education is increasing in developed countries as compare to developing nations. These include that that knowledge based employment is higher in developed nation and share of educated workers is higher than their shares of overall population. Including this, number of white collar and high skilled employees is increasing more rapidly (Global Flow of Tertiary-Level Students, 2016). It has reflected that global trend of higher education is very high in developed countries as compare to developing nations so, these trends attract students of growing countries towards the higher education system of developed nation.

Lao, 2015 has concluded that “United states are generating largest revenue approximately $10billion in the year of 2000 from the export of education services” (Lao, 2015). It has reflected that most of the students of the world wants to get education from United States which helps in increasing the economic stabilities of these nations. US nations are providing higher education to students of other nations just because of the economic and political pressures as well as international competitions from other countries. But these educational services are very costly because for maintaining a good image and quality in education industry of world US nations needs to spend huge amount of money for improving education services which increases the total cost of education services.

case-study

Figure 1: Shares of the world’s internationally mobile students, 2013

(Source: International Higher Education in Facts and Figures, 2016)

There are top ten countries which are considered as destination countries for mobile students of under developed nations (Sivarnee, 2013). These are United States (19.4% of total mobile students), United Kingdom (10.3%), Australia (6.2%), France (5.7%), Germany (4.9%), Russian Federation (3.4%), Japan (3.4%), Canada (3.4%), China (2.4%) and Italy (2.4%). There are number of countries which are considered as origin of mobile students at where more students studying abroad more than their home countries. These include China (712,157 students studying abroad), India (181,872), Germany (119,123), Republic of Korea (116,942), France (84,059), Saudi Arabia (73,548), United States (60,292), Malaysia (56,260), Viet Nam (53,546) and Nigeria (52,066) (Bertrand and et.al, 2009). Thailand is one of the Southeast Asian country which is also facing issues in providing best services to all those students who are required higher education. So, they also move towards the other nations.

Coulter and Roggeveen, 2012 has concluded that “There are number of factors and attributes which influence the global education system” (Coulter and Roggeveen, 2012). As per this statement these attributes include international economic competition, recession, endowment funds, high demand of higher education, lack of capacity of public sector to improve the higher education system, adaptability and flexibility universities, etc (Cheong and Morrison, 2008).

Comparison between Higher education in Thailand and UK


Critically analyzing the major reasons behind the movement of Thailand students towards the UK for getting higher education. So, regarding this, author needs to make comparison between education systems of both countries. Review of literature has helped in completing this comparative study. Douglas and et.al, 2015 has concluded that “Education system of Thailand is one of the worst system in southeast Asia” (Douglas and et.al, 2015). As per this statement Thai students cannot get qualitative higher education because its education system is not appropriate and associated with the number of drawbacks. Plagued by inadequate financial resources is one of the major limitation which decline the quality of the education facilities of the Thailand. Along with this, huge class size, lack of skills and experience of teachers, lazy students and inappropriate system which forces teachers to pass students even they actually failed. So, all these are the major problems of the higher educational system of Thailand (Bashar, Ahmad and Wasiq, 2013). Including this, they don’t provide appropriate placement opportunities, campus facilities, training and other sports activities which help in growth and development of students. So, all these limitation reduce the attraction level of Thai students towards the higher education and increase the attraction towards the foreign universities (Education in Thailand, 2016).

2. Theory

Motivation of study aboard

Hazelkorn, 2015 has asserted that “There are number of reasons and factors which motivates students to move towards the foreign countries for getting higher education” (Hazelkorn, 2015). As per this statement Motivational factors influence in increasing the mobility of students from one nation to another for the study purpose. Hayden and Thiep, 2015 has stated that “Study at a university with a strong international reputation is the major motivation for foreign students in prospect of higher education” (Hayden and Thiep, 2015). As per this statement, there are number of universities which are respected worldwide and have strong reputation in education industry. So, students wants to be a part of these universities. So, it is also considered as major factor. On the other hand, Altbach, 2015 has concluded that “Some student wants experience their life in a different culture” (Altbach, 2015). This statement as reflected that most of the students wants to improve their skills by living in different culture and many of the employers provides high value to international and intercultural skills. But, on the other hand, Birnbaum, 2015 has disclosed that “there are number of countries which charge high tuition fees for higher education, so it is one of the hygiene facto which may influence students to move towards those universities which are providing benefits by scholarships and low tuition fees” (Birnbaum, 2015). Therefore, students of developing nation attracts by education system of developed nation just because of taking advantages of scholarship and low tuition fees in higher education. Including this, Baccarani and Brunetti, 2015 has stated that “proficiency in language skills and international professional networks are also included in the motivational factors to study in abroad” (Baccarani and Brunetti, 2015). Therefore, literature review has reflected that number of factors which influence students to get study to abroad and these are study at the most reputation international university, increasing knowledge of different culture, benefits from scholarship and tuition fees, improvement in language skills and building international professional network, etc.

