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Introduction

Global or international tourism generally means travelling across the whole wide world.  According to world tourism organisation which is also known as WTO, tourist define as individuals who loves to travels among various places which is outside their general or regular surroundings. It has been said that individuals travel across the world with different aim which includes business meeting, personal reasons, passion of exploring new places and many more (Cornelissen, 2017).  Globalisation assist in increasing ample number of opportunities for whole travel & tourism industry as it grant permission to people in order to travel the whole world which provide them experience to them. It is the report which includes various topics such as examining the nature of global tourism along with its scale. Along with this, it also provide detail description about the growth as well as characteristics of emerging market. Apart from this, roles and responsibilities of key business entity which provide their contribution for the growth of global tourism. At the end of this report, various issues, threats along with challenges which is faced by the tourism industry are examined in an effective manner.

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TASK 1

P1. Interpret statistics to present an effective overview of the nature as well as trends of tourism on international scale.

It has been said that nature of tourism also known as major assistance of travelling. It is considered as one of the dynamic element as each and every individual have their own taste, requirements and preferences which is continuously changing over the period of time. At the primary level, individual started travelling in order to satisfy their needs and wants related to food. Furthermore, after passing the time duration, behaviour, requirement as well as preference of tourists changes on a continuous basis. Some of the major aspects of trends consist of short period, intermediate as well as long term (Ezeuduji, 2015). In the present context of travel & tourism industry:  

Global tourism trends, statistics & flow

It is said that trends within travel & tourism sector consist of different aspects which includes arrivals, visitors flow, market share expenditure, revenue generation and many more. Examination of the section is conducting by analysing each and every aspect of domestic and global tourism. All these trends which belongs to each and every level are going to be discussed as follows:

For national tourism

According to a survey which was conducted by travel and tourism industry in the year 2018, it is defined as about 39% respondents agreed that they prefer last minute booking while travelling (Travel trends that will drive the tourism industry, 2019). It is the trend which mainly influenced by high technological resources which make it very effective and easier for the travellers along with tour operators in order to manage their tour successful. As per the above mentioned data, it has been identified that day by day there is increasing in the number of last minute booking travellers in UK. It has also been analysed that within UK almost 3.5 million travellers from all over the world visits different places in 2019. It is approximately 9% high than the last year records due to rise in last minute booking. Along with this, it has also been identified that all these overseas individuals and travellers spends  around £2.3 billion on their tour in United Kingdom (London Tourism Report, 2016). With the help of this, it is clearly identifies that number of visitors increasing day by day during last few years which assist travel & tourism sector in order to enhance their profitability at the competitive marketplace. Along with this, UK produce around  £15 billion from their travellers in one day within UK.

For international tourism

On the other hand, if we talked about international level, in the year 2017 number of travellers are reached in millions. According to a survey, number of tourists in Europe is around 671, in Africa-65, in America- 207, Middle East – 58 (2017 International Tourism Results: the highest in seven years, 2017). It has also been identified that all these figures are raising day by day by each passing year as the emerging trends of ecological & educational tours are created in an effective manner  for the travellers at global scale. It is define as the kind of tourism which generally explores all the undisturbed natural places. Tourists among today’s world thinks that if they explore unidentified places it will assist them in gaining experience and increasing knowledge. This as a result influence tour operator which will assist them in generating more and more funds  towards ecological projects (Gössling and Peeters, 2015). In addition to this, total amount of revenue generated by travel and tourism industry in the year 2018 is around £1.45 trillion (Global international tourism revenue 2000-2018).  Among the 5 nations collaborative travel & tourism GDP is 47% which includes USA, China, Japan, Germany and UK. This as a result shows that all these nations together assist the industry in order to influence trends for ecological & educational destination.

As per the above mentioned graph it has been identified that tourists at international level is in billion. It shows the increasing number of travellers within last 7 decades and these ratios are raising day by day. Here, it has also been analysed that maximum number of travellers choose Europe & America. For this, last minute booking as well as educational & ecological tours are considered as the major reason behind this. Furthermore, it has also been predicted that the number of travellers will be increasing day by day by each passing year (Higham, 2018).

