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In modern time, social groups have become extremely unpredictable and volatile as a lot of changes and developments have happened in the society (Davis, 2014). One of the prominent and substantial trends that are prevailing in today's society is resistance from different people and groups in communities. There are three major types of resistance in the society – Anti-capitalism; Political Spirituality; and Gender Subversion. In the following report, these forms of resistance have been discussed with a view to determine the one which is more resistant to the society.
There are various forms of resistance in the modern society along with its growth and development. One of them is Anti-Capitalism. It consists of a wide variety and large number of movements, ideas and attitudes against the concept of capitalism (Luchies, 2014). In the modern age, it has emerged to become a very common and widely spread phenomenon which affects lives of people and also the way in which economies around the world functions to achieve their goals and help the people that are living in societies to grow as well as to improve their lifestyle. Capitalism is an aspect which states that economies and various bodies which are working in the country to function with profit motive. Studies have shown that countries around the world and companies that exists and operates in it have only one objective in their minds, that is, to earn profits. Some members of modern day society states that profit motive is good for the country as well as for the nation because if organizations which are functioning in the nation do not earn profits then they cannot contribute to the national development and growth (Andrews and Ritzer, 2007). In this way, they cannot pass on the benefits of their operations to the society in general. On the other hand to it, there are many scholars and sections of the society who believes that having a profit motive is not a useful approach for development of a community. Main reason which defines why the approach of capitalism is not a great phenomenon for a country is that it does not help in growth and prosperity of the nation. According to, Andrews and Ritzer (2007) companies though must operate with a profit motive, but they must also contribute towards society which happens very rarely in the 'modern capitalist' era. Because of this reason, the society is affected adversely and the chances of its growth and development are subdued. This is a very common form of resistance but has substantial impact over the community or country in which it exists (Turner, 2007).
Another very prominent form of resistance is that of gender subversion. It is a phenomenon wherein, people belonging to a particular gender are oppressed and subverted, i.e. they are not allowed to the freedom which is also their birth right. In such cases, they are not allowed to lead a quality life, as they cannot get educated, or may not raise voice for expressing their opinions and viewpoints on a matter. It has substantial negative effects on the society as it hampers their growth and development (Marcuse, 2013). In this sense, Villar (2010), opines that gender subversion is a very negative form of resistance largely because of the reason that it negatively affects the society but also hampers the basic concepts of humanity. For instance, females are being sub-verged in the state of Pakistan and other such Islamic countries by various terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda. This has adversely influenced working of the country and also proved to be a major hindrance in its growth and development. These groups operate on the viewpoint that women nor have the capability nor intellectual skills to be able to take their own decisions and give their opinion on worldly matters (Villar, 2010). Due to this very reason, Pakistan over the last years has not been able to grow and develop which countries such as India and China have obtained. Gender subversion affects not only one country but many nations as argued by Castells (2011).
Political spirituality is another major form of resistance that the modern society faces and gets negatively affected by it. In last couple of years, issues and instance of political spirituality have increased manifolds which in turn have started to wield their negative effects on the society (Avelino and Rotmans, 2009). It is a concept wherein people in power at various political levels tends to fuse or mix their spiritual feelings and philosophies with their working styles. This is a form of resistance, primarily because of reason that spirituality and politics do not match with one another. Both of them are not related with one another because of which the individual in his political career is not able to work efficiently and effectively. But on the other hand, political spirituality is very good for the community mainly because of the reason that it allows the concerned individual to work effectively and for becoming able to achieve personal as well as political goals and objectives with great ease and comfort (Karatsoreos and McEwen, 2011).
Of all these forms and types of resistance, it has been observed that political spirituality is the most powerful form of resistance in the modern age. When a political leader mixes their views and opinions with that of spiritual aspects, then the results of it can be very damaging and catastrophic for the whole society. It can be supported through example of various terrorist groups, organizations, etc. that are operating around the world (Castells, 2011). Luchies (2014) cites the example of world's one of the leading terrorist outfits Al-Qaeda, whose leader Osama Bin Laden, was considered as a political leader by many who has mixed his spiritual views on Islam with that of his political working. This lead to development of substantial results which also proved to be very damaging and catastrophic for the world. Furthermore, UK government also took large number of steps to control and stop terrorist activities of the group which also led to damage of worldwide resources and a significant decline in moral levels of people around the planet. For the same, government has set up an Office for Security and Counter Terrorism (Protecting the UK against terrorism, 2012).
This office has developed four pronged strategies to counter activities of terrorism – pursue; prevent; protect and prepare. But Karatsoreos and McEwen (2011), opines that even though the government has taken some stern actions and decisions to counter such activities but this has worsened the situation. This is because of the reason that terrorist outfits such as Al-Qaeda now are working even more pro-actively and are finding new ways through which they can spread terrorism in the country and all around the world. In this sense, it may not be wrong to say that political spirituality is the most powerful form of resistance today in the world. This is largely because of the reason that it cannot be finished or completely stopped meaning that it is virtually uncontrollable. In comparison to other forms of resistance, it is easily the most powerful one. Many past studies have also found with the same concept to be true to a great extent (Contu, 2008).
Resistance to different features and aspects of daily working of a society has become a very common phenomenon which has affected the whole world severely. During the study, it was observed that there are three major forms of resistance that have to be paid with a lot of attention. But of all these, political spirituality was determined to be the most powerful one and also very dangerous for the society. Main reason behind it is that it is not easy to break and change the spiritual concepts of a person, meaning that it, virtually cannot be destroyed or decimated in any way.
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