What Are the Main Features and Functions of Microprocessor?

12 Sep 2018 14081
Main Features and Functions of Microprocessor

The modern-day computers are made by interfacing software components with hardware devices that work together to provide the machine with the possibility of receiving data as input and output as results. A microprocessor controls all the functions of the CPU or any other digital device. It functions as an artificial brain which is entirely controlled by a single integrated circuit. Microprocessor usually receives a series of digital machine instructions of a particular bandwidth, then a series of calculations are done that is based on the type of command received. This tiny chip of silicon determines the speed and power of the entire computer. The system is capable of controlling everything from small devices, such as watches and mobile phones to large satellites.


Three companies- Intel, Texas Instruments, and Garrett Air research developed microprocessors in 1971. Intel’s 4004 was the first microprocessor which was invented. There are five generations which came for a certain span of time with distinct specifications. The first  generation expanded from 1971 to 1973, and the second generation was a bit longer i.e., from 1973 to 1978. The third generation was from 1979 to 1980. And, the fourth generation was from 1981 to 1995, while from 1995 to till now the fifth generation is running.


Cost:- The most important characteristics of a microprocessor is its low-cost availability. Because of the widespread use of microprocessors, the volume of production is very high. That’s why microprocessors chips are available at fairly low prices.
Size:- The second key feature of the microprocessor is its small size. As the improvement in fabrication technology, its size does not even exceed a few inches on any side, even in the packaged form.
Power consumption:- Another important feature is its low power consumption. They are manufactured by Metal-oxide semiconductors which require low power to operate.
Versatility:- The versatility of a microprocessor results from its stored program. With the same hardware, it can be configured with many applications which also makes it flexible.
Reliability:- Another advantage of this device is its extreme reliability. It has been found that the failure rate of an IC is relatively low at the packaging level.


  • Controlling all other parts of the machine and sending timing signals
  • Fetching data and instructions from memory.
  • Decoding instruction.
  • Executing programs stored in memory.
  • Performing communication among the I/O devices etc.
  • Based on instruction the processor fetches, if required, retrieving data from main memory or I/O module.
  • The instruction is then executed which may require performing arithmetic or logical operations on data.
  • In addition to execution, CPU also supervises and controls/I/o devices. If there is any request from I/O devices, called interrupt,the CPU suspends execution of the current programs and transfers control to an interrupt handling the program.
  • Finally, the results of execution may require in the transfer of data to memory or an I/O Module.

Benefits of the Microprocessors

Fast calculation of mathematical data:- One of the primary advantages of the microprocessor is the quick computation of the scientific data. The quick calculation is one of the reasons why the computers will always excel beyond humans reach in performing specific tasks.

Dynamic circuit

Microprocessor is built up of dynamic circuit. The whole fabrication is made up of tiny switches known as transistors. The other processor components are responsible for controlling these circuits.

Primary Computer Functionality

The microprocessor forms the primary basis for any computer. Rest of the parts are built or peripheral with the processor itself.

One of the most significant inventions of technology was the microprocessor because of its effect on modern science. Imagining a world without the microprocessor: everything would change, including business, education, computers, phones, and televisions. So, this write-up by our microprocessor assignment help experts was all about the specifications of the microprocessor and its impact on today’s world.

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