World’s top tourism destinations as well as how they have changed over the period of time.

It has been said that there are various world famous travel and tourism destinations which is preferred by tourists in order to gain their knowledge and experience from such soothing places. At global level, maximum number of tourist generally prefer France as it is one of the most attractive and beautiful destination in the world. It involves various places such as Eiffel Tower, the Arc de Triomphe, the Louvre as well as Versailles (Kiráľová and Pavlíčeka, 2015).

UK belongs to one of the most popular destination across the whole wide world where almost 36 million tourists visit every single year. These are the visitors which assist them in order to generates £ 13.29 billion which mainly contributes in their economical development. There are so many places within UK which includes the tower of London, Medieval York, Roman-Era Bath, and its Minster. Apart from this, almost 41 million tourists travel Mexico every year. It is the place which is famous for Agua Azul Waterfalls, it’s world class resorts, Sumidero Canyon and so on.

Therefore, it has been said that all the above mentioned comes under one of the top most tourism destinations. Along with this, interest and preferences of travellers changes by each passing years as trends are constantly changing (Jovicic, 2014).

P2 Examine key characteristics of tourist-generating as well as receiving areas of the world.

It is said that tourism industry generating ample number of opportunities for the whole country in an effective manner. With the help of effective and required strips, changes in demographics, geographical and economic factors large number of tourists attract towards new places. On the other hand, it has also been said that individuals choose their destination places as per the characteristics of places which highly influence their interests and preferences. Some of the essential characteristic of tourism which is generating areas & tourism receiving areas are  going to be discussed as follows::

Key characteristics of Tourism generating areas:

  • Demographics: Some of the demographic key characteristics of US which attracts large number of tourist towards the country included it’s one of the most popular city which is  Las Vegas. It is the city which is well known for its night life as large number of travellers come to this place so that they can explore it more. This is one of the factor which is generated by them for attraction of large number of tourists. Apart from these people belongs to high class society comes to spends their time in Casino. This becomes the reason of attraction of large number of people towards Las Vegas.
  • Culture: On the other hand, culture plays very important role in order to influence large number of travellers tourists towards the country. One of the best example is Tomorrowland which organise music festival in Berlin on a seasonal basis (Rogerson, 2015). This is the creation which help to attract large number of people towards their country that have direct impact over tourism in respect to its increment.

Characteristics of Tourism receiving areas are:

  • Climate: In the present context of England, High Force, Durgham, is consideredas one of the most attractive and beautiful waterfall across the world. Water falls in a beautiful plunge pool which makes it more attractive. Therefore, overall climate of the place is magnificent, soothing and attractive which attracts large number of tourist towards the waterfall. So, the contribution this as receiving area is justified from the fact that nothing is contributed from the government or organisation side behind its creation. It is self generated tourism place that have the characteristic of attraction of tourists.

TASK 2

P3 Find out specific reasons for the growth of key global tourism

Reasons for the growth of Tourism Generating places

It has been identified that one of the most popular tourism generating area is Eiffel Tower of Paris. It is the tower which have 320 m height this is the reason it is considered as one of the biggest and tallest building which is created by 41 year old man before being surpassed by Chrysler Building of New York. It is the place which becomes one of the most beautiful and attractive destination of Paris. It is the building where customers climb to first  2 levels with the help of stairs, and with the assistance of lift for 3 and last level. This makes it more interesting, unique and entertaining for the travellers. Almost 25000 tourists visit on a daily basis just to witness the beauty and infrastructure of the tower. Along with this, it has also been identified that this is the building which satisfy the requirements of 3 A's of destination but  on the other hand fails to fulfil the last A which is  Ancillary.

Reasons for the growth of Tourism Receiving areas

In context of tourism receiving places, Niagara Falls State Park located within USA is considered as the most attractive place across the world. It is the place which consist of 3 beautiful waterfalls, which are American Falls,, the Horseshoe Falls as well as Bridal Veil Falls. It is the centre of attraction of the place and influence large number of travellers in a positive manner across the world (Saarinen and Lenao, 2014). It is said that the electricity which is generating amenity along the Niagara falls is mainly supplying around 1/4th of the power which is consumed by the people in New York and Ontario. Therefore, it fulfil only 2 criteria of 4 A's which are Access and Ancillary.

