Sustainable energy is force system that provides want of current without compromising the power of upcoming time to meet their energy requirements. It is utilized at important rates analyzed to its supply and with controllable indirect effects particularly environment impacts. There are two forms of sustainable energy that includes energy efficiency as well as renewable force. The renewable force is alternative energy through direction on capability of an energy sources to proceed giving strengths(Agar and et.al., 2015) Sustainable forces involving renewable energy sources like wind, tidal power and technologies created to improve energy efficiency. This study is based on COP Conference of Parties that is also called as 2015 Paris Climate Conference. It is one of the biggest global conference ever held in the nation. The primary aim of COP is to reassessment and execution of Meetings. The objectives to accomplish legally constricting, universal compatibility on climate and keeping global warming under 2°C. This report will critically analysis main challenges following key decisions made during COP 21. It will develop and make recommendation on two life cycle assessments of fracking activities one of the US and another is the UK. Furthermore, report will evaluate social, financial and environmental effects of developing inexhaustible force application in the chosen nation.
1. Major challenges following key decisions made during COP 21
COP 21 stands for Conferences of Parties is also known as United Nations Climate Change Conferences. Parties refers to countries that ratified UN framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992. It was held in Paris, France from 30 November to December 2015. It is legally binding agreement to limit global warming by 2015.
At 12 December 2015, involving 196 nations united through agreement to last international accord the Paris Agreement. To decrease discharge as part of method for cutting green house gas(Christopher, 2016). It had powerfully selected for scoping score of 1.5°C rather than 2°C. The main objective of COP is revaluation Convention's implementation, to accomplish legally binding and universal agreements on climate and keeping global warming under 2°C. There are many challenges while making decisions during COP 21. Such as::
Non-binding commitment: The consensus will not become constricting on its members regimes until 55 affairs those make over 55% of worldwide greenhouse gas have legal consensus. A nation to establish target through particular date nor social control assess, if set mark is not met.
Lack of enforcement execution: Paris consensus are implicitly phrased upon premisses that member states of United Nations that generates many incomplete world-wide greenhouse gas materials. Any constipating social control execution to evaluate as well as power CO 2 material at any level from plant to state (Wood, O'Hayre and Pylypenko, 2014).
Effects on global temperature: The discussion of agreement that stated national determined contributions as well as 2°C decrease target were inadequate rather than require 1.5°C. In the first half of 2016 average temperature were about 1.3°C above average in 1880 while began the keeping record of global(Christopher, 2016).
Attempting to Limit remains fuels: 5th annual World Pension Forums held on out of bounds of COP 21. Some of US policy makers agreed insisting that no consensus is prefect and this one must be reinforced over time. But some teams are each aspect of social group get to decrease desperate element pollution by possibility of this consensus.
- The major challenge of system is that decisions making is painfully drawn out process-2012 report from France Alexandre Kyore Centre known the called COP Factory of Slowness.
- Climate negotiation is still noticeable by the activism of some parties involving EU, US , China and developing nations.
The challenge of COP 21 is climate leadership that is genuine progress is still possible in Paris. By end of this week, Paris summit has produced new global conditions changes accord. The journey of possible agreements are clear(Child and et.al., 2018). The feature of any deal to emerge from Paris is to be series of intentional national plans reflective political and economic realism of every players. Neglect these challenges, there is real possibility that deal will be smitten. It is strong one in even fairly good opportunity. It is extremely supposed to produce deep cuts in emission required to deflect perilous global warming.
The sum total of National Determined Contributions will leave world but number of initial research suggest there is likely to importantly space among agreed materials reductions commitments and assess essential to accomplish climate safety. A sense of urgency has brought leaders and high representative of 195 nations to climate change talks being held in Paris or COP 21. All the 195 nations are agreed on at COP 21 but still remain barrier to determine exact legal status of final hopefully world-wide statement and its binding force. Issue of financing the long overdue adjustment of the extant soil activities and presenting assess reduction.
There are many important areas that cover in Paris Accord as well as outcome of UN climate conference(COP 21). Such as, Decreasing emission speedy enough to accomplish temperature goals of mitigation. Accounting for climate actions by transference scheme as well as international time-worn take. Through adaption, power of nation to transaction with condition accords. Impact of climate is ability to recover by loss and damage. It involves finance, build clean for countries and resilient futures for support (Parry, 2017).
