Literature Review On Improving The Efficiency


Literature review of respective topic includes significant and influential remarks and comments of various renowned persons including authors, business professionals, and industrialists and so on. It is to be justified that a research study needs various influential and verified objectives that are supported by the comments and analysis of significant persons and authors. Public sectors and their effectiveness in Oman is highly specified and represented in this literature review and one must need to include significant strategies and perspectives of pub

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The effectiveness and efficiency of public sectors in Oman should be justified through reflective comments and remarks which represent general information of public sectors, legal structures, improvement and development of infrastructures, ethics, e-government, civil services of Oman adequately. However, it should be evaluated that all these aspects and objectives provide significant attitudes and information regarding public sectors in Oman. Moreover, it must be signified in this respect that employment and recruitment and selection process are also need to justify in order providing more information and significance regarding the public sectors in Oman respectively.

Differences between public and private sectors

There occur great differences between the public and private sectors in Oman. it is to be signified that the public sectors are continued with the public money or capital. It means they run up their organizations from investment funds, donations and debts. As cited by Chong et al. (2014, p.277), it should be highlighted that private sectors are influential in order to continue their business through loans from different financial organizations, personal money and so on. It is to be justified that these private sectors are dominating the public sectors throughout the respective countries including Oman. They dominate those public sectors with their financial holds and public attraction. It is to be signified basically, they furnish a trap for the public sectors by expecting and getting sympathy from their customers and other people respectively.

Public sectors: Public sectors involve and perform respective service activities and functions for the inhabitants of respective countries and cities. Moreover, according to Aussenegg (2015, p.111), it should be included in this respect that public sectors and their organizations are continued with the help of renowned politicians, celebrities and other respective persons and therefore, the citizens and inhabitants of Oman are highly attracted towards influential and fruitful service activities in public sectors. However, they also take suggestions and decisions from the government in order to imply some respective working styles, employment relations and other respective business components which may influence these sectors highly and adequately. Along with this, it is also to be evaluated that public sectors sometimes face crisis and difficulties regarding their investment, donation funds. This is because, investors, donors sometimes donate or investment low amount of capital or money. As a result, as cited by Hvidman and Andersen (2013, p.19), it has been specified that public sectors sometimes fail to run up their business prospects and projects influentially. Citizens or inhabitants of respective countries do not get information of service activities of public sectors and they are also suspicious by governmental acts and regulations.

Private sectors: Private sectors are chiefly carried by different financial sources including bank loans, investment funds, debts, loans from other financial organizations and so on. It is to be mentioned in this respect that producing influential and fruitful products in order to satisfy customers and to get higher rates of profit is the chief focus or targets of private sectors. According to Arrow and Lind (2014, p.30), they try to increase their economic growth and prospects so that they never face any financial crisis regarding processing and producing high quality business products according to the customers’ choice, style and taste. However, in this respect, it should be evaluated that the companies of private sectors try to increase and enlarge the market significance, value and reputation so that the customers get attracted towards their services and products influentially. As stated by Hom (2016, p.122), they need to advertise their product performance and high quality products and also some influential information regarding their business projects and prospects. This is because private sectors need to attract customers and would-be customers in order to increase number of customers hugely and evidently. If customers are increased, economic growth will also develop in this prospect significantly.

Sustainable policies and supportive economy

A stable economy of a country is always led by supportive policies and health distribution of capital. As cited by Epstein and Buhovac (2014, p.106), possibilities of all these measures can better lead to prosperous business transactions and activity of government. Public sector activities of a country are mostly controlled by local governments and state. In that concern, overall economic structure as well as macro factors holds more and more importance. The reason is that all of these macro factors are entertained by sustainable policies. An oil producing and refining country like Oman has acquired all of these positive measures that existing policies and economy has found strength and sustainability. On the other hand, a global requirement like oil has made the country as a regular transaction maker with global economy. According to Lorek and Spangenberg (2014, p.33), this situation has brought such a prosperous internal business scenario that macro factors are providing positive support to the government's avoid negative prospects of global political and economic threats.

