Investments - Masters Level


In business term, the concept of sustaining a stable economic growth and creation of wealth is known as Investment. This is related with using available money in order to buy particular assets with the hope that the particular assets will generate specific income in the desired time periods (Investment, 2019). There can be different kind of investment such as stock, bonds, alternative investment etc. and the risk and return can vary depending upon the market conditions.

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In this report, €500 million of capital is needed to invest in various assets including share and bonds and their specific allocation reasons with a medium term holding period of 5 to 7 years. As a new Irish portfolio manager it is necessary to consider most beneficial investment option which would give higher return in future and have a minimum risk to bear. In addition, the overall investment philosophy and general viewpoint on potential returns during the holding period is discussed.

Main Body

Investment Environment

In modern era, the bonds are also known as fixed income investment which are mainly a kind of loans form a specific investor to a business firm (Petri, 2018). In this type of investment an investors is liable to receive a regular payment depending upon the interest rate on which the bonds were sold.

A security is a credential or any other asset class with an economic value which can be exchanged in a financial sense.  these Instruments, including shares and debt securities, like bonds and marketable securities are usually classified either as debt securities. The selling of shares to shareholders is among the main means of driving new business capital through publicly traded businesses.

Share are consider to be the smallest part of stock that gives the equivalent ownership in the respective company (Securities, 2019). Thus an individual own a share within an business entity have the major role to vote on crucial matter and take part in decision making process. There are mainly two kind of stock such as common stock which means that most of the company stocks are help by public. As well as  the preferred stock in which companies are liable to pay an specific amount to stockholder as a dividend.

Securities' market is an important element of big financial market at which securities are sold and bought as per the demand and supply. There are basically two level such as primary at which new securities are issued and on the other side secondary market at which current securities are being purchase and sell. In an economy, a stock market attracts new equity, converts actual assets into financial assets, creates markets to match production and consumption. It also provides a way for accumulation of funds in the private and public sectors with smaller and longer time period.

Institutional investors have the main role to manage and regulate the money of other individual in buying and selling of share within companies, bonds. These are consider to be the non banking organization which often manage a gathering of share quality in order to qualify the amount for some specific treatment and lower regulation. Some of the most common international institutional investors in UK are pensions funds and insurance companies. Institutional investors show tremendous experience and become increasingly important to financial markets every day (Meidner, R., Hedborg and Fond, 2017). Moreover, there is a fairly relaxed protection legislative system for market participants which help to guard against various risks. When institutional investors accumulate in large sums, they are known to become more professional and understand the actual risk and return from these investments.

Ethics could be identified as a series of moral values or ethical laws that direct our actions if it involves another. Sincerity, honesty, integrity and consideration for someone else are widely acknowledged as basic ethical standards. International investment business morals must be standardized and essentially encourage faith and dignity beyond appropriate culture and customs, regional or national. The global industry's widespread ethics highly promotes the productivity, beliefs, and purpose of the entire industry (Anderson, Duru and Reeb, 2012). The creation of behaviour norms that take on different nations at various stages, but the purpose has to be to create laws, rules and regulations that promote and support the basic principles of ethics on a global scale.

Stock valuation and selection

The Irish based portfolio manager serving international services to international shareholders. There is an investment of €500 million in capital assets is suggested below. The major investment is divided in two investment options among share shares and bonds. The below investment portfolio helps in understating the effective decision making procedure.

Share price valuation

The share valuation portfolio is created below and the invested capital:


Total cost of accounts



Stock Investment Performance

Value of accounts



Difference $



Difference %




Account Name or Number


Purchase Price Per Share

Trade Fees

Total Cost (Purchase Price + Fees)

Current Quote

Market Value

Gains ($)

Loss (%)


Woodgrove Bank










Federal Home Ln Mtg










Goldman Sachs










Emerson Electric










Clear Channel Comm










Scotia Pacific




















Fedders No Am










Wise Metals









Valuation of bonds

Stock Investment Performance

Total cost of accounts



Value of accounts



Difference $



Difference %




Account Name or Number


Purchase Price Per Share

Trade Fees

Total Cost (Purchase Price + Fees)

Current Quote

Market Value

Gain ($)

Loss (%)


EuroMTS Highest Rated MW 5-7 1730










FTSE Actuaries Govt Securities UK Linked Market Va










FTSE MTS Eurozone Government bond










TR Portugal 5 Years Government Benchmark










TR UK 5 Years Government Benchmark










TR UK 7 Years Government Benchmark









Corporations sell bonds to borrow money from the investors. As a financial instrument, a bond represents a contractual agreement between the corporation and the bondholders. Eventually the corporation has to repay the principal to the investors and pay interest to them in the meantime (Baum and Crosby, 2014). If an individual purchases a loan, the unpaid interest on the debt must be paid. This will be the return received by the bond from the last due date of interest. Many securities also trade without the accumulated interest and are therefore flatly operated in the respective time.

