Professional Ethics


Voluntary euthanasia is considered as the practice of finishing off a life in painless way. Voluntary euthanasia as well as physicians assisted suicide are majorly focused in terms of greater controversy in the present time. In other words it means when a person feels to die and says so. It comprises of instances that involves begging for help towards dying, refusal of undesirable medical treatment, asking for medical treatment which needs to be stopped in life which is being supported by machines to be switched off. This includes refusal to eat and making a decision to die. When any person performs that act of euthanasia then he/ she is bringing about the death of other person. Such is due to the reason related with belief that latter the present existence is so worst that he can better off dead. Therefore the person's motive to committing an act of euthanasia is in order to provide benefit to the one whose death is being bought about. There is greater importance towards focusing on aim to benefit the person who is being supported to die as well being is considered as the key value related with the morality of euthanasia. The capability of contention which someone can be better off dead is subject towards extensive philosophical deliberation.

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Euthanasia has come from two Greek literal meaning that is referred to as well death. At present it is considered as mercy killing. On the other hand it can be referred to as bringing death of the person painlessly. It seems to be the ideal solution for certain kind of individuals specially the one having distressing issues with elders and others. Euthanasia is one of the biggest disputation in the present decade. This simply means death but now this is considered as an act of persuading the painless death of individual in relation with the reason that can be assumed to be merciful. There is presence of different forms of euthanasia. Such have been enumerated in the manner as below:

Active and passive euthanasia

Under active euthanasia an individual is directly as well as deliberately causes the death of patient. On the contrary passive euthanasia they are not involved in taking the life of the patient but allows them to die.

Voluntary and involuntary euthanasia

Voluntary euthanasia takes place at the request of the individual who dies. However involuntary euthanasia is one that takes place when the individual is unconscious or is not able to make meaningful selection among the living as well as dying. Further suitable person takes decision on their behalf.

Indirect euthanasia

It is referred to as offering treatment that possess the side effect of speeding the death of the patient.

Assisted suicide

This is concerned with the cases in which the person who is going to die is required to assist in killing themselves as well as ask on this. This can be considered simple as attaining the drugs for an individual and keeping it in their reach.


Eternal law can be defined as one that includes the legislation that governs the phenomena of the eternal universe. It is related as the moral legislation, the legislation associated with nature. It is a law that god has made for the formation of man that he has developed within him for his destination as well as preservation. A biased law is considered as a human law that is not being fixed within endless law. It is considered as theoretical position which suggest that one can through rational reflection on nature make discovery of the principles of good and bad that is guiding actions in a manner that would move towards human fulfilment. Such position makes suggestion that human beings possess the ability in themselves towards actualizing their potential. The natural law ethics reflects respect to natural inclinations. It presents that universe is being governed by the means of rational thinking. There an orderly manner of things. It can or cannot involved the God. There is existence of just order beside such. The theory presents that human are being governed by the natural inclinations. In accordance with the ancient philosophers one is being driven by such basic inclinations. This is comprised of preserve life, propagating human species, search for truth, possessing peaceful society. This is being stated that God is behind the eternal plan. However the ancient laws presents that there is presence something orderly within the universe. Religious twist is being given by Tomas Aquinas which present that one possess moral obligations in relation with the natural law. Critique has been done that demonstrates that positive views of human. It has been determined that person is considered rational individuals. It is essential that one is required to be rational, stable association, apart of what is right or wrong or the one that has social influence on the behaviour of others. A natural law demonstrates discounts of the human feelings.

There is seemed to be widespread opinions which states Thomistic ethics, natural law ethics. There is fact that such is considered correct. St Thomas takes into account that the study is right or wrong within the human action. It possess something that is referred to as natural law that is considered as the major part. However several philosophers are too simplistic as well as reductionistic within their accounts of Thomistic ethics as well as natural law.