However, it is a simple fact that a respective economy always directs internal operations. If Oman has enough resources and a sustainable economic growth, respective governments can easily think for more investment in the development process of nationality rather than thinking for extended global trade. According to Wijen (2014, p.320), sustainable and systematic trade operations are also responsible that government of Oman and local responsible heads are always aware of public sector growth and importance. At glance, it is very evident that Oman possesses a limited number of gulf regions those are enriched with Oil. As opined by Opp and Saunders (2013, p.100), this situation also proves to lead for a systematic approach to global trade. However, it would be possible that a bulk amount of external trade might bring less importance on national economic strength and future possibilities. Based on of these possibilities, government of Oman has directed a better approach to make sustainable public sector interactions throughout the country.

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The practical scenario of import and export of Oman has stated the fact that after entering into twentieth century, Oman has experienced a sustainable GDP growth of 6% for several years. The impact of the same has worked as a booster to public sector. On the other hand, some experts have also estimated the individual GDP rising of 3% individually in the field of oil transport. Rest of the percentage is relied on public sector activities. As cited by Yu and Gibbs (2017, p.10), there is no doubt that in order to bring a sustainable position in the national economy, it is not enough for a country like Oman that strategies and efficient planning may work, but at the same time, it is important that local and regional government should support the initiatives of central legislation and government. This fact has resulted into engagement of public sector operations into tourism and construction sector.  In the later decade, Oman has experienced the gloomy days and the overall impact has come as a blessing on public sector increasing the role of governments and responsible authorities. According to Ghai and Vivian (2014, p.103), just after 2008, global economy has experienced a greater range of inflation, Oman has also faced the impact. In order to maintain a lower impact on inflation, Oman government tends to maintain lower price ranges on public sector transactions. Small and medium scale entrepreneurs got the advantage of maintaining core prices at an average level. However, there was not a direct link with the efficiency of public sector growth with the global inflation, but new strategies taken in terms of oil and gas export had turned the attention towards public sector reforms and improvement.

Impact of trade on public sector of Oman

Oman government always tends to increase FDI in order to make sustainable economy in case of global financial threats of inflation and recession. Therefore, it must have maintained limited sharing resources especially oil and gas. However, it cannot be said that all of the FDI are not collected through a single trading option like gas or oil, but there are some additional fields that Oman has strengthened the transportation managing more FDI. As cited by Borchert et al. (2014, p.162), some regional ports as well as fishery banks are reallocated as global export points. All of these local ports and food manufacturing units are handled by state governments and local authorities.

According to experts as well as critics, it is very clear that Oman never targets to expand more resources to gain additional external support for economy. This systematic flow of trade has made it possible that new operational points within public sector have got exposure. Due to direct trading relationships with Japan, Quait or Qatar provide 18% of the total FDI. As opined by Al-Mawali et al. (2016, p.136), this intimacy has brought the privileges of foreign investors and ownership and such situation has created a greater support for prosperous public sector growth throughout Oman.

As opined by Ashrafi et al. (2014, p.138), official announcements of Omani government has approved the fact that most of the FDI from oil and gas industry are managed to boost public sector. In earlier 1990s, Oman has faced some slower growth of economy due to least emergence of public and private sector, but in the later centuries, Oman government has taken the initiatives. According to Temporal (2014, p.126), the initiatives are taken not only to make limited trade with partner countries, but the motto is to utilize collected resources in the field of public sector in favour of the country.

Employment in public sector and wages

Another efficient platform that public sector interactions throughout Oman has experienced greater emergence is engagement of skilled professionals. As cited by Klingner et al. (2015, p.105), there was a time when unemployment rate used to be counted in a higher position according HDI report, after the introduction different government sectors in favour of regional economy unemployment rate had faced the boom. Local governments namely Muscat and Dhofar have acted greatly to move the scenario in local as well as national level. Practically, the responsible heads have understood that without having an emerging market it is not possible to attract native workforce. The reason behind the same was authentic and that was complete engagement of native folks towards the national industry i.e. oil and gas.

These traditional barriers are overcome after acquisition of some regional and state level industry including tourism and food processing. Besides that, as cited by Lucas (2015, p.116), state government started undertaking some animal husbandry measures to increase employment rate. After the recession and gloomy years of 2008, the situation seemed to be responsive. Native folks were searching for opportunities and the response of the government and regional heads had made it possible to provide an option that public sector may experience the strength. However, at the initial period, the situation did not execute much bifurcation regarding essential quality or skills. But with the growth all of these factors were taken under considerations and finally, Oman has retrieved a sustainable position that national public sector registered organisations face prosperity and efficiency.