P4. Compare and contrast between a range of emerging international tourism destinations in context to stages of the destination life cycle, factors driving growth & stages employed.

TALC model is a concept which was related to product life cycle. It is the concept which is used to define the capacity and the sustainability factor of some specific destinations over many years. This framework is used in understanding of the changes taking place in the attraction of tourists in the passing time (Saarinen and Lenao, 2014.).

This framework is explained below by comparing it with two global destinations:

Stages of TALC

India

Nepal

Exploration

This is tourist destination which attracts people who are willing to explore such new places. This destination is also holding a good name across the globe this can be observes by the figure of 1.7 million people visiting this place.  

Total number of tourists who are visiting this place is around 3.75 million.

Involvement

People who stay nearby have started providing basic facilities to various tourists. This has also helped them in growth of business. Here, the involvement is very high (Liu, 2014).

Involvement of other different business which are supporting this business is on seasonal basis. Here, the involvement is low in comparison to India.

Development

With the increase in tourists on international scale, local tourists have started to visit this place which has boosted the flow for this destination. Development here takes place on regularly.

The economic condition of these tourist destinations are tied up with tourism. It is low in comparison with the those which are present in India

Consolidation

Numbers of tourists visiting this place has reached heights with the passage of time.

Presence of natural beauty which help in attraction of tourists n more number.

Stagnation

Continuous development will be supporting this destination in achievement of higher growth.

Tourism can be stabilised if there are certain changes which are done by using high technology and which can help in better functioning (Rogerson, 2015).

Decline

It has the capability of dealing with the emerging destinations of tourism. Many of its destinations achieve the stage of maturity.

The destinations of this place is not explored yet. So, large number of destinations are at the stage of exploration.

Identify factors which are driving growth of specific destinations:

Growth of destination of tourism may be influenced by various factors such as economical, religious, historical and environmental. Positive influence can be in form of factors such as quick growth. In context of above taken destination that is India, it is said that this destination is influenced in a positive historical factor. This leads to attracting customers who are willing to explore the historical places (Saarinen and Rogerson, 2014). Nepal is also a place which was famous for its natural tourism. The overall natural structure and unexplored places help in attracting large number of tourists which leads to growth.

Future predictions and forecast

Future predictions related to this destination are tourists who are positive in terms of giving importance to the prime locations. The total number of tourists who are visiting India can increase in future due to presence of high technology. With context of Nepal, it is said that it has the natural unexplored places. Thus, by the above observations it can be said that the total number of visitor who are visiting this place might increase in the coming future as tourists wants to explore this place.

Strategies employed by the emerging destinations

India: India is required to apply the digital technology over their destinations as they come to the maturity stage. This will help to provide to edge to all of them along with the providence of extra feature.

Nepal: This is requires to focus over effective resource allocation as this will provides an opportunity to explore the natural beauty places. Also, use of these provides an opportunity in development of effective infrastructure too.

TASK 3

P5. Examine the role and responsibilities of key international organisations in the development  of global tourism

There are many organisations which hold a very important role in facilitation of growth of the tourism sector at the global level. Such as IATA, PATA, UNWTO, EU, UN they together ensure that the whole development of economy is through these inflating figures at the international level.

Role & aim of Policies in Tourism Development Organisations

UNWTO:  The determination of the market trends in the tourism sector is very crucial for all the tour operators. With this regard, United Nations World Tourism Organization has a very important role to be played by the organisations which are operating in the tour and tourism sector which are having the updated knowledge regarding different aspects (Torres-Delgado. and Saarinen, 2014). This includes studying the market, studying latest trends, comprehensibility of the market segments which is concerned with a concerned industry. This has a contribution in development of knowledge of various individuals who help in the development of global tourism. There are many policies which have been developed by the enterprise which includes sustainable policies which is used to promote sustainable tourism.  