The Thomistic interpretation associated with the natural law is being subjected towards greater range of criticism across the history of philosophy as well as theology. All the ethical theories takes place based on the description, implicit or explicit of the associated traits of the human nature. This is relatively more sound ethical positions that is on the basis of greater sufficient account of the human nature. The contemporary advocates associated with natural law ethics are working in relation with cultural world that is lacking the consensus attached with the objective basis for more moral claims (Bebeau & Monson, 2008). Natural law is being challenged by the means of historicism and naturalism. Historicism claims that reality is comprised of individual entity and thus there is greater impossibility towards making claim that has application towards all the individual. Both naturalism as well as historicism works with the premiss that presents that world is being considered as valueless and purposeless expect during creation of the vales and purpose by the choice of individuals. There is existence no shared humanity, only a vast gathering of the people from similar kind pieces that are locked in several modes of competition against one another.

Natural law ethics is responding towards such challenge in greater number of manner. One of the strategy makes recommendation towards returning to the golden age of the natural law. The next approach associated with the natural law lays emphasis upon exercising the practical reason in relation with particular cases of problems. The third revisionist position makes interpretation that natural law within the light of the historical consciousness makes promotion by Second Vatican council (Bowen, Pearl & Akintoye, 2007). Tow other innovative approaches that are associated with natural law includes the new natural law theory as well as personalist natural law theory. A new approach associated with the natural law is being devised partly in opposition to both revisionist natural law as well as revived Thomism.


In moral philosophy, deontology can be considered as the normative moral position that makes the judgement for an action that is based upon rules. Sometimes it is being defined as a task or contract or rule that is based on ethics as rules are binding one towards the duty. Deontology is commonly compared with substantial, virtue morals as well as pragmatic morals. With this technique, action is considered meaningful in comparison with the consequences (Tirri, 2010). On the basis of the system deontological values in the consideration is a moral obligation which raised from the internal and external source like a set of the rules that is intrinsic to the universe, religious legislation, or set of personal or cultural ethics.

Deontological values are considered as the ethical theory. It is successful in maintaining the sacred writings, natural ethical law as well as inner intuitions. The word deontological has come into view from the Greek word, referred as deon that implies binding duty. The deontological ethics possess three most essential features. Initially it presents that duty needs to done for the sake of duty. The accurateness and in-accurateness that is related with the act or rule comes as a part of a matter of moral feature that is intrinsic of such kind of act or rule. Examples can be act of lying, promise, breaking or murder which are wrong and one possess the duty to do such things.

It does not demonstrates whether consequences with the act are not relevant for assessment of those acts. For instance, a doctor can possess the duty of providing benefits to the patient. It is important that they must know the result of the medical consequences from several treatments for the sake of making determination of what can and cannot be the advantages of the patient. However the consequences are not something that makes the act right as in case with its advantage. Instead at best results assist in determining the action which is more in keeping with what is considered as the duty (Banks, 2009). The results act as an aid in determining what is the duty, they are not what makes something one's duty. On the other hand,it is being featured that humans are treated as objects that belongs to the inherent moral values, that is as end within themselves and never as scant refers to some other end. This kind of notion is difficult to be justified if one is deserting the scriptural doctrine of the man being developed in the God's image. Nevertheless,deontological ethics indicates that humans are ends within themselves in inherent values.

Another moral fundamental that can be considered as a categorical imperative that is universalizable is that is it applies for everyone who is in the same moral condition. The moral statements does not refers that whether in case she want to maximize the pleasure vs pain in this instance, then perform the following. Instead moral statements are statements asserting whether an action is right or wrong. Moral statements focuses on keeping the promises and do not murder and so forth.