Consumer behavior

Hollensen, 2015 has concluded that “Consumer behavior can be defined as an approach which helps in determining the way by which individuals buy and use particular merchandise and services” (Hollensen, 2015). Therefore, customer behavior analysis will help in analyzing the needs and requirements, taste, choice and preferences of students. As per the current study major objective of the research is analyzing the behavior of students at the time of selecting universities for higher education. Regarding this, author has decided to use economic model which plays important role in analyzing the customer’s behavior. Economic model is based on some basic assumption such as allocation of customer’s fund is based on purchasing power and needs and requirements (Tilak, 2015). On the basis of the price of the products and services Customers decide their priorities. Therefore as per this model basically economic condition of students may help in analyzing their behavior in effective manner. Alvesson and Benner, 2016 has concluded that “Price, substitute and income are the major base of this model” (Alvesson and Benner, 2016). As per this statement price effect has direct impact on behavior of students at the time of selection of foreign universities because they use to select only those universities which are charging price for higher education as per the purchasing power of them. High price reduce the level of attraction of students. In contrast, at present all students have number of options for getting high education. So, these substitutes may reduce the interest of students towards a particular university. Therefore, substitution effect may also influence customer‘s behavior. Along with this, level of income is one of the major factor which may affect the purchase decisions of students. Overall, economic model plays important role in analyzing the behavior of students of Thailand at the time of selecting foreign universities for higher education (Ford, 2015).

Buyer decision

Buyer decision

Figure 2: Elaboration likelihood model

(Source: Elaboration Likelihood Model, 2016)

As per the review of literature there are number of factors which may influence the decisions of customers in positive as well as negative manner. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is one of the important model which helps in analyzing the decision making process. So, researcher can use this model for analyzing the buyer’s decision towards the different product and services. These model is also known as dual process theory which helps in describing the changes of attitude form of individuals (Elaboration Likelihood Model, 2016). Explaining process of stimuli is the major aim of this model which helps in determining that why these stimuli is used and their outcomes on changes in attitudes. As per this model customers can take decisions on the basis of the two different routes central routes and peripheral routes. In the central route helps in getting an appropriate persuasion which is based on careful and thoughtful considerations of person. Central route includes the high level involvement of individuals which provides a cognitive response and these response is based on the belief and attitude change of person (Altbach, 2016). All these aspects change as per the person to person which leads changes in the behavior of individuals. Therefore, any custoAs per the review of literatuAs per the review of literature there are number of factors which may influence the decisions of customers in positive as well as negative manner. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is one of the important model which helps in analyzing the decision making process. So, researcher can use this model for analyzing the buyer’s decision towards the different product and services. These model is also known as dual process theory which helps in describing the changes of attitude form of individuals (Elaboration Likelihood Model, 2016). Explaining process of stimuli is the major aim of this model which helps in determining that why these stimuli is used and their outcomes on changes in attitudes. As per this model customers can take decisions on the basis of the two different routes central routes and peripheral routes. In the central route helps in getting an appropriate persuasion which is based on careful and thoughtful considerations of person. Central route includes the high level involvement of individuals which provides a cognitive response and these response is based on the belief and attitude change of person (Altbach, 2016). All these aspects change as per the person to person which leads changes in the behavior of individuals. Therefore, any custoAs per the review of literature there are number of factors which may influence the decisions of customers in positive as well as negative manner. Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion is one of the important model which helps in analyzing the decision making process. So, researcher can use this model for analyzing the buyer’s decision towards the different product and services. These model is also known as dual process theory which helps in describing the changes of attitude form of individuals (Elaboration Likelihood Model, 2016). Explaining process of stimuli is the major aim of this model which helps in determining that why these stimuli is used and their outcomes on changes in attitudes. As per this model customers can take decisions on the basis of the two different routes central routes and peripheral routes. In the central route helps in getting an appropriate persuasion which is based on careful and thoughtful considerations of person. Central route includes the high level involvement of individuals which provides a cognitive response and these response is based on the belief and attitude change of person (Altbach, 2016). All these aspects change as per the person to person which leads changes in the behavior of individuals. Therefore, any customer who takes decisions on the basis of central route than it will be a result of the high involvement of customers and their beliefs and attitude. But on the other hand, if any customers who takes decisions on the basis of peripheral route then these decisions are based on low involvement of individuals and person does not examine all factors carefully and attitude of individuals might change as per the presence of persuasive cues. Therefore, the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) has reflected that central route is more effective as compare to peripheral route because it helps in making more effective decisions for any situation (Coulter and Roggeveen, 2012). Therefore, on the basis of the involvement and route of the decision making process of student researcher can analyses the buyer’s decisions.