The Paris consensus composes support to develop countries and set up global goal to importantly capabilities adaption to change condition by support as well as global cooperation. These global functions on climate harmless applications as well as structuring capability in underdeveloped world to code conditions changes are importantly strong below new accepts. There are many technical issues in which includes like clear and transparent accounting method, creating clear set of rules, existing management on technology, adaption, action for conditions authorization as well as capacity building were also concluded successfully. There are more information involving on Paris Agreements such as:
- It includes adaption communications, precedence, assists necessity as well as ideas. Developing nations are received rising help for adjustment activities as well as adequateness assessed of this support.
- The consensus involves buirdly transference possibility for some support and action.
- This possibility give clearness on nation' diminution and version activeness and provision of help.
- It involves international inventory opening in 2023 to measure corporative progression towards objectives of consensus(Christopher, 2016).
- This also includes conformity execution overseen by committee of experts that operates in non retaliative mode.
Sustainable Innovation Forum (SIF) was the biggest focused event help during annual Conferences of Parties last year 7-8 December at COP 21 in Paris. Highlights of SIF that includes 750+ stakeholder are coming in the event at any commercially at COP 21, decisions makers represented 43 nations from across globe. It also involves workshops and co-located events took place to increase content and networking possibilities end-to-end two days. Meeting is expected to pull close to 50,000 player including 25,000 official delegates from authority, intergovernmental organization like UK agencies, NGOs and civil society.
Paris introduced consensus hailed as historic, durable and ambitious. Developed and developing nations likewise are required to limit their discharge to relatively safe level. With the daily review to ensure these commitments can be increased in line with scientific advice. Finance will be give to poor nations to assists them to reduce cope with impacts of extreme weather(Parry, 2017). The sad fact is that this government's modifies to energy policy now also make that unlikely, specific following statement and storage as well as significant reduction for energy organization responsibility and renewable heal incentives.
2. Recommendations on two life cycle assessments of potential fracking activities
Energy development is undergoing rapid changes in field of technology development and adoption in recent years where, latest technologies are making uneconomical and unexploitable fossil energy sources more technically feasible and profitable. Due to the rising environmental issues and health consequences there is a huge controversy in utilising these new energy development technologies (Xu, Sathaye and Kramer, 2013). Advance technology of hydraulic fracking process for shale oil and gas is creating a wave of disputes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method or objective process for evaluating consequences of environmental gist related with a material or activity by identifying and quantifying products and energy consumption and environmental releases to evaluate and implement opportunities to affect environment improvisations. LCA is a robust tool that supports decisions in any type of environment management and helps in process identification which are the process units contributing to the environmental burden. This technique is involves methodical aggregation of use of resources and emissions from each life cycle stage starting with harvesting raw material and finishing with its disposal. It is chosen due to its ability to encompass environmental, human health and energy security concerns with regard to resources that are extracted and by accounting the whole life cycle of a product certain aspects like productivity, durability and environmental persistence can be considered.
Recommendations on life cycle assessments of fracking activities from USA
Since 1940s USA has been triggering production of Oil and natural gas and chemicals with hydraulic fracking by use of high volume hydraulic fracturing which is combined with horizontal drilling which is a recent advancement with potential that impacts human health, environment and water resources. There are no strict national regulatory frameworks to control, asses sand monitor specific environmental and health impacts of fracking (Gebler, Uiterkamp and Visser, 2014). Traditional methods of oil and gas extraction and processing and for general environmental protection is regulated and governed through frameworks in the country.
As per The national Environmental Policy Act 1969, it is mandatory to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) prior to start of hydraulic fracturing operations.
These processes are applied depending on type of operations potential for environmental impacts which is developed and regulated at state level. Environmental Impact Assessment allows information on potential adverse impacts of large scale physical projects to be identified in advance avoid and assists to inform public and decision makers prior carrying out of a project. (Kaygusuz, 2012). As per the research and investigation conducted by American Chemical Society (ACS) recognizes that hydraulic fracturing will remain as a major element in US's energy industry as the country is heavily relied on energy resources and are working to address the challenge of environmental pollutions by applying green chemistry practices and principles to hydrocarbon development. Natural gas development of California has long history and in 2010 it started concentrating on potential risks of unconventional methods because of public awareness and for using techniques for previous inaccessible reserves. For ensuring that fracking is carried out in a responsible manner and that the public is confident that any risk or health issues and safety are managed properly by the mining industries and are regulated by the local or state governing bodies. ACS recommends several research initiatives and regulatory actions on hydraulic fracturing in USA;
- Hydraulic fracking must be conducted from a life cycle perspective with considerations of geologic, hydro-logic and seismic characteristics of region where drilling is contemplated (Phdungsilp, 2010).