Deontology is considered as an enquiry which can be further considered as an commitment or study and consequent moral judgement on the actor on whether he or she has followed that. Philosophy and religion are considered as an essential part among the lentic as well as epistemic authority. A common example includes epistemic authority which demonstrates the relation of the teacher and his students (Quinn, 2014). Along with this ,a typical example associated with lentic authority comes between the employer and his employee. While making declarative sentences, a teacher possess epistemic authority which the students are presuming reliable knowledge and is suitable. However there is no feeling related with acceptance and obeying. In contrast, an employer possesses lentic authority within the act of making an issuance of order which the individual is obliged towards making an acceptance or obeying. On the other side, the employer possess deontic authority for the act of making an issuance of order which the employee is obliged towards making acceptance and obeying regardless of its appropriateness.

There is presence of number of formulations that are attached with deontological ethics:

Kantianism: This theory related with ethics is considered as deontological for varied reasons. It has been argued that the act is morally in right manner and individual are required to perform from duty.
Moral autocracy: Regardless of the intention beside them and consequences,Certain deontologists are moral dictators who believe that some actions are absolute right or wrong.
Angelic command theory: Not all the deontologists are considered religious, certain takes it as divine command theory. It is the cluster which is attached with the related hypothesis that demonstrates that an action will be considered right in case God has decreed it as correct.
Contemporary deontology: This is considered as an effort that has been derived from deontological constraints that coheres with considered judgements of the cases when depending majorly on the Kant's categorical imperative.


Distributive justice is allocation of goods in a society. It includes the available quantities of goods, the process of distributing goods, and finally the allocation of the goods to the members of the society. Thus, distributive justice is perceived fairness that how rewards and costs are shared by the distributed or group members. For example: In an organisation when workers are work in a same occupation but does not get the same salary, in this group members believes that it does not right and does not provide any kind of justice in an organisation. For determining the position of distributive justice, individual checking out the norms of their groups is compulsary. A norm can be termed as a standard of behaviour that is essential within a particular group.

Types of distributive norms


The result of members is based on the inputs. So that individual to make higher contribution can get higher input, for example: Time, Money, Energy etc. Here, members of large group related to base allocation of rewards and cost on equity.


In the equality norm, it refers that every members have equal right to get equal cost and rewards. For example: In organisation if a person is contribute only 30% than such person receive 3000 increment in there salary and on the other hand, a person who gives 70% contribution will also receive 3000 increment in the salary, which is not a part of equality. Hence there will be equal chances to receive equal opportunities in an organisation.


Power include control, authority, status of group members in a workplace. For example: Higher majority of group members gets the higher authority, status and control in comparison of those who have less majority which receive less power, authority, control or status in a workplace.


Resources should be provided to those who are in greatest needs so that they can meet their needs. They should be given more resources than those who already possess them, regardless of their input.


Responsibility is control which refers to group members who have share their resources with those who have less.


Distributive Justice affects the performance when efficiency and productivity are included in it. To make improvement in the justice perception is make positive impact in the performance, thus performance is also increase. Hence, Distributive justice theory argues on the fact that in the time of need, societies have a duty to individuals and that all individuals have a duty to help others in need. Supporters of distributive justice link it to human rights. Distributive justice issues are handled by many governments especially issues including countries with ethnic tensions and geographically distinctive minorities (Lamont and Favor, 2013).

Hence, distributive justice is focused with just distribution of societal burdens and benefits. Any given society with limited resources has only a certain amount of assorted benefits which it can bestow in a number of different ways on its members.

This can be concludes that person who has been diagnosed with the terminal illness needs to be offered with time and provided with the support for the sake of passing through five stages within the process. This is comprised of denial, anger, bargaining, acceptance, depression as well as killing. This situation can be considered as form of murder. It is being determined that patients having incurable illness sees suicide as the option. As they are the one who are tired of pain or are of restricted life style. They possess the feeling that is attached with burden upon their family. This can be inferred from the study that person's motive to committing an act of euthanasia is in order to provide benefit to the one whose death is being bought about. There is greater importance towards focusing on aim to benefit the person who is being supported to die as well being is considered as the key value related with the morality of euthanasia.


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