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INTRODUCTION

Brief overview of the urban health issue

Urban health issues can be broadly defined as the problems of people who are residing and employed closely together in an incorporated area with common environmental conditions and similar water supply systems. With the increase in urbanization, urban areas provide wider possibilities for individuals and family members to grow by giving them better health care services and living environment. However, people living in these areas face severe health hazards and new challenges every day.

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Sections included in the study

The present report will focus on severe health issues related to risk of infectious diseases in the area of New Hampshire located in east London. The reason behind the increased risk of infectious diseases in this area is continuous changes in climatic conditions of UK. The study also includes the presentation and analysis of relevant data along with the ways to eradicate urban health issues prevailing in New Hampshire.

RATIONALE

Why this is an urban health problem

Infectious disease is an urban health issue because there is a continuous threat of climatic changes that are taking place in these areas which cause risk to physical living environment in New Hampshire. During the recent years (2011-2015), 4000 cases of infectious diseases have been reported like Dengue fever, Malaria and Lyme fever due to alteration in climatic conditions of UK.

Why we have chosen to study the issue in the selected area and full description of the local area

Main reason for selecting the area of New Hampshire for studying the risk of infectious diseases is that it has evidence of rapid changes in environmental conditions. Increase in temperature levels and changes in rainfall pattern help insects to stay active for longer time period which increases the risk of spreading communicable diseases.

The broader perspective of choosing this area is that epidemiological data of has been reported that 29% of the total population residing in New Hampshire have been suffered from communicable diseases due to Air pollution and improper sanitary conditions . A larger ratio of people has been suffering from infectious diseases due to poor health and hygiene conditions.

Collection of relevant data

Size of the area of London Borough of Newham is 36.22 Km square.

Population

Population of London Borough of Newham is approximately 3,08,000 which is seventh highest in London. It has been observed that there is an increase of 23.5 percent in the population of Newham over the 2001 figures which was 2,43,7891. It has large population of Black African, Asians and people from all around the world. Besides this it as a vigh number of young and diversepopulation.

Observation on related determinants that influence the urban health issue

Prevalence of infectious diseases in London Borough of Newham which is a major health issue of the place is high due to several factors (Overview of London boroughs, 2016). These factors significantly affect health concerns of the existing population. According to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), It has been observed that Newham is one of the third most deprived local authorities of area in UK (Manley, Boots and Wilfert, 2015). In order to observe determinants, following points can be discussed:

Poverty: is one of the major determinants that largely affect the population of Newham. Due to unemployment and low paid jobs, people do not have enough money to access education and other community amenities. Statistical figures show that 35%of working population is paid below according to average wages in London.

Lack of awareness regarding hygiene and sanitation: It has been observed that due to high poverty, people cannot afford education regarding sanitation and hygiene factors that leads to various infectious diseases.Besides this, it has been observed that lack of cleanliness and hygiene at food outlets, restaurants, supermarkets, community centers and other public places negatively affect the health of residents of Newham by infecting them through contagious diseases such as Tuberculosis.

Immigration: It has been observed that immigrants from different national origins bring with them the causal agents of various contagious diseases. This leads to high prevalence of infections among the p

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