Adequacy of education and skills

With increasing rate of public demand and prosperity, the literacy level has also struck to the highest extent. Due, to the emergence of public sector, native folk got additional interest on education. There was a time when native folks are well aware of the facts that the land of Oman provides the opportunity of work activities in the oil and gas sector. Therefore, the government has got the direction about greater availability casual workers. On the other hand, the flow of education seemed to be at an average level. Van Dooren et al. (2015, p.217) states that the prosperity and efficiency of public sector tends to promote new educational systems and reformation of the existing ones. The role of government seems effective in the process. The requirements of advanced public sector industries and other sectors greatly promoted new visions of education and native people targeted to gain major opportunities in the same field.

Improvement of infrastructures

Roads: Roads are highly included in infrastructure of Sultanate regarding the development, efficiency of Sultanate. Industrialists and business professionals should evaluate and improve roads and streets of their state in order to develop and improve efficiency and effectiveness of public sectors as well. As cited by Al-Kalbani et al. (2014, p.3118), The Ministry of Transportation and Communication (MTC) is working hard and inventing a number of projects and strategies in order to develop high roads, cities and networks regarding the improvement and development of Oman, Sultanate. It is to be signified that Oman Tender Board (OTB) was highly engaged in new roads project in 2014. The projects of highways are also influencing and notified regarding the efficiency and effectiveness of public sectors Sultanate, Oman.

Railway: Al Maha Financial Services have represented that railway is another infrastructure to be improved significantly. According to Langer and Car (2014, p.107), GCC-wide railway project of Oman has represented that the project’s total value is 45% and among this 30% has been spend for the construction of the project. It is to be signified that Oman’s Railway Company of MTC has the full responsible of observing working prospects, designing, tendering, time period of working components of the project significantly. However, Al Batinah Expressway project is the largest road project of Oman. This railway path is included in order to develop Sultanate regarding its development and improvement of public sectors. It is to be highly specified that railways are also significant and included regarding the development of this respective state and its public sector organizations.

Construction: Constructions of different projects of infrastructure needs to be evaluated and modified in order to improve and develop the project works significantly. As cited by Mabry et al. (2014, p.681), road and railway constructions need to be observed by the administrations of Sultanate, Oman. There are three specific sectors. Sector 1A, 1B, and 1C 1A covers 127 km, 1B covers 34 km and 1C covers 38 km respectively.

Materials: Materials are also highlighted regarding infrastructures. Constructions and projects are made and done with the availability of materials. In this respect, it is to be justified that if respective constructions and projects face material crisis, they cannot be able to construct the highways, railways and other significant infrastructure projects. According to the researches, railways and highways projects demand huge quantity and amount of materials including sand, cement, bricks, rods, stone chips and so on. As cited by Al-Busaidi et al. (2016, p.270), MTC has also announced significant amount of materials for respective projects and constructions, which help to influence and develop infrastructure projects and prospects.

Training and development support in Oman

In public sectors of Oman, Sultanate, training and development needs to be evaluated. Training and development of employees help to materialize and adequate the working styles and prospects of different organizations of public sector. As a matter of fact, as cited by Mehmood et al. (2016, p.124), regarding the effectiveness and efficiency of public sectors of Oman, training and development should be highly included. As suggested by Seidle et al (2016, p.381), training and development needs reflective rules and regulations in order to train the employees of respective organizations of public sector. It should be highly involved that training helps the employees to learn methods and procedures of collecting resources of service activities which must help the citizens or inhabitants of respective city or country.

Chief targets of training: Training evaluates the working process and styles of respective employees of significant business organizations of public sectors. As cited by Fryberger et al. (2016, p.117), it is highly justified that as the employees of public sector have to provide influential service activities for the citizens, training must help them to learn how they should behave with their respective services users. Moreover, training teaches the employees communication process, employment relations, customer relations and so on. It is to be highlighted that chief target or focus of training methods is to make the employees skilled and talented regarding their working prospects and styles so that they do not face any difficulties or troubles regarding their service activities and dealing with service users as well.

