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This present report is based on understanding the specific needs in health and social care which deals with range of perceptions which individual have on illness, disability, health behavior in health and social care setting. In this two case studies are going to be discussed for understanding role of health and social care services and subsystems which provide assistance to individual having specific needs. In addition to this number of approaches as well as intervention will be discussed for the same. The statement will be followed by implications of various strategies in order to deal with changing behaviors which are being connected with person with specific needs.
As per WHO, health is complete state of social, mental along with physical well being and is not all about lack of disease or sickness. Infirmity, impairment, disability, illness etc. are some of the concepts which are related to healthcare which are majorly adopted for the purpose of wellbeing in an individual. Disability is the result to consequences of an impairment due to any of activities such as physical, mental, emotional or combination of all these. The definition of disability can be categorized into two different standards namely primary and secondary. Primary is concerned with condition that affects ability of a person to do something, while secondary comprises of physical and mental condition of human being. On the other hand, illness is a particular abnormal or pathological condition which is highly responsible for developing medical condition with specific signs (Lukic, Margaryan and Littlejohn, 2010). This particular concept can be applied to both the case studies. In Baby Peter disability was caused due to lots of injury and due to his age. In Bournewood’s case, it was because of autism from which HL is suffering.
There exists range of models of health which provides assistance in generating adequate information of this concept. First and foremost is biopsychosocial model which is concerned with psychological along with biological aspects that play a quite crucial role in overall functioning of human being in terms of illness and disease. In view of the fact that health can be very well understand in respect to association of social, psychological and biological aspect instead of in entirely in biological term (Eriksson, Axelsson and Axelsson, 2012).
As per medical model, disability in person can be regarded as an individual problem. This model determines systematic barrier, prohibition by community which states that society is entirely responsible for disabling people up to a great extent which has been clearly discussed in Bournewood case study. Behavioral model proves to be of great use in carry out detailed examination of problematic behavior in a person (Xeniditis, Russel and Murphy, 2001). This proves advantageous in examining any sort of issue at initial level. It has been observed that due to tough treatment of conditions, weakness of a person and other type of barriers great variations in actions of individual can be observed. According to given case studies, specific needs comprises of disability of HL in terms of physical impairment as he cannot talk and requires help in carrying out daily set of routine activities. In the similar manner, mental health related needs of mother along with concerned persons in case of Baby P (Goetzel and et. al., 2008).
Over the years it has been found that general attitude as well as perception of people has changed drastically towards specific needs of a person. During the time period of 15th century, Greeks regarded some kind of individuals as inferior among them. But on the other hand, at that time period only Christian Doctrine stated that diseases neither a punishment for sin nor a disgrace, however they are the way which purifies a person along with means of grace (Thew and McKenna, 2009). On the other side, at some stage in 16th century some of the powerful Christian personalities opine that just because of presence of evil spirits people suffers from problems such as mental disturbance and other sort of disabilities. Just because of this, few communities even ill treated and banished blinds for longer period of time (Moore, Parahoo and Fleming, 2010).
But on the flip side, due to advancement in education and usage of new and improvised technology along with growth and development of science, perceptions of people regarding disability, illness and so on major changes has been observed. It is necessary for schools and colleges at all levels to fully accessible to individuals who are suffering from any kind of problem. In present scenario, there exist ranges of legislation as well as policies that can be used in order to drive changes in attitude of population along with having modified policies (Zwetsloot and et. al., 2010).
In Bournewood case study various relevant acts can be used such as The Health and Social Care Act 2008, The Mental Health Act 2007, Disability Discrimination Act 2005, Human Rights Act 1998 and so on. On the contrary in case study of Baby Peter, The Children Act 2004, The Health and Social Care Act 2008 etc. can be imposed on all the parties who were held responsible for death of a baby. Such kind of legislation proves to be to individuals due to their unique vulnerabilities with specific needs (Human Rights Act 1998, 2014). All the above mentioned legislations and policies are not completely concerned to provision based on health care services. Instead they are much more concerned with offering legal systems in order to deal with issues such as critical disabilities like rehabilitation, access to proper care, complete amalgamation of person suffering from mental disorders into society along with prevention of such kind of disorders in number of sectors in society (Harris, Olsen and Walker, 2012).
