Constructing a building is not the only task which is to be done by a constructor or an owner there are many things which has to be done for providing better services and facilities. In order to do the same, a company may require an ample amount of money therefore, it is important for them for having an effective budget system . Thus, this assignment is based on services and facilities that are important to be installed like electricity supply in which detailed about various divisions such as high voltage/tension room, transformers, main switchboards etc., is mentioned in this report. Other than this, transmission system and electrical supply system is being mentioned along with its components which is crucial for better supply of electricity. Apart from this, description about water supply and sewage system is included in this assignment.
Commercial power system like shopping centres or tall buildings requires a large number of electric supply as compared to residential system . It is necessary that before, providing supply to these areas consider certain factors like load flow, short-circuit fault levels, voltage system so that precautions can be taken in order to minimise the chances of any damage to building or humans. Further to establish lightings in a building certain elements are required and these are orderly system of sub panels which are generally separated from main distribution board thus, it provides better system protection and a proper electrical installation system.
Basically, large appliances are connected with commercial power system that make sure that sufficient amount of power is supplied. In Australia, there is a rule that all commercial system must be connected with AS 2293 and it is a standard for emergency lighting and it assist in maintaining a power backup of at least 90 minutes.
Surging prices of electricity in the sector of retail and commercial property is putting pressure on Australian businesses. Electricity in shopping centres mostly required strong financial incentives. So, shopping mall in Australia, most of the firms are moving towards solar PV embedded solutions system as it is environmental friendly and cost effective as well. Therefore, it is a very nice concept for shopping mall to partially use solar power and commercial power system.
Constructing a shopping centre includes variety of things which might affect its overall work that is going to be done after its execution . It can be said that it is the responsibility of the project manager to avail options for shopkeeper who are going to use it in the future. It has been observed that commercial lighting project starts with finalising lamps and sources of lightings. Project manager should firstly design actual layout of lighting which is going to be done in future. This design will help in leaving space for excessive material which are going to be used by them in future when they will implement lighting in the shopping centre. This can be said that project manager mainly give importance to stability of capacity of lighting which is going to be used in future by users. It can be that 350-W MH lamp's is considered as the unique body which helps restarting the system in less period of time.
Electricity power system is considered as the network of elements which are related to electricity. These component are further deployed in transferring, supply and usage of electricity power. In relation to shopping centre, it can be said that this electric power system is network that owns ability to give power to whole area. It is further divided into many more component like transmission system, generators, distribution system etc. which performs their respective functions. As per study, smaller power system usually supply electricity to commercial building, hospitals, industries, residential areas and hospitals.
In relation to shopping centre, it can be said that this mall belongs to commercial building which is usually adopting three phase AC power. It is important for site inspector of shopping centre to build up an appropriate plan which will help in supplying electricity in whole building with the adoption of precautionary measures. It has been founded that electricity is supplied in building by two main systems that is transmission system and distribution system. Each of them is further divided into two more categories that is Primary transmission, primary distribution, secondary transmission and secondary distribution. All of them are described as below:
Primary transmission: It is considered as the first stage of electricity supply in which generating station usually produces electric power at 132kV which is further transmitted into three phase.
Secondary transmission: These transmission systems are usually located at the outskirts of city. In this, with the help of step down transformers voltages are reduced to 33kV and further distributed to different sub stations situated in various area or strategic point in the city.
Primary distribution: The secondary line of transmission is terminates at various sub-stations from where voltage powers are reduced from 33kV to 11kV in 3 phase and 3 wire. The line of 12 KV is running along the sides of the road in the city areas . This is called as primary distribution channel. The consumer who consumes more of power are allotted with the power supply at 11KV so they can easily handle their own sub stations.
Secondary distribution: They get electric power from primary distribution line and latter distributed to sub-stations and these sub-stations are situated in nearby locations and areas.
Electrical supply system
TNB Substation: TNB Substation is directly connected with transmission cables that receive electricity. In shopping mall electricity is transmitted with the help of 2 main high voltage TNB substation and both are of the capacity 11kV. These electrical rooms are situation next to each other so as to minimise or reduce the amount of voltage during the period of transferring.