Training methods: Training methods include effective rules and regulations through which the employees are highly trained in respective organizations of public sectors. As opined by Puddester et al. (2015, p.100), it is to be mentioned that as the employees need to serve for the citizens and society, they need appropriate and perfect training. It is to be highlighted that managers need to train their employees in friendly manner and way. This is because, if the training methods are not be reflective, employees cannot be able to learn how to serve the citizens and society. Moreover, the managers should design a training process before starting a possible and positive training program. In this respect, the managers should be intelligent and energetic because, while providing training they need to understand the inner thoughts of every individual employee. The managers need to justify the inner thoughts and should provide according training process to their employees significantly. According to Kazem et al. (2016, p.10166), along with this, it is to be specified that the training program also need to be evaluated if the employees do not get proper and significant training from their managers as well.

Structuring training procedures and motivating employees: Regarding designing effective training process or program, managers need to identify the training needs and requirements at the first point. After that, they should design or structure effective training process regarding the effective and fruitful training of employees. As cited by Khan and Al Mamari (2016, p.123), the structure is also need to evaluated after designing. This is because, if the structure or training program is not efficient, employees will fail to get effective and proper training respectively. Moreover, it should be highlighted that after structuring the training design, it needs to be implemented while training the employees. However, finally, after training the employees, managers need to observe and verify the training process and they should also observe the working process and styles of every individual employee. If there occur some issues regarding the working prospects and styles of employees, managers should rectify or modify training steps and should train those respective employees again.

However, it is to be signified that employees are motivated through effective training and development which they receive from their managers as well. In this respect, according to Gheewala et al. (2016, p.1080), it must be evaluated that in order to influence the employees and to motivate the employees and managers should train their employees with high respective attitudes.

Training effectiveness: Training effectiveness is highly depended upon the working effectiveness of a respective company. This is because, working outcomes and reputation of a significant company is highly depended upon their working attitudes and styles. As cited by Belwal et al. (2015, p.924), it is to be highlighted that if the working aspects and styles of employees of a respective organization are not influential and significant, outcomes and economic growth of that organization will never be possible.  As cited by Sung and Choi (2014, p.402), managers of a respective organization need to evaluate and highlight their training process and should design effective and reflective training and development in order to create an influential and pleasant working attitudes and working styles among the employees. In this respect, it needs to be modified that if training process of a respective organization is not influential, they cannot be able to signify their working prospects and projects and to acquire reputed position in the marketplace. Therefore, while the working aspects and styles of employees are observed influential and significant, management should be sure that their training aspects are significant and efficient. According to Alarimy et al. (2015, p.1), it is to be justified that environment, training and work are attached with each other strongly. Therefore, in order to make the training process efficient and effective, managers should evaluate their working process and perspectives along with the environment of a respective organization. However, regarding the public sectors of Oman, this training effectiveness and efficiency is highly required. In order to make their training process effective, the managers need to influence their training methods and procedures adequately.

Evaluation of working prospects: Evaluation is the last point or perspective in all respective processes or programs including training and development. It is to be highlighted that evaluation helps to evaluate and modify all the steps and sections of a respective program or procedure and improves those process significantly. As cited by Asili et al. (2014, p.15), regarding training and development, it must be signified that training process of the employees need to be verified and justified while training the employees of respective organizations. This is because, training process helps the employees to understand their working profiles and styles. As this is a huge responsibility of training others, managers need to observe and rectify each and every fault that is presented in training process influentially. In this respect, it should be specified that managers need to provide extra time and energy regarding the evaluation of training process. However, they should follow the HRM practices regarding training and development. This is because, HRM practices provide significant rules and regulations regarding every business component including training and development. Human resource management’s chief target is to take proper care and providence of every employee of a respective organization. According to Bashir et al. (2014, p.114), their remuneration process, duty hours, leaves etc. are chiefly overviewed by the HR managers significantly and adequately.


