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Urban Health

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INTRODUCTION

Brief overview of the urban health issue

Urban health issues can be broadly defined as the problems of people who are residing and employed closely together in an incorporated area with common environmental conditions and similar water supply systems. With the increase in urbanization, urban areas provide wider possibilities for individuals and family members to grow by giving them better health care services and living environment. However, people living in these areas face severe health hazards and new challenges every day.

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Sections included in the study

The present report will focus on severe health issues related to risk of infectious diseases in the area of New Hampshire located in east London. The reason behind the increased risk of infectious diseases in this area is continuous changes in climatic conditions of UK. The study also includes the presentation and analysis of relevant data along with the ways to eradicate urban health issues prevailing in New Hampshire.

RATIONALE

Why this is an urban health problem

Infectious disease is an urban health issue because there is a continuous threat of climatic changes that are taking place in these areas which cause risk to physical living environment in New Hampshire. During the recent years (2011-2015), 4000 cases of infectious diseases have been reported like Dengue fever, Malaria and Lyme fever due to alteration in climatic conditions of UK.

Why we have chosen to study the issue in the selected area and full description of the local area

Main reason for selecting the area of New Hampshire for studying the risk of infectious diseases is that it has evidence of rapid changes in environmental conditions. Increase in temperature levels and changes in rainfall pattern help insects to stay active for longer time period which increases the risk of spreading communicable diseases.

The broader perspective of choosing this area is that epidemiological data of has been reported that 29% of the total population residing in New Hampshire have been suffered from communicable diseases due to Air pollution and improper sanitary conditions . A larger ratio of people has been suffering from infectious diseases due to poor health and hygiene conditions.

Collection of relevant data

Size of the area of London Borough of Newham is 36.22 Km square.

Population

Population of London Borough of Newham is approximately 3,08,000 which is seventh highest in London. It has been observed that there is an increase of 23.5 percent in the population of Newham over the 2001 figures which was 2,43,7891. It has large population of Black African, Asians and people from all around the world. Besides this it as a vigh number of young and diversepopulation.

Observation on related determinants that influence the urban health issue

Prevalence of infectious diseases in London Borough of Newham which is a major health issue of the place is high due to several factors (Overview of London boroughs, 2016). These factors significantly affect health concerns of the existing population. According to Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), It has been observed that Newham is one of the third most deprived local authorities of area in UK (Manley, Boots and Wilfert, 2015). In order to observe determinants, following points can be discussed:

Poverty: is one of the major determinants that largely affect the population of Newham. Due to unemployment and low paid jobs, people do not have enough money to access education and other community amenities. Statistical figures show that 35%of working population is paid below according to average wages in London.

Lack of awareness regarding hygiene and sanitation: It has been observed that due to high poverty, people cannot afford education regarding sanitation and hygiene factors that leads to various infectious diseases.Besides this, it has been observed that lack of cleanliness and hygiene at food outlets, restaurants, supermarkets, community centers and other public places negatively affect the health of residents of Newham by infecting them through contagious diseases such as Tuberculosis.

Immigration: It has been observed that immigrants from different national origins bring with them the causal agents of various contagious diseases. This leads to high prevalence of infections among the population.

Analysis and interpretation of data

Public health consequences and implications of infectious diseases in Newham

Latter constitutes as a major health issue across the globe. There are several implications of infectious diseases that severely affect the population of Newham. These diseases not only adversely affect the health of individuals but also impact the societies and economies. These implications can be elaborated in the following passage:

It can be analyzed that infectious diseases take a toll on individual’s health. Infectious diseases lead to reduced life expectancy among population. Statistical data indicates that main causes of death in this area are infectious diseases as well as cardiovascular and other respiratory diseases. Contagious disease which has the highest prevalence rate in Newham is Tuberculosis. From the statistical figures, it can be interpreted that this rate is increased to 40 percent in the recent decades.

