Vancouver Referencing Overview

Points of interest

Vancouver referencing style includes assigning a number to each source. The actual number that is assigned to the reference is then used whenever the corresponding source is cited.

For example:

'Recent research (2, 4-6, 10) displays that the price of commodities rising.'

References are listed in a sequential order in a bibliography at the end.

The reference list must be edged from second line onward. Take a look at the citation format for sources listed below:

1. Books

Citation of books with single author:

When you are citing a book with a single author, use the following format:

(Number) Last name, first initial. Title. Edition (if not the first edition of the book). City of publication: Publisher; Year.

For example:

Hull J, Forton J, Thompson A. Paediatric respiratory medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2015.

Comfort A. A good age. London: Mitchell Beazley; 1997

Citation of books with multiple authors:

If you are citing a book having two or more authors, then for an in-text reference mention only the first author's name followed by 'et al.' However, for a reference list, every author must be listed in the the sequence they are credited in original work.

(Number) Last name, first initial and Last name, first initial. Title. Edition (if not the first edition of the book). City of publication: Publisher; Year.

For example:

Madden R, Hogan T. The definition of disability in Australia: Moving towards national consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; 1997.

Citations of a chapter in edited books:

If you are referencing a chapter in a book, it is important to make sure to include the length of the chapter. If you have to cite a chapter, you must always include the edition of the book.

(Number) Last name, first initial. Chapter title. In: Editor's name/s (ed/s) Book Title. Edition. City of publication: Publisher; Year. Page/s.

For example:

Pagel JF, Pegram GV. The role for the primary care physician in sleep medicine. In: Pagel JF, Pandi-Perumal SR, E. (ed.) Primary care sleep medicine, 2nd ed. New York: Springer publication; 2014. P. 88-112.

Tools for creating Vancouver Book references:

2. Articles

Citations for Printed Journals:

Follow the following format while citing a printed journal:

(Number) Last name, First initial. Article Title. Journal name, Year;Volume(Issue), Page/s.

For example:

Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. New England Journal Medicine, 2002 ; Volume 6(15), p. 58-69.

Citation of Journal Articles from a website or database:

In Vancouver referencing style, you must always include the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the source you accessed. If no DOI is available, then cite the URL of the source.

(Number) Last name, First initial. (Year). Article Title. Journal name, Volume (Issue), Page/s. Available from: URL or DOI. [Accessed: date].

For example:

Williams, J. The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 1999;Volume 17(4), pp. 162-170. Available at: Magazines/Sociology-Review.aspx [Accessed: 28 June 2008]

Citations of Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Printed or Online:

Newspaper/magazine citation are sort of similar to journal articles when they are found online; the same goes with formatting, see the examples listed below.

Print: (Number) Last name, First initial. Article title. Newspaper name; Year. Page/s.

Online: (Number) Last name, First initial. Article Title. Newspaper name; Year. Page/s. Retrieved from: Journal name/ URL if freely available.

For example:

Hatch, B. Smoke lingers for those who keep hospitality flowing. Australian Financial Review; 2006: p. 14.

Lampathakis, P. Tantrums seen as suicide warning. The West Australian; 1997. P.26. Available at: [Accessed 21 Nov 2001].

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