- Research should determine the cause and extent of contamination of groundwater which is found in certain locations where fracking releases methane, ethane and organic gases and develop methods to evaluate impact of leaking wells (Environmental Impact Assessments and Hydraulic Fracturing: Lessons from Two U.S. States, 2018).
- Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other agencies should continue research and development activities to determine the contamination of groundwater in geological formations where hydraulic fracking is carried out. To minimise depletion of fresh water sources Recovery and recycling of produced water must be considered.
- Characterising of injected hydraulic fracturing liquid to surface with oil and natural gas produced and establishing safe methods for disposing them must be implemented (Stigka, Paravantis and Mihalakakou, 2014).
Recommendations on life cycle assessments of fracking activities from United Kingdom
In UK currently there are no companies actively engaged in fracking and exploratory drilling is at an early stage with licenses being issued to drill limited number of boreholes around the nation for testing. The British Geological Survey (BGS) estimates that country could have 1300 tcf in gas volume place out of which is, 10% is recoverable that would meet entire nation's gas requirements. Shale gas reserves have been developed by The government bodies of UK which needs to ensure that proper legislations regarding waste water discharge and fracking chemicals production is in place to reduce and eliminate use and consumption of fresh water (Chen and Chen, 2015). National Environment Research Council, the engineering and physical sciences research council and Economic and Social research council need to consider shale gas extraction in their research and development programmes. Major priorities must comprise research into the public acceptability of fracking and use of shale gas in UK's policies on climate, energy and economy.
- Environmental regulators and agencies of UK must work with British Geological Survey for carrying out surveys of methane and other containments in ground water reserves.
- To detect contamination of groundwater operators need to carry out specific site monitoring for methane and other gases in groundwater before and after shale gas fracking (Shale gas extraction in the UK: a review of hydraulic fracturing, 2012.)
- Arrangements for monitoring abandoned wells need to be developed and seismicity also need to be monitored before, during and after hydraulic fracturing
- To detect potential leakages of gas operators must monitor methane or other emissions while conducting shale gas operations
- Methods as well as functional activities need to be enforced to reduce use of water supply and neglect ideational water from supplies that are under stress. Waste water should be reprocessed and utilization and alternative for delicacy and attitude of wastes must be planned.
- For managing biology hazards an Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) should be enacted mandatory for all sedimentary rock gas transactions including involvement of local people. It must also assess risks across entire life cycle of shale gas extraction, seismic risks and disposal of wastes (Cullen and Allwood, 2010).
3. Political and financial incentives for implementation of energy efficiency measures in housing and transport sectors
Efficient energy use is objective to cut down measure of force used for developing goods and services and modification in force skillfulness are usually obtained through implementing prompt technology and manufacture procedures with utilization of usually recognized techniques to cut loss of force. Reduction in energy reduces cost of energy and also results in financial savings and are seen as solution to greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce the world's energy consumption and help control global emissions of greenhouse gases improved energy efficiency in buildings, transportation and industrial processes can be implemented. Removal of government led subsidies of energy that promotes high energy consumption and inefficient energy use in more than half of the nations around world is another technique fotr the implementation of energy efficiency measures in housing and transport sectors that consumes abundant energy resources (Kucukvar, Egilmez and Tatari, 2014).
Case study on United Kingdom
The government has disclosed various packages for latest ratio assesses that could reduce UK's force consumption through 11% via 2020 giving a leading assist to system as well as standard of surviving. The Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) aims at starting a rotation in UK's force across all sectors involving producing, transport as well as housing.