PATA: Pacific Asia Travel Association It is referred as one of the biggest promotion of companies of tourism across different pats of world. Since the time it was incorporated this entity has a very crucial role in creation, promotion and fostering the tourism in the whole pacific region. The various tour companies are a member of agency which is providing support to these organisations which is having strong connections with around 95 government bodies, 25 international airlines, 108 hospitality companies, 72 educational institutions and others travelling associated companies across whole Asia Pacific. Such contacts help the agencies in execution of work in an appropriate manner. The main aim of PATA Sustainability & Social Responsibility is the development of business and stipulating the measures which can enhance the traffic tourism in the Asia pacific region. (PATA – Pacific Asia Travel Association, 2019).

TASK 4

P6. Review different importance of various threats, issues & challenges to the future development of global tourism

Just like every other  industry, travel & tourism sector face ample number of threats, issues  and challenges which affects the overall future development. In reference to the global tourism industry, it is said that globalisation bring different challenges to the sector which apart from  economic, social, environmental, political as well as technological trends. Different elements and review the importance are going to be discussed as follows:

Political: Biggest issue which is related with this element is to provide safety and security to the tourist from terrorist attack. Terrorism increases threats for international tourism sector as any kind of attack might reduce the number of tourist towards global destination (Cornelissen, 2017). There are various destination places where terrorist attack takes place which negatively affects the overall reputation of the country. In order to reduce such issues or overcome from these types of problems, government need to develop effective strategies and policies so that they will be able to provide safety to the individuals.  

Environmental: On the other hand, another aspect which need to be considered is change in climate conditions. It has been identified that sudden changes in the climate influences future development of the international tourism. For example, Europe is a country which is highly affected due change in climate because of changes in sea level. Along with this, it affects the regions located within the country where wet area become more wetter and dry become more drier (Ezeuduji, 2015). After examining the situation, government of the country together with UNFCCC work in order to reduce the total amount of greenhouse gas.

Conclusion

On the basis of above report, it can be said that essential growth of the countries. It has allowed individuals in exploring various places which will help in experiencing the overall travelling. Bookings at last minute and ecotourism are two major trends which is influencing people movement towards various destinations. With this, it can also be summarised that growth of tourism sector can be analysed by receiving and creations of various destinations. This support is also helpful in enhancing the requirements and needs of tourists in a right manner. It can also be identified, that historical culture and the geographical appeal are very helpful in attracting tourist to various destinations which can help in quick growth of the respective countries in the economy.

References

  • Cornelissen, S., 2017. The global tourism system: Governance, development and lessons from South Africa. Routledge.
  • Ezeuduji, I. O., 2015. Strategic event-based rural tourism development for sub-Saharan Africa. Current Issues in Tourism. 18(3). pp.212-228.
  • Gössling, S. and Peeters, P., 2015. Assessing tourism's global environmental impact 1900–2050. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 23(5). pp.639-659.
  • Higham, J., 2018. Sport tourism development. Channel view publications.
  • Jovicic, D. Z., 2014. Key issues in the implementation of sustainable tourism. Current Issues in Tourism. 17(4). pp.297-302.
  • Kiráľová, A. and Pavlíčeka, A., 2015. Development of social media strategies in tourism destination. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 175. pp.358-366.
  • Lew, A. A., Hall, C. M. and Williams, A. M. eds., 2014. The Wiley Blackwell companion to tourism. Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Liu, Y. D., 2014. Cultural events and cultural tourism development: Lessons from the European Capitals of Culture. European Planning Studies. 22(3). pp.498-514.
  • Rogerson, C. M., 2015. Tourism and regional development: The case of South Africa's distressed areas. Development Southern Africa. 32(3). pp.277-291.
  • Saarinen, J. and Lenao, M., 2014. Integrating tourism to rural development and planning in the developing world. Development Southern Africa. 31(3). pp.363-372.
  • Saarinen, J. and Rogerson, C. M., 2014. Tourism and the millennium development goals: Perspectives beyond 2015. Tourism Geographies. 16(1). pp.23-30.
  • Saarinen, J., Rogerson, C. M. and Hall, C. M., 2017. Geographies of tourism development and planning.
  • Torres-Delgado, A. and Saarinen, J., 2014. Using indicators to assess sustainable tourism development: a review. Tourism Geographies. 16(1). pp.31-47.

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