Consumer Room: This room is mainly situated next to the TNB Substation and so that voltage can be dropped as it will assist them in proper flowing of current. A transformer is installed so that voltage of electricity can be dropped from 11KV to 415V which is adequate or suitable for usage . The process of transferring electricity is done with the help of primary and secondary coil as through this electricity is passed and a magnetic field is created and by this process electricity is generated.
Transformers: This is a room where devices are kept which is used for the purpose of changing the voltage of alternative current from a one circuit to second circuits. For example: a transformer is very helpful in converting 11kV to lower voltage i.e. 415V. Shopping mall us using two kinds of transformer one is oil-insulated transformer and dry type transformer and both the system is assisting them in executing plans in an effective manner.
Main Switchboard Room: Here, current is transferred from transformers. In this main switchboards worked as an electric board that are used for redirecting electricity so that it can be supplied to smaller usage . Therefore, current are supplied into smaller sections or division and it further assist them in distribution. It is further divided into two main switch board: this is basically used for analysing and identifying incoming and outgoing of the current flow and other one is distribution board: In comparison with main switchboard it is smaller but it has same functioning. Its area is smaller because it just helps in controlling specific range of a building electricity distribution.
Gen-Set Room: This this room adequate generators are fixed and it is just behind the Main switchboard. It is alternative backup when electrical failure as it in shopping mall Gen-set room is very essential because for the maintaining purpose electrical powered equipment are very helpful.
In relation to construction of shopping centre it can be said that lighting provision means to provide different type of lights in the shopping centre when it is going to be used by people after completion the construction of work of building. There are huge variety of lighting options which can be used by the project manager . In context to shopping centre, different kind of lamp such as fluorescent lamps, HID lamps, compact fluorescent lamps etc. can be used by the site operators. It has been founded that metal halide lamp is considered as an best source of lighting for shopping centre. It can be said that low wattage lamps are the one which can be easily applied inside the ceiling under approximately 9 ft below. For instance: In order to design shopping centre appropriately, project manager usually uses many designers. These designers often uses MH lamps of approximately 175-W to 250-W ratings in order to handle down lighting from high ceiling.
Apart from this, high voltage pulse usually allows lamps to start their brightest quickly. But, it can be said that these lamps ignites approximately 60% quicker in comparison to conventional arc tube in the warm restart. It can be said that by project manager can adopt fluorescent strips, crowd molding, invisible architectural cove and covered ceiling for the purpose of creating bright and good reflection surface in the shopping centre. It is important for project manager to give relevant importance to the sources lighting area as when shopping centre will be ready then it will require high level of brightness.
When there is a lighting provision in any property such as multiplex complex or any shopping complex, the main things which every one consider is saving cost out of the implementation process. It is important to have better and efficient framework of the lighting to the shopping complex . The major required thing is resources of the power for lighting. Most of the shopping complex prefer to use few lamps types so as to reduce energy and maintenance costs. There are commonly four types of lamps which is in use for lighting the shopping complex: HID lamps, fluorescent lamps, PAR halogen lamps etc. They can use highly supported frame and model for the fitting the lights.
The tungsten halogen lamp had gained lot of popularity and is available in the varied shape and size. This lamp uses halogen or any iodine. It is also considered as the most power efficient light source for the shopping complex. Because such multiplex runs for at-least 15 hours, so we can imagine how much power is needed. This lamp is manufactured according to such situation. These lamps are more compact lamp than standard 75-WR30 lamps and it offers more precise control. The main disadvantage is that it requires that huge connection of the wiring and fixtures to fix it to particular point.
Even Torcheres, small lanterns and lampposts are the most suitable sources for beautiful lighting which can be fit to interior spaces and can become signature and stylish decorative to identify the particular plaza or malls. These light can be categorized and function accordingly to your own choice and desire. These can use light only for small area, but in context with the whole shopping mall, it is insufficiency to use it. This condition is complex as huge and big lights requires huge maintenance and repairs costs and even manpower. It is recommendable to have tungsten amp light to flow source of light and shine to the whole shopping complex.