The current research study has been chosen four leading universities of London which have large number of students from Thailand and other nations. These are University of Birmingham (UOB), University College Birmingham (UCB), Birmingham City University (BCU) and Aston University (Douglas and et.al, 2015). These universities use appropriate methods of marketing and advertisement which attract number of students to get higher education from these university. For example, UOB focuses on raising the games to attract foreign students because in Thailand higher education does not focus on sports activities. So, advertisement on sports and other activities attract Thai students towards the UK universities for Higher education. Along with this, UOB also pays attention towards the bolster quality of the higher education (Birnbaum, 2015). All these things are communicated by this universities on social media marketing profile. These helps in attracting students. On the other hand, UCB attracts students by providing careers and job prospects such as they advertise their higher education courses in Thailand by different offers such as they provides career planning and decision making, option with subject and degree, developing port5folio, networking with employers, etc. therefore, placement offers is one of the major marketing and advertisement strategy of UCB to attract international students from Thailand (Raffe and Croxford, 2015).

In contrast, Birmingham City University pay high attention towards the marketing activities because international students are the major part of this university. For attracting students of Thailand and other nations BCU has developed an international profile of the university and identify the new development opportunities (Lao, 2015). Along with this, it develops strong communication and negotiation with international market for making global positioning. For marketing purpose it will focus on advertisement, web, mail, shots, agent relations and publications, etc. therefore, all these are the most attractive offers and marketing strategies which are used by BCU for attracting Thai students (Hazelkorn, 2015). In contrast, Aston University focuses on the promotional mix for the purpose of marketing, it attracts global students by using promotional offers such as concession in tuition fees on the basis of ranking and past educational performance. In addition, scholarship to international students is one the major strategy which can influence students of Thailand to take admission in Aston for higher education. Overall, all these UK universities use different marketing strategies for attracting Thai Students for getting higher education from foreign universities (Cheong and Morrison, 2008).

3. Influence factors to students studying aboard

Bashar, Ahmad and Wasiq, 2013 has concluded that “There are number of factors which can influence the behavior of customers towards the different organization” (Bashar, Ahmad and Wasiq, 2013). As per this students number of attributes which are relevant to the education industry may affect the decision of students to get the study from home or foreign countries. Bertrand and et.al, 2009 has asserted that “Black box model is one of the important tool for understanding the behavior of customers because it includes some major aspects such as marketing stimuli, environmental stimuli, buyer’s characteristics, decision making and buyer’s response” (Bertrand and et.al, 2009). Therefore, black box model will play important role in understanding the behavior of students at the time of making study from abroad. This model will also play important role in identifying the major reason behind that Thai students want to move UK for their higher education.

Alvesson and Benner, 2016 has concluded that “Black box model is effective for showing interaction between stimuli, customers characteristics, decision making process and customer response” (Alvesson and Benner, 2016). As per this model marketing mix is one of the major tool which helps in determining the factors associated with the marketing and advertisement of education system of different nation. These include product, price, place and promotion. As per this factors education system of foreign countries provide educational services with reasonable price and offered valuable benefits attract students of other nation to study in abroad. On the other hand, this model also represent some environmental stimuli which can influence the customer’s decision making process and these include economic, technological, political, cultural, demographic and natural factors (Baccarani and Brunetti, 2015). All these factors are very important for growth and development of a nation. A developed nation can offer more productive education services to students as compare to under-developing country. So, these can also be considered as major factor for influencing decisions of students.

Along with this, Buyer’s characteristics can influence the behavior of customers at the time of taking decisions. These include attitude, motivation, perception, personality, lifestyle and knowledge, etc (Altbach, 2015). Therefore, all these characteristics also play important role in decision making process of all Thai students who wants to move UK for further studies. Ford, 2015 has asserted that “Most of the time decision making process of students may also affect the final purchase decision” (Ford, 2015). As per the buyer’s decision making process there are number of stages which are followed by customers at the time for deciding universities. These are recognition of problem, searching information, alternative evaluation, purchase decision and post purchase behavior. As per this process, before making any final decision to study in abroad students need to recognize problem behind the study of high education in home country. Along with this, they should search appropriate information for the foreign universities and their services. Afterwards they should pay attention towards the alternative evaluation of the available options. It helps students in making a strong and beneficial decisions for the higher education. Therefore, all these factors can influence the response of customers or students towards the choice of product brand, universities, time of enrollment and fees of education service, etc (Hayden and Thiep, 2015).

