Organisational behaviour is considered to be the subset of all the management activities which focuses on predicting and understanding that influences every individual's behaviour in a company which is necessary to maintain productive environment for effective productivity. It is very essential to control behaviour of an organisation to direct every employee to work on a common path which would l
This report includes every aspects of OB such as influence politics, power and culture on the behaviour of team and their performance. It includes the theories of motivation and its techniques enabling effectiveness for achieving goals in an organisation (Carney, Cuddy and Yap, 2015). In addition, all factors which make a team more productive are described in comparison with an ineffective team. All the philosophies related to the organisational behaviour.
P1 Organisation's culture, politics and power on individual and team behaviour and performance
Power, politics and culture of an organisation has an adverse impact on the performance and behaviour of every individual working in a firm. Some of the impacts of these factors are discussed as below:
Influential aspect of power
In the modern era of business, power is considered as the biggest extent that can determine company’s growth and also its stability and continuous success which provides several benefits. It is the most important element for grabbing all benefits required for succeeding in future.
Power can be defined as an attribute of an individual which shows his capacity for modifying any conduct of controlling other people or groups. It provides ability for influencing employees working in an organisation. A person has to perform even against his wish also that is considered to be under a powerful individual who has all authorities to control the actions which are performed in business. There are various kinds of power such as providing rewards to individuals, punishing someone or threatening them for forceful work; there are some legitimate power also which handles knowledge, resources and technical skills for accessing people.
Power can be used in both the ways which is positive and negative. The positive aspect always leads to increase the performance of the employees and is always ready to obey the commands which can be beneficial for both. It also leads to motivate coordination in an effective manner and teams which work for achieving particular goal or objective can serve a tremendous result required by the management.
On the other hand, negative use of power can be considered as misuse which can provide altered results. It might promote the negativity in the surroundings, performance can be declined and the coordination in a team can be affected adversely to promote ineffectiveness and can delay the result (Christina and et.al., 2014).
Influence of Politics
Politics of a company involves those kinds of activities which tries for acquiring, developing and effective usage of the resources which can be obtained through authorities which are provided by management It is a process which promotes democratic or autocratic surroundings where the delegation will be divided accordingly. Politics uses the aspect of power for influencing every decision to be taken for tackling certain scenarios for the company.
There are many factors giving rise to the political behaviour such as &
- Individual Factor
- Organisational Factor
- Ambiguous Goals
- Scarce Resources
- Dynamic Changes
- Non- Programmed decisions
There are various advantages of politics in a company as it leads to provide the performance of decision by taking the help from all types of political activities. It facilitate for promoting the changes which cannot be possible on the other side. It leads to provide flexibility for correcting the slow nature of every formal method. Politics helps in protecting the rights of an individual.
On the other side, many disadvantages can be states in several ways such as political activities & has the tendency for giving out in efficiency and also leads to waste the time which can be done due to wrong decision of & an authority. There can be some distorted decisions that are taken by person in critical situations where person mostly takes some ineffective decisions which can harm a company in various ways (Coccia, 2014). Many times interest of stakeholders is compromised, arising many disputes that can have impact on every functionality and operations.
The justice criterion is distributive as due to the presence of politics same individuals are not able to enjoy their rights and cannot achieve their desires. There is also unequal distribution of power which can be misused.
Influence of Culture
Culture plays an important role for influencing performance and behaviour of individuals who are working in a company. It forms an atmosphere which affects every person in many aspects. There are many activities which are promoted for enhancing the coordination in the groups and individuals.
The positive culture promotes productivity of every task as individuals are highly motivated and are ready for accepting challenges that leads to provide an environment where individuals respect each other and also support. This makes unity of team as the most influential factor for successfully accomplishing tasks even it has many risk and challenges associated with it.
On the other side, when a negative culture is promoted in an organisation's environment and it provides many disadvantages such as there is no coordination in a team and any rules and commands are followed which can make the scenario better. In addition, the surrounding becomes demotivating and the results might not be so effective or efficiency.