UK's scheme on energy efficient measures and action plans identifies four barriers that hamper force ratio modification; non-industrial market, deficiency of information on energy efficiency and misaligned fiscal bonus that makes individual who is accountable for creating betterment does not receive benefits of actions and risks of beginning assess of energy efficient products and initiatives (Sovacool and et.al., 2011). The country targets Domestic energy efficiency effectively by prevailing initiatives like Green Deal and advises need for policies that influence commercial improvements industrial and public sector for attaining energy efficiency by implementing these controls and measures. The carbon Trust company helps governments and organizations to reduce their carbon emissions and become more resource efficient and is stated to a mission to accelerate sustainable low carbon economy. The carbon Trust company helps the growth and preparation of down carbon technologies as well as are actively involved in fuel cell, wave, wind, solar energy and biomass or biofuel sectors. Green Business Fund launched by The carbon Trust company offers various services for SMEs in UK with a capital contribution of £5000 towards buying of energy efficient equipments and installing measures (Parshall and et.al., 2010). Various finance schemes like interest free loans for SMEs for energy efficient equipments in Wales are also rendered by this carbon management reduction industry firm. Several organizations and programmes are devoted to promote energy efficiency, conservation, sustainable use of energy by reducing CO2 emissions and help to prevent man made fluctuations in climate in UK. Energy saving Trust, National energy at action, National energy Foundation and Creative energy Homes are some among such governing and regulating bodies. The strategy of DECC confirms a nationwide fund to roll out retrofit programme for public buildings, cost and time required to install energy efficiency measures by using energy service company financing model. It will also launch trial product labels on household appliances showing lifetime running costs of products to encourage customers for buying energy efficient goods (Chester, 2010).
Case study on Sweden
Energy efficiency programmes in Sweden dates back to 1970s and has a stringent energy reduction targets for building sector compared to transport and industrial sector. Residential buildings in Sweden can be categorised as single family houses and apartment buildings where the majority of population lives in apartments with a 60% space heating and domestic hot water use. Various policy instruments are used to improve energy efficiency of building sector and total energy use in residential and service sector in Sweden has reduced since 1970 due to structural changes from shifting oil to electricity and district heating as major energy carriers. The Swedish government takes the responsibility for energy efficiency by offering regional and local governments to sign voluntary agreements on conserving energy. Homeowners of single family houses are adopting energy efficiency measures that are of;investment oriented and non investment (Asadi and et.al., 2012). Government of Sweden initiates a mix of regulatory, economic, informative and voluntary policy instruments use for effective energy efficiency in residential sector. With public awareness campaigns and fair taxes Sweden has relatively high energy efficiency requirements in buildings code that sets a goal for overall efficiency leaving planners and builders decide on reaching this objective. Eco-design directive improves the energy efficiency of various new products outside the transport sector. Majority of homeowners in Sweden considers reducing household energy use by undertaking no cost measures like switching off lights (Implementation of energy efficiency measures in Swedish single-family houses, 2012). Homeowners who considers energy costs to be high are likely using energy efficiency investment measures where the majority of population do not consider energy cost as high still reduces household energy cost. Fiscal instruments like tax deductions and investment subsidies are encouraging people to implement energy efficient measures. Economic inducement might generate householder to follow energy efficiency measures and increasing energy price will motivate homeowners to adopt such assess that will further improve cost effectiveness of such practices (Markard, Raven and Truffer, 2012).
Case study on China
China is facing negative effects of climate change as the nation is relied heavily on coal for satisfying rising energy needs required for economy booming which has resulted in emission of greenhouse gases. Chinese construction sector contributes to the CO2 emissions that involves operation of buildings, heating and cooling within residential sector represents the one third total energy consumption of the country (Energy efficiency in buildings in China, 2008). Policy makers of China completed that increasing force ratio in buildings (EEB) concept with respect to combination economic development, enhanced force supply safety as well as decreased local air environmental condition will be beneficial. For the same they have enacted various policies to foster energy efficiency within building sector and provides overview on existing measures to promote efficiency in buildings and identifies promoting factors for the implementation of these procedures. The current construction sector in China intensifies the utilization of energy of residential sector and are experiencing boom and huge number of houses are demolished and replaced with new ones. Strong political power is enacted to enhance energy efficiency in China with several policies and measures by government that addresses these issues. Energy Conservation Law is implemented to address the issue of EEB that strengthens determining penalties for non-compliance of EEB standards (Chen and et.al., 2014). Several instruments that implements the plans, policies and measures can be classified as command and control, economic and informational instruments. Codes and standards that regulates building's goals and technologies to be complied are most used command and control measures of EEB applied by the government. The government of China has shifted towards a market based instruments with diversified instrument mix where economic tools in form of tax rebates and subsidies are creating economic incentives increasingly for EEB investments. Government supports companies that promotes EEB by retrofitting or tax refunds and has also initiated several information related instruments like labels, demonstration of projects and campaigns etc., for improving understanding and awareness of energy efficiency (Mascarenhas and et.al., 2010).