Growing research efforts have brought out several definitions of e-government into the limelight. E-government is a newest term conceived in the wake to technological development and its practice and implementation. As cited by Kumar Sharma et al. (2013, p.87), it is associated with the adapting with change in technology and paving ways for more development and integration for advantageous purposes. E-governance is defined as the practice of using information technology by government agencies that can transform the relationship building between the state and the people. It enables government to promote more integrated and efficient government activities and facilitate more accessible government services in the benefits of the people. E-governance allows greater information access for the public making them more accountable for their actions to the public. E-government has an evolving role in two domains, one is public service delivery and other organizational change. As cited by Al-Mamari et al. (2013, p.199), E-government promotes the use of internet and digital services in every parts of business, from registering for government services to making digital transaction. Its primary aim is to better the service delivery and make people digitally updated on every aspects of life.

Oman e-government strategy

The government of Oman identifies e-government as a transformation of internal and external public sector relationships that facilitates knowledge sharing and digital interventions in order to optimize the public service delivery and encouraging citizen participation. The government’s efforts for transformation in public services through adaption of information technology and communication was started way back in 2003 with the establishment of government organization called “Oman Digital”. As opined by Sharma (2015, p.207), this organization was started for identifying information technology needs of the citizens as well as government agencies to participate and engage in e-services of the government for digital growth and awareness at that time. Now it is responsible for management and development of several e-government services in the fields of education, health, banking services, government reliefs, jobs, perks and benefits, etc. It works towards developing overall infrastructure of digital services and nationalized web portal for government of Oman. According to Sarrayrih and Sriram (2015, p.230), this is for the purpose of making its citizen aware of every government activities and making the delivery of services more interactive and fast. E-government also ensures citizens as well as government that the services reach to the citizen and they are able to avail them while allowing government of Oman to monitor the progress report. The strategies focus on improving digital literacy and competencies of citizens so that Omanis are able to compete with other technologically developed nations. As cited by Alenezi et al. (2015, p.324), Oman Digital provides services in training and awareness in ICT and its application, e-legislation, national registration systems for higher education.

Oman Digital and E-government facilitates easy access and use of government websites by the citizens where they can view or download government guidelines for various services. The online services are related to school information, training and development, employment, national culture, social support, etc. The e-government also lays emphasis on local laws and government policies related to land, housing regulations, health care, taxes and duty, etc.

Information technology authorities

The E-government of Sultanate of Oman is responsible for maintenance and development of its e-services. Oman’s Information Technology Authorities (ITA) proposes strategies and plans for implementation of services and activities in the field of information technology in order to promote the practice of digital literacy. As opined by Al-Ruzaiqi and Baghdadi (2016, p.10), it maintains government web portals, provides efficient services and improves their efficiency. It acts as a watchdog monitoring service efficiency and citizen participation, facilitates greater engagement and service use and proposes ideas for regulations to make the e-services classified and secure. It is entitled with the responsibility for implementation and supervision of Oman Digital Strategy. ITA is also assigned with the duty of executing national initiatives and integrated processes that have been set by different ministries executives and heads proposing national level action plans in terms of local and national benefits. According to Ashrafi et al. (2014, p.138), the implementation of the e-services efforts have witnessed stagnant growth recently due to utilization of sophisticated network technologies that promote collaboration and  integration spanning over various government agencies. It faces certain implications in the field of e governance. Oman is still a developing country. Its digital and technological infrastructure is weak and vulnerable. This factor has been a hurdle in setup and implementation of e-services by the Sultanate of Oman.

Civil services

Civil Service Society forms the backbone of the administrative infrastructure of a nation. It aims at public management of the internal workforces. The Civil Service lays down rules and guidelines to clearly communicate roles and responsibilities of the government employees and also facilitating the frameworks for training and development.

Civil service Council of The Sultanate of Oman addresses and monitors general policies encompassing the Civil Service and draws decisions, laws and regulations for boosting Omanization and developing the efficiency of internal administration. As cited by AlKindy et al. (2016, p.152), the Ministry of Civil Service for Oman was established in 1988 and its role and functions were defined by introduction of Royal Decree in the year 1992. The principle of the Ministry has always been to modernize the Civil Service and streamline civil service codes that can make the administrative infrastructure more effective and functional and likely less bureaucratic.