P2 Theories of motivation and motivational techniques enabling effective achievement of goals in an organisational context
Motivation is a very essential aspect that leads to increase the efficiency while performing every task which ultimately benefits the company in accomplishing every goal in an effective manner. There are various theories that define factors related to it and one can get acknowledged for implementing various motivational techniques to maximise the motivation level. There are certain theories that are provided by experts to understand its concept in order to implement it in a better way. Some& of the motivational theories are discussed as below:
Theory X and Theory Y
This theory discusses about the two types of individuals who are present in an organisation. Theory X is that community which includes those people who are lazy and avoids taking all the initiative & and responsibilities. They work as it provides them a feeling of security and becomes motivated when many rewards or punishment are provided by authorities. According to this theory every manager has to focus upon these kind of individuals for making out effective strategies that can provide motivate to them and is necessary for maintaining there productivity efficient (Gabriel & and et.al.,2015). They are psychologically very demotivating as they does not like their work at all. They mostly avoid any kind of responsibilities and requires a constant direction. They are needed to be controlled, threatened or forced for effective delivery of work. They are needed to be supervised fro every step and does not prefer to work under some guidance. In the other hand Theory Y concentrates on the individuals who are totally opposite. They are the happiest when they work on their own by taking initiative. They are more involved for decision making and takes effective decisions and also they are self motivated and enjoys while taking & certain ownership of the work.
It determines the need of an individuals which are divided into several stages. The first stage depicts the psychological & needs which are regarded as the basic needs such as food, water, shelter and clothings that are considered to be essential. Safety this when these needs are achieved one has to focus on the safety needs which are related to security of jobs and safe and secure environment. After which social needs are required which includes the need for belongingness and love and affection, along with that social acceptance is very important. This is the next stage which includes all esteem needs which are related to power, status and recognition of their personality (Hashim and Wok, 2014). The last stage includes the desire for gaining more knowledge and social service and also creativity along with that being aesthetic.
After this acknowledging regarding certain aspects there are many techniques which every management should apply on every employee. Some of them are discussed as below:
It is every important to provide every individual all the monetary rewards which one expects. All the employees are motivated by providing them their pay checks and highest basic salary one of the most important criteria for maintaining the motivation after that there are other benefits such as & bonuses, incentives fringe allowances which must be provided to every employee in order to provide them a reward fro performing better or giving extra ordinary contribution for the performance. There are also other type of financial compensation which can be stock options and other programs which initiate for providing the exchange of options for particular cash & and can act as a supplementary to rational compensation (Kitchin, 2017). Compensation can also be in the form of & hours of vacations, memberships for various health club and other kinds of perk which are provided.
It is also another important aspect as every individual seeks for getting appreciation for whatever he performs which is like by the higher officials of the company. It is very important for every individual to be provided the recognition in the company for his contribution that leads to motivate himself for performing better and also giving up their contribution by pushing their limit and providing more productivity of the output which is also has a quality aspect. There are various kinds of methods which can lead to provide him a good appreciation among the colleagues by giving him appraisals and promoting him for a higher position which is very important.
Creating a positive Environment
It is very important to create a positive surrounding which promotes the effective performance of every individual who works in a team and leads to accomplish certain task which are provided to them. It leads to motivate every individual and maximises the collaborative aspect and coordination in the team which leads to successfully provide the access for completing every task with great efficiency and control. It also leads to increase the positive aspects such as respecting colleagues, obeying all demands and reduction in the disputes and providing effective solutions for every problems.
P3 Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
An effective team is considered to be a boon for a company which leads to provide effective accomplished of the goals of an organisation and also leads to produce the output with less requirement of the efforts fro the successful completion of the task which are allotted to them and are done on time therefore it is very important to maintain the effectiveness of a team in order to maintain (Mickan and Boyce, 2018). Therefore there are many characteristics which are necessary to maintain so that team can be effective .Some of the characteristics of an ideal team is stated below:
Mutual Commitment to a particular goal
A team is developed for the completion of all the goals which are given to them. An effective and ideal team is always committed for completing the goal which is accompanied by the effective usage of resources It does not means that every individuals in a team has similar his is required in order to make a team more coordinative and work smoothly which will lead to provide an effective output which is completely qualitative in aspect and has less errors and flaws which can create certain damages.
In order to make a team to work as a single group it is very important that for creating a solution every member shall participate in order to make the recognition of every individual as an important aspect. Every member is considered to be very essential in order to provide success in every aspects. A team should be participative in order to make a decision which must be effective for solving the problems which are relate to company. Also, every individuals takes initiative for participating. A team never has extra members. All the individuals who together constitute the & a team where every member know what task they have to perform in order to put equal efforts in a team & and also sets to put the perfect share of the effort. A & participative nature of every person in a team leads to provide a scenario which is very collaborative and supportive and apart from that the coordination maximises that fastens the sped of performing any task.