4. Evaluation of Social, Financial and Environmental impacts of developing renewable energy technologies in India
Major pollutants that are damaging the economic progress, environment and human life are the conventional energy sources based on coal, oil and natural gas and these traditional fossil fuel energy sources are facing increasing pressure on environmental fronts. Renewable energy resources like wind, solar, geothermal, modern bio energy and small hydro power are contributing potentially to global energy supplies. World's energy demands and rendering sustainable services can be met by these potential renewable resources that are enormous which based on the availability of indigenous resources. Fossil fuels and inexhaustible force, social, financial as well as biology prices are directing in different paths and economic as well as plan of actions execution need to assistance diffusion ans sustainable markets for renewable energy systems are evolved speedily (Romero and Linares, 2014). Investments in inexhaustible forces like weather workplace, solar panels, hydro schemes etc., are being encouraged as fresh ways of modifying agricultural employments in India. Such expend are related with various environmental impacts that might be damaging other economical and social actions in the country. While scheming policy devices for property force resources major objective of India is to create the worst possible adverse social, economical and environmental accords guarantee financial efficiency.
Various aspects like; disparity in income, disparity in raw materials, energy resources and sources and technical progress should be listed by India which are the social aspects of human needs for improving economy of the country. These aspects are favoured by standard of living, educational level, demography, difference between urbanised industrialised society where the agricultural sphere represents lesser percent of employed people and social group with significant rural sector and uncontrolled rise of urban fields. Improved health, consumer choice, job opportunities and self reliance and technological advancements are the social benefits (Carrera and Mack, 2010).
Environmental features as well as select of life shows that biology pollution is linked mostly to increased utilize of force, environmental condition modifies due to massive utilizse of fossil fuels emitting nitrogen, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are becoming a global issue. Air pollution is a major environmental issue in India that are created by energy sectors. Another environmental issue in India is water pollution that includes detrimental alteration of water surfaces, under ground waters or marine environment with thermal or material contaminations. These pollutants can be solid, liquid or gaseous that alters the natural conditions of water usually are from effluents like water discharges from households, liquid substances containing oils and chemicals etc.
Using renewable energy resources generates variety of financial benefits for India;
Job activity is the major part of economical improvement as well as flushed economy creation as when group are employing welfare are extended on the far side their financial gain attained from those works. Advantages to economy happens when employees spends their financial gain on localized economic system which designed jobs as well as revenues in another sectors like retail, restaurant etc. Renewable energy systems creates more job opportunities than conventional energy supply projects and depends on steps of manufacture carried out in location if substantial as well as practical application are prepared as well as factory-made locally (Cajias and Piazolo, 2013). Various renewable energy applications can be cost effective where capitalist in the latest practical application will rescue more currency from decreased fuel utilizes or powerfulness bills than in primitively endowed plant capital. Accelerating deployment of renewable-energy resources will fuel economic growth of India by creating job opportunities, enhancing human welfare and contribution to safe climate.
Clean development mechanism (CDM is a flexible mechanism that renders investment in emission reducing plants in India and use certified emissions' reduction towards compliance with emission limiting targets set by Kyoto protocol. India is able to meet its emission reduction commitments in a flexible and cost effective manner that assists in meeting sustainable development objective with the CDM mechanisms. (Mez, 2012). CDM involves benefits to investors by attaining certificates on emission reduction programmes. Such plants will lead to indirect benefits like income generation, employment generation and improvements in air quality etc., by achieving sustainability. Renewable energy investments is driven by factors other than rural diversification as renewable energy technologies contribute to eliminate climate changes and create local employment and decrease national dependence on imported energy. Development of renewable energy sources has various impacts like social, environmental and financial that need to be considered for promoting sustainable development in rural areas in India (Lamers and et.al., 2015). Cost of renewable electricity generation is greater than traditional electricity creation and will impose higher prices for residents in India. Thus, diversity of rural sectors are essential to maintain viability of rural population and is increasing in India as the government is intervening in renewable energy schemes that has created financial incentives for renewable investments.
Sustainable energy are forms of energy that can be used again which harms environment in a lesser manner. Final energy and sustainability assessment concludes that it is essential to manage the environmental and climate impacts by protecting the nature from pollution and contaminations. The report discussed the COP21 agreement that assists in making policies in maintaining global temperature rise and analysed the major challenges of decisions made during COP21.The report also developed various recommendations on life cycle assessment of fracking activities using case studies of United States of America and United Kingdom. Political and financial incentives for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in housing and transports sectors using case studies of China, Sweden and UK were also explained. Critical evaluation of social, financial and environmental impacts of developing renewable energy technologies in India were also done in the assessment.
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