Water Supply System
As per the plan of constructing shopping centre, after finishing up the work of electric supply system now it is required by project manager to emphasize on water supply system for shopping centre. Water supply system includes many more component such as bulk meter, suction tank, booster pump and storage tank. And these systems are described as below:
Bulk meter: Initially water is transferred to bulk meter which is basically used for managing big flow of the water mainly in the commercial building like shopping centres. It is considered as the most important component of water supply system in order to monitor overall flow of water under high pressure on continuous basis . In context to the shopping centre, bulk meters are helpful in reducing wastage of water.
Suction Tank: It is a tank which is installed with the pump. In this energy is given to the system through pump. In order to supply water to the whole building it is mandatory to store excessive water in order to manage overall supply of water. It can be said that suction tank usually balances the float valve and supply water to whole building.
Boosters pumps: Booster pumps usually pull down water from basement to above floors or overall building in order to supply water to them. It also selects actual flow rate of water on the basis of which water is supplied towards different channels. In context to the shopping centre booster pumps are used in building in order to the transfer water from the suction tank to the storage tank.
Storage tank: Water storage tank are the place in which water of the whole building is stored. It can be said that main storage tank of the building is set up in the basement of the building or at the top of building on terrace.
It can be said that water will going to be distributed in the mall by gravity as well as pumped distribution system. Water is initially supplied through SYABAS which is further flowed down to shopping centre. This supplied water is stored in suction tanks which are located in the basement of building. With the help of electric booster pump available water is pumped up from storage tanks towards the top floor or roof of whole building. This stored water is distributed in whole building that is further supplied to the several parts whole shopping centre. Water in this shopping centre is transported in building from communication pipes.
It is important for the project manager to conduct an effective planning in order to build up appropriate waste system. In relation to shopping centre, it can be said management of sanitary system is considered as an big responsibility of site manager. In this system, planning is done effectively so that waste water can be drained and separated into grey water and black water. Here, black water is consist of different of products such as sanitary, urine, flush water and other things whereas, grey water is normally generated from dish ware, washing clothes, food wastage, bathing and more on . In context to the shopping centre, waste system for this system is designed so effectively as in this grey water is purified and further used in water plants. This water ca also be used in the flushing toilets. Sanitary system for this shopping centre can be treated by using Preliminary treatment. It includes many components which are described as below:
Screening: It is the first stage of preliminary treatment in which only large solid materials are removed the from whole waste in order to secure other operational activities of this system. In this, special equipment which contributes in eliminating grit from overall grit.
Primary treatment: At this stage, it has been identified that waste water still contains solid matter which is further cleaned by shifting overall waste into a tank. This water is placed their for sometime. In this maximum of solid waste in settled down and he floating water can be used for further purification.
Secondary treatment: At this level, settled sewage is now transferred for the biological treatment in which it is combined with some microorganism. Further air is pumped in whole water in order to strength good bacteria which are developed their.
Tertiary treatment: In this, clarified water finally passed through settled tank where good bacteria comes in contact with bottom waste material and than sludge are formed that are mainly present at the bottom of the tank. Thus, after this step water are allowed to pass or filter through a bed of sands.
Sludge Treatment: Entire process of sewage treatment produce organic sludge which can further be used in agriculture related activities. Thus, it is important that all the activities are managed in an effective manner. Furthermore, the process can be done with the combination of heat, power, gas to grid and thermal destruction.
From the above mentioned report, it has been concluded that after making a commercial building there are various elements that are required so that activities can be performed in a better manner. These mainly includes electric supply which is a crucial element basically, shopping mall is taking electricity from both commercial power supply house and solar system as well. For this, engineers have made a proper planning about from where connections will be taken and which are the places where lights will be fitted. In relation with water supply system components of water supply is being explained like bulk meter which is generally used for managing flow of water so that it can be supplied to different areas in a better manner. Apart from this suction tank, booster pumps etc., are included in this assignment. It has been identified that management waste system is also required by the project manager as the building is going to be used many. It has been founded that if effective waste system is build in the building then this filtered watered can be used in other places of building in watering plants.
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