Overall Black box model plays very significant role in determining all those factors which can influence the decision of students. After understanding the concept of this model major factors are described as under:

Internal and psychological factors: Motivation level, perception and attitude towards the universities and education system of the home and foreign countries have direct influence on decision of students. Motivation towards the foreign education can be act as a driving force which can easily attract students (Hollensen, 2015). Along with this, most of the countries prefer international skilled and educated student for the employment purpose which cares a positive perception about the international universities in students mind and such kind of perception also affect the decision of students. Perception of students may occur due to subjectivity, categorisation, selectivity, expectation and past experience. Positive perception influence students to enrol in foreign universities and negative perception encourage students to do not take admission in foreign countries (Tilak, 2015).

Social factors: There are number of family and social factors which may influence the decisions of students at the time of getting higher education. These include family, reference group, role and status. Family of a person can change the personality, attitude, characteristics and evaluation criteria for different things (Douglas and et.al, 2015). So, every students evaluate different universities on the basis of these characteristics, thus all these factors can influence the decision of students at the time of deciding universities for higher education. Including this, some reference groups may also affect the decisions of students and these groups are membership, secondary group, primary and normative groups, dissociative and formal group. All the referral group provides appropriate reference to students to get enrollment in a particular university. Similarly, some students takes submission in foreign universities for maintaining role and status of family. Overall social groups and family members and their decisions play important role in student’s decisions (Bashar, Ahmad and Wasiq, 2013).

Economic factors: Cheong and Morrison, 2008 has asserted that “At present most of the students pay attention towards the tuition fees and scholarship amount of the different universities” (Cheong and Morrison, 2008). These are considered as major economic factors which can directly influence the student’s decisions. In most of the developing nation income level of student’s family is very low as compare to family of developed nation. So, they prefer those universities which charges low tuition fees for higher education. Therefore, economic factor plays very significant role in student’s decisions (Bertrand and et.al, 2009).

Personal factors: Age, income, lifestyle, education wants, career goals and income are considered as some personal factor which can affect the choice of students. Any students who wants to complete their study from abroad focus on international universities for higher education. So, these wants and requirements of individuals also affect the decisions of students (Raffe and Croxford, 2015). Some of the students wants to start and grow their career in international market and these types of career goals have direct influence on decisions of students. .. has concluded that “If any students who don’t have appropriate level of income for paying fees of different universities then their decisions may influence by their level of income”. Overall, all these personal factors can change the student’s decisions.

Marketing factors: Hayden and Thiep, 2015 has asserted that “There are number of marketing and promotional activities which are used by organizations for attracting customers” (Hayden and Thiep, 2015). As per this statement most of the universities use those advertisement channel and marketing activities by which they can attract students of developing nation. Hazelkorn, 2015 has concluded that “Some universities attracts students by offering attractive future placements” (Hazelkorn, 2015). Along with this, most of the universities provided additional discounts and scholarship to foreign students for attracting them. Along with this, they also uses different strategies for developing strong brand image and brand positioning. Therefore, all these marketing and advertises of different universities have direct impact on student’s decisions at the time of deciding universities for higher studies (Birnbaum, 2015).

4. Value of study aboard

The current research study will be valuable for all Thai students who are moving towards higher studies for further research. Along with this, UK universities can also analyze the behaviour of Thai students. It will help these universities in taking decisions about education facilities which can attract students. Along with this, it will disclose motivational and personal factors of Thai students which wants to encourage Thai students to get better education from foreign universities (Hayden and Thiep, 2015). It will be beneficial for understanding buyer’s behaviour in effective manner. Overall, the current study will valuable for conducting investigation on similar subject.

5. Opportunities of study aboard

Attraction of Thai students are increasing towards the UK universities because these universities are providing high employment opportunities. Along with this, placement opportunities of UK universities are high as compare to Thai universities so, students are moving towards these countries. Along with this, it helps in getting better education quality services which will help in improving career of Thai students. But on the other, tuition fees of UK universities are reducing the growth and development of Thailand so, it is one of the major drawback (Bashar, Ahmad and Wasiq, 2013). In contrast, Thai students are using their educational knowledge and skills in improvising the facilities of Thailand. Along with this, most of the Thai students get this opportunities on the basis of scholarship which help the, in growing their career.

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