Risk assessment in portfolio management

Jensen's Alpha, often recognized as the Jensen's Quality Model, is a calculation of a portfolio value surplus returns relative to the CAPM model's expected return. It stands for the α mark. The greater the uncertainty involved with an investment, the higher the expected profit price. It high rate of return ought to be the recompense for shareholders who hesitate to spend in riskier assets. It allows the estimation of risk-adjusted quality of a resource or portfolio to the disadvantage of taking decisions.

The Jenson’s Alpha can be assessed by the following equation as;

α = RP – (Rf + β (RM – Rf)

RP = Returns of the Portfolio

Rf = Risk-free rate

β = Stock’s beta

RM = Market return

The investing option is available risk-adjusted quality is measured in comparison to its expected profit on the sector. The projected returns on both the market in this case is focused on the method of valuation of capital assets (Cameron, 2017). Alpha's high value means investor's investment strategy has also performed much better, gaining far more than the market's expected stage. It also demonstrates how well the risk-return equilibrium viable option investors are re-evaluating higher fares especially compared it to other options available.

Dividend valuation method

The dividends discount method or valuation method (DDM, dividend valuation model, DVM) values the portfolio by the amount of its cash flows priced by the necessary rate of return provided by the buyer for the threat of shareholdings. The capital asset pricing model will assess this risk. Lower risk securities require higher rate of return to offset the risk to shareholders. If the inventory is never selling, it is simply a constant asset, and also its price is equal to the total of its distributions' current value. Since the DDM deems that the stock's present sales price is equal to its present value, it should also be accurate that the stock's future selling price is equal to the sum of the retained earnings following the capitalisation rate subsidized purchase. Quality assessment demonstrates what a system does by produces outcomes. This supports administrators by giving information about how to manage the economy and measures to ensure performance (Huisman, 2013). It focuses on both the main objectives of a scheme for application partners. As well as, by specifying how tax payers and many others benefit, it promoted developing and justifying budget plans. The quality objectives must be applicable for the fundamental program assignment and the outcome of the program. In particular, this is about quality over quantity, with such an emphasis on several good measures. Yet projects, particularly if this calculation is a substitute for the real objective, must not find it necessary to undo complicated practices in one measure.

Alternative Investments

The convertibles are lengthy-term securities that can be converted, like stock ordinary, into some other kind of security. These transactions include bonds and favourite shares, but are usually bonds. When buying a convertible mortgage, the borrower could still earn gains like a regular bond, yet can convert it into stock whether the stock price rises sufficiently to make it  beneficial (Sternberg, 2012).

Warrants are lengthy-term investments and, typically, cheaper than convertibles. Investors are allowed to buy stock at a specified price. Warrants are valued most when rates beyond the price per share are good opportunities on risky assets. It is less important as the expiration date of the guarantee methods as there is a great deal less possibility of a favoured price increase. Platinum, gold and silver seem to be the most common precious metals with shareholders and are useful metals that are used in manufacturing processes. It basically involve metal used in specialist alloys and palladium which are used to produce electronics and chemical applications. Collectibles are an additional asset, meaning that they are not shares, bonds, assets or currency. Several buyers leap with feet into collectables, hoping they could build a fortune in a world full of scams, creators and theft.


From the above report, it has been concluded that investment must be made by analysing the actual risk and total return in specific period of time to reach the desired results. In different kinds of share and bonds proper allocation have been made to get the more effective and valuable return. In the conclusion, it is also stated that to assess a bond, we must find the present value of retained earnings. Investors must select the option of share by considering the actual returns and risk associated with it such as yield, changes in the ongoing company team member.


  • Anderson, R. C., Duru, A. and Reeb, D. M., 2012. Investment policy in family controlled firms. Journal of Banking & Finance. 36(6). pp.1744-1758.
  • Baum, A. E. and Crosby, N., 2014. Property investment appraisal. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Cameron, P., 2017. International energy investment law: the pursuit of stability. OUP Catalogue.
  • Huisman, K. J., 2013. Technology investment: A game theoretic real options approach (Vol. 28). Springer Science & Business Media.
  • Meidner, R., Hedborg, A. and Fond, G., 2017. Employee investment funds: An approach to collective capital formation. Routledge.
  • Petri, P. A., 2018. The interdependence of trade and investment in the Pacific. In Corporate links and foreign direct investment in Asia and the Pacific (pp. 29-55). Routledge.
  • Sternberg, R. J., 2012. The assessment of creativity: An investment-based approach. Creativity research journal. 24(1). pp.3-12.
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