The different specific needs of HL comprises of spiritual, intellectual, emotional and social needs. Mr. and Mrs. E. have adopted by holistic approach of healthcare and truly believe that if patients need to be taken on path of wellness than his individual needs need to be taken care of. As per The Bournewood Case, HL is an autistic man who is suffering from range of problems, as it is a type of neurodevelopment disorder which is characterized by impaired social interaction and restricted behavior (Reeves and et.al., 2011). As a result to which he cannot talk as he faces problems in terms of verbal and non verbal communication and in the similar manner, lack adequate amount of social interaction with people around him. In the similar manner, he needed assistance in performing his daily set of activities such as washing as well as dressing. In addition to this, he lacks social imagination which poses difficulty with interpersonal play this causes repetitive behavior from his side (Mackenzie and Watts, 2011).
In view of the fact that it is has affected his health and capacity up to a great extent. Just because of this disease he became socially vulnerable which delayed his overall cognitive development and growth. But with the timely and adequate help and support of Mr. and Mrs. E. his conditions has changed drastically in short span of time. This is because of reason that HL gradually became much more confident as well as progressed beyond all expectations. This course of action was carried out by providing him customized services as well as fulfilling all his requirements. Likewise, due to presence of family setting he can easily share his complaints, feelings and thoughts with Mr. and Mrs. E. which has changed his personality significantly within stipulated period of time (McCrery and Pearce, 2011).
It has been observed that current system plays a quite crucial role for the purpose of providing help to individual such as HL having specific need. It includes some of the acts such as Human Rights Act 1998, Health and Social Care act as well as number of policies which are of great use in such type of cases. This proves to be of great use in helping both kind of people such as normal and one with specified need. In view of the fact that it has been revealed that person suffering from problem such as autism requires ample amount of social interaction as well as love and affection and so on to make them feel better. But it is quite difficult for them to find such things easily. On the other hand, normal individual are easily accessible to such type of care. The prevailing system has made best possible use of their effort in order to provide support to individuals that has specific needs International (Lloyd and Marjorie., 2010).
According to case study, it has been seen that by means of Human Right Act 1998, much needed support were gained by Mr. and Mrs. E. to safeguard HL who was detained as well as abused on constant bases by medical staff of Bournewood’s care home for a longer period of time (Munyi, 2012). In the similar manner, there is a great availability of various other acts as well which delivers fruitful results in dealing with persons having specific needs so that they can be provided with several opportunities to live healthy and free life. In addition to this, in order to deal with patient suffering from autism simple and concrete language along with short sentences can be used by avoiding use of idioms, irony, metaphors as well as double meaning words (Jackson and et. al., 2011).
There are several kinds of services which can be provided to take care of persons suffering from specified needs. Range of programs can be organized in terms of looking after autism patients can be organized. In case if all such identified services and precautions were identified earlier than HL were not undergone abuses as well as threatening and forceful detention from medical practitioners at care home. After evaluation of entire case, it can be stated that services which are being offered by local authorities and communities plays a very crucial role in providing much needed help and support to person in great need within set framework of time (Wade, 2009).
Intervention strategies are concerned with well organized plans which aims to eliminate incidences that has the capacity to influence mental as well as physical abilities of a person in negative manner. In regard to this, there exists range of intervention strategies which provides assistance to individual like Baby Peter and HL that has specific needs. This entire course of action comprises of guardianship as well as advocacy. Guardianship is a kind of approach which tends to deliver protection to persons who are suffering from abuses in terms of physical and mental which has been showcased in case of Baby Peter in which he was mistreated by his parents (Eriksson, Axelsson and Axelsson, 2012). Each and every type of legal support is being provided to the person who has been abused by his/her family members. In case, if governing body of that particular nation has appointed guardian for Peter then he had not died. Advocacy is yet another approach in which strict actions are taken from the side of government against peoples that tend to affect and abuse peoples like HL who has suffered from neurodevelopment disorder such as autism. By means of this strict check can be kept on happenings of such kind of events in nearby area or locality (Goetzel and et. al., 2008).