The Ministry of Civil Service introduced an Omanization plan with permission from His Majesty to replace expatriates with trained officials that understand the need for effective government and governance without affecting the competency of the service. According to Al-Badi et al. (2014, p.96), employment percentage of Omanis within the public sector establishment, excluding the Ministry of Health and Education has risen to 86% of the total workforce.  

Public Transportation 

Public transportation services are integral for growth of a nation. It is an asset that increases the standard of living of the citizens and rank of nation among the global economy. As cited by Mabry et al. (2016, p.103), public transportation has also greater contribution on the nation’s economy, helping generate high revenue and increasing country’s coffers. Public transport excludes school buses and chartered vehicles and takes into account government funded transport organizations that run vehicles for public commute, such as buses, cars, subways, rails, boats and airline services. It improves communication in terms of safety, commute time, feasibility and comfort. It also improves personal mobility by providing commute services for bunch of people and reduces traffic congestion. Public transport is also considered effective in curbing vehicular pollution and preserving fossil resources.

As cited by Qamhaieh and Chakravarty (2016, p.17), public transport system serves in communication of students, employees, tourists, persons with disabilities, regular workers, etc. Better public transport determines the strength of nation’s economy and how sustainable the government is facilitating free and fast travel and communication. Tourists visiting the nation make use of the

The Sultanate of Oman has less effective transportation system and less exposure to different modes of public transport. Oman is third largest nation in Arabian Peninsula with a population of over 2.5 million. As cited by Al-Reesi et al. (2015, p.120), despite having such a large population in terms of geographical area some of its regions lack basic transport system. Citizens in Al-Batinah face issues in commuting as the region has no public transportation system for them. Other regions also show similar or even worse picture in terms of availability and implementation of public transport system. Muscat the capital city is well connected though with large and microbuses plying alongside taxis in the region. People faces inconvenience on regular buses with everybody struggling for accommodating within the packed buses or for seats in a shared taxi. Unorganized and poor infrastructure of the public transport system leads to heavy traffic congestion, regular accidents and increase in individual expenditure on transport. As opined by Al-Azri et al. (2015, p.2731), implementation and effectiveness of transport system collectively depends on the attitude of the authority and citizens of the nation depending on the general perception for acceptability.

Public transport system attracts global attention and there has been continuous development in transport system technologies to make it more safe and comfortable. But Oman has failed to adapt to the newest technologies in its transport systems. Oman ranks among one of the highest accident rates in Gulf countries. The government has failed to integrate developments in passenger safety measures and vehicular developments.

Reference List

  • Alarimy, A.S.J., Othman, A., Ali, H.M. and Ahmad, I.S., 2015. THE QUALITY OF TRAINING PROGRAMMES AND LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES AMONG EDUCATIONAL MANAGERS IN THE SULTANATE OF OMAN. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 5(2), p.1.
  • Al-Azri, M., Al-Hamedi, I., Al-Awisi, H., Al-Hinai, M. and Davidson, R., 2015. Public awareness of warning signs and symptoms of cancer in Oman: a community-based survey of adults. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 16(7), pp.2731-2737.
  • Al-Badi, A.H., Albadi, M.H., Malik, A., Al-Hilali, M., Al-Busaidi, A. and Al-Omairi, S., 2014. Levellised electricity cost for wind and PV–diesel hybrid system in Oman at selected sites. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 7(2), pp.96-102.
  • Al-Busaidi, I.S., Abdulhadi, N.N. and Coppell, K.J., 2016. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 16(3), p.e270.
  • Alenezi, H., Tarhini, A. and Sharma, S.K., 2015. Development of quantitative model to investigate the strategic relationship between information quality and e-government benefits. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 9(3), pp.324-351.
  • Al-Kalbani, M.S., Price, M.F., Abahussain, A., Ahmed, M. and O'Higgins, T., 2014. Vulnerability assessment of environmental and climate change impacts on water resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman. Water, 6(10), pp.3118-3135.
  • AlKindy, A.M., Shah, I.M. and Jusoh, A., 2016. The Impact of Transformational Leadership Behaviors on Work Performance of Omani Civil Service Agencies. Asian Social Science, 12(3), p.152.
  • Al-Mamari, Q., Corbitt, B. and Oyaro Gekara, V., 2013. E-government adoption in Oman: motivating factors from a government perspective. Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, 7(2), pp.199-224.
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