Factors that are responsible for the increased rate of infectious diseases are poor housing facilities, poverty as well as lack of awareness regarding hygiene, cleanliness and immigration. It can be inferred from the collected data that majority of population in Newham is under paid which states that they do not have access to education and other amenities due to financial constraints. In addition to this, immigration is also one of the main factors that elevate risk to the public health due to infectious diseases. It can be interpreted that immigrants from other national origins bring with them harmful microbes of contagious diseases which consequently lead to the epidemic infections.

Impact of infectious diseases on the general populations, individuals and health services

Impact of infectious diseases is very adverse and immense on the general population of Newham. It can be analyzed that individuals are at major risk due to development of infectious disease. This is due to the fact that there is lack of basic sanitation and cleanliness sense at public places such as restaurants, food outlets, community centers and supermarkets. At these common places, probability of getting infections is higher as large number of people comes in contact with each other. Thus, it can be analyzed that rate of transferring pathogenic microbes is very high at public places (Anderson and May, 2012). Other than physical impact, on contagious diseases also take toll on the economic aspect of the unities of Newham.

The epidemic of infectious diseases is interpreted as a major burden on economy which aggravates the process of economic decay which further worsen Newham’s scenario (Dowdle and Hopkins, 2014). It can be analyzed that due to poverty, individuals cannot afford expensive health care treatments which leads to fatal consequences. Further, it can be interpreted that lack of access to effective health care practices has the potential of reducing the risk of life expectancy of the affected population of Newham.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Various ways and strategies can be implemented to control and eradicate the risk of infectious diseases prevailing in New Hampshire:

  • During the mosquito breeding season, it is recommended to apply mosquito repellents with 30-40% DEET (N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) twice a day.
  • It is advised to wash off the pollens which get collected on clothes, skin, hairs and face after spending time in exterior environment.
  • By constructing efficient water supply system, network of standpipes and family toilets, poor sanitary conditions can be improved.
  • By ensuring adequate and reliable healthcare services in New Hampshire, risk of different hazardous diseases can be minimized.
  • Facilitating sustainable access to safe and sufficient food materials will aid in controlling death related to improper food habits and malnutrition.
  • Using of impregnated bed nets treated with insecticides can help in preventing the entry of mosquitoes in houses which can reduce the chances of malaria, dengue fever and lime fever
  • Personal protection and adapting environmental changes are necessary for preventing diseases at a faster rate. This includes vaccinations against parasites and prophylytic treatment for malaria or other mosquitoes driven disease.

CONCLUSION

This report is likely to be useful in understanding the increased risk of infectious diseases predominant in New Hampshire, UK in the recent years. Main reason which contributed in increasing the risk of infectious diseases is the abrupt environmental changes in New Hampshire. Various strategies such as maintaining proper hygiene and constructing adequate sewage pipelines as well as toilets for outflow can enhance and improve sanitation facilities. Active and passive immunization, vaccinations against the parasites and proper therapeutic treatment are some methods to prevent communicable disease from spreading. Ways of adapting climatic changes and individual protection have also been studied so that number of people suffering from infectious diseases in UK can be decreased in upcoming years.

REFERENCE

  • Anderson, R. M. and May, R., 2012. Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control.
  • Breman, J. and Arita, I., 2013. The Confirmation and Maintenance of Eradication of infectious
  • Dietz, P. M. and et.al., 2015. Epidemiology and risk factors for Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone—23 May 2014 to 31 January 2015. Clinical Infectious Diseases.
  • Dowdle, W. R. and Hopkins, D. R., 2014. The Eradication of Infectious Diseases. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Manley, R., Boots, M. and Wilfert, L., 2015. Emerging viral disease risk to pollinating insects: ecological, evolutionary and anthropogenic factors. Journal of Applied Ecology.
  • Payne, H. and et.al., 2015. Incidence of Pneumococcal and Varicella Disease in HIV-infected Children and Adolescents in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 1996–2011. The Pediatric infectious disease journal.
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