It has been observed that intervention tactics which has been identified for the purpose of safeguarding persons like Baby Peter and HL are quite effective in nature. Their overall effectiveness in case of guardianship approach can be seen when appointed guardian carry out his/her set of duties and responsibilities diligently and protect individuals who are disabled such as Baby Peter in much effectual manner. In the similar manner, approach of advocacy can take place if person suffering from problem such as autism such as HL can be safeguarded from abuse than its efficacy and success can be measured (Xeniditis, Russel and Murphy, 2001). Apart from this, there are other set of intervention strategies are also available than can deliver desired outcomes in mentioned cases. By means of effectual parenting program adequate amount of guidance and direction can be provided to new parents so that they can handle their child with great care. On the contrary, in order to examine behavior of autistic person language tutor can be appointed so that growth and development of such person can take place without posing any difficulty (Moore, Parahoo and Fleming, 2010).
Individuals having specific needs are highly supported with the help of advancement in field of technology. During earlier time, when no such improvised methods were available than health and social care workers have to put extra efforts in curing person with specified needs. This can be further discussed with the help of some of examples. For instance, Henry was going through multi-sclerosis which affects memory of a person badly. In this type of disease person tends to forget about the work which he wants to pursue or currently pursuing. As a result to which short term memory loss in a person is detected (Zwetsloot and et. al., 2010).
For the purpose of eradicating this problem, he has sought help and guidance from new age technology such as digital assistance. This technique constantly keeps on reminding him tasks which need to be carried out. Visual representation system is yet another technique which has been used by a child who has been suffering from the problem of autism. This object will prove to be of great use as through these visual photographs, objectives and things can be shown to person facing the same (Lukic, Margaryan and Littlejohn, 2010). On the basis of varied opinions it can be said that advancement in medical sector in terms of technology has proved to be of great use for both medical practitioners as well as service users. This is due to the fact that by following new and improvised expertise, prevailing behavior of patients can be evaluated in stipulated period of time. On the basis of that in the field of health and social care range of transformations can be carried out for its further growth and development (Mackenzie and Watts, 2011).
The concept of challenging behavior can be bifurcated on the basis of two categories namely externalized and disruptive set of actions. All these comprises of reflection of following actions such as fighting, tantrum disobedience, bullying, seeking attention. On the other hand, disruptive or internal behavior includes depression or anxiety. In case if a person is disabled then in such a situation challenging behavior is easily observed. This is because of the reason that disabled person is on a position where they desire to devise behavior which needs to be satisfied at any cost (Whitehead and et.al., 2008). Story of each and every person is different from other, combination of interpersonal relations; environment etc. contributes in development of such behavioral type. This has been rightly observed in Bournewood case study in which HL who has been suffering from autism has showcased challenging behavior. Due to his learning and physical disability he has performing these type of actions. As per the view of Department of Health, person who has been diagnosed with this behavioral type need to provided with customized services along with special treatment which provides assistance in recovery of that patient in much efficient manner (McCrery and Pearce, 2011).
Significant effect has been seen on overall functioning of health and social care organizations up to great extent. In view of the fact that taking care of this particular type of patients is quite complicated task which causes work related stress along with feeling of frustration among care takers. Due to this, majority of practitioners and other nursing professionals leave their job and pursue other services which are not hectic as this (Harris, Olsen and Walker, 2012). In regard to this, it has been found that services which are being delivered to persons with specified needs are not up to the mark as a result to which their level has been hampered in negative way. But on the flip side, challenging behavior of an individual has affected overall working of health and social care in positive way as well. For the purpose of dealing with this type of patients, various types of training and development programs has been started by health and social care organizations for staff members. This acts as an added advantage for service providers as with the help of this they are able to deliver their services diligently (Hadad and et. al., 2013).
There are number of strategies which have been identified by health and social care professionals in order to deal with person possessing challenging behavior. In order to assess behavior of this particular kind of persons, behavior specialists can be appointed so that patients can get benefitted from same. In addition to this, by means of providing sound and two way communications to nursing staff person from suffering from disability can be managed without posing any problem. This is because of reason that patients will feel free to discuss their problems and share their emotions easily as a result to which they can be cured in minimum possible time (Lloyd and Marjorie., 2010).
Attributing the above facts it can be stated that specific needs of an individual can be determined easily which proves advantageous for health and social service providers to deal with it in most effectual manner. In the similar manner, various types of intervention strategies and tactics will prove to be of great use for the people who are in great need. It is with the proper help and support of this aspect, health care organizations can direct their efforts for bringing changes in their existing services. In order to deal with issues with challenging behaviors medical practitioners used tactics for improving the same.
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