A team should be able to communicate efficiently and even effectively in order to provide a effective communication in a team where all the individuals are free to express themselves. There should & feeling of openness among every individuals who are the members of a team and should be allowed to suggest and recommend regarding anything to the head that might lead to improve the decision making aspect of the team and lead to increase the bond which & must be there in order to form a bond of trust which lead every individual to obey all the rules which are commanded by higher authorities (Taylor, 2018). When team members does not talk behind anyone , there is a sense of respect develops between each of them that provides & a necessary direct communication which is open from every aspect regarding any issue or problem which a single person is facing or every member of the team is facing. Also, every individual starts to connect with each other that helps to understand them.
A team has a hierarchical system and also an already built system for decision making processes which helps for reacting in a quick and effective manner. Every member of the group are considered to be expertise in their own area & and the leader of the team should develop an ability for obtaining the opinion of members of groups and to make a collective response of the whole group. This is applied & for all the decisions which are made within the team which has a range from resolvent of the conflict which facilitates the process of creating unison of mind which is important to avoid any scenario of dispute.
A team has a hierarchical system and also collaborative processes which helps for reacting in a quick and effective manner. Every member of the group are considered to be professionals and the leader of the team should develop an ability for obtaining the opinion of members of groups and to make a collective response of the whole group. This is applied for all the decisions which are made within the team which has a range from resolvent of the conflict.
Thinking it requires an agreement among the each member of a team for certain circumstances where there are the chances of disputes as every individual does not have unison of mind. It means that when a particular team is represented any goals, they shall come together and work in a single unit for completing the task. This is required in order to make a team more coordinative and work smoothly which will lead to provide an effective output which is completely qualitative in aspect and has less errors and flaws which can create certain damages.
Effective Role of leader
In order to make a team to work as a single group it is very important that for creating a solution every member shall participate in order to make the recognition of every individual as an important aspect. This is performed by the presence of an effective leader . He considered that Every member is & very essential in order to provide success in every aspects. A team should be participative in order to make a decision which must be effective for solving the problems which are relate to company. Also, every individuals takes initiative for participating and the leader promotes that. A team never has extra members. All the individuals who together constitute the & a team where every member know what task they have to perform in order to put equal efforts in a team & and also sets to put the perfect share of the effort (Waterson, 2017). A & participative nature of every person in a team leads to provide a scenario which is very collaborative and supportive and apart from that the coordination maximises that fastens the sped of performing any task.
P4 Concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour
The concept of Organisational behaviour is based upon two factors which are nature of people and nature of organisation. Nature of people includes all the basic qualities, characters which leads to personifies any individual as they can be unique or smile. Some of the major factors that affects the nature of person in a organisation is :
The managerial approach for every employee should be different which is one on one approach. There shall be no biasses towards any employee by manager & as every individual should be treated individually.
It is regarded as the ability for observing, listening and concluding something. It is mostly which says one should believe the senses. It leads to provide the perfect interpretation of all the things.
Value of Person
Evert employee wanted to get valued and appreciated for all the skills and associated abilities which are followed mostly by opportunities which helps to develop them.
Nature of Organisation
It leads to provide the main motive of a company. It leads to define the standard of employees and develops the character of an organisation & by providing the exact reflection. Some of the factors that leads to control the behaviour of organisation. Some of the factors which must be taken in concern are discussed as below:
Social System- Every company decides to socialize with other companies which includes their consumers and the external surrounding & and their employees which plays a social role and related status. These can be formal as well as informal.
Mutual Interest-The maintenance of mutual interest is very important in order to prosper and survive. There should be an effective understanding between employee and the company.
Ethics- They are considered to be all the moral principles of every person, organisation and group. Some firms tries for establishing the code of all ethical training which is acted as a reward.
There are basically three types of theories that has evolved with time. Earlier there were classical theory which included three sub theories such as Bureaucracy theory, Scientific Management Theory and process management theory; all these were evolved into neo classical theories that included human relationship theories and behavioural science theory and at last the modern management theory came which included every aspects such as technological, operational etc (Organisational Behaviour,2018).
Bureaucracy Theory- The management is characterised by a hierarchy, there are many fixed rules, specialised division of workers, formal relationships and rigid procedures.
Scientific Management Theory- It states that how exactly what a person wants and how it can be performed at best and in the cheapest way. It leads to develop scientific approach for accomplishment of the task. These can be cooperated & with employees for ensuring their jobs and developing each individual who works fro the organisation. It definitely ensures the appropriate division of the labour.
Behavioural science theory- which included the Maslow theory that says the needs have a hierarchical structure which starts from the basic needs and ends towards the esteem needs which are required for controlling the behaviour of the individual in a organisation.
It has been concluded that Power, politics and culture of a company has both negative and positive impact that leads to result which are according to it. Power leads to take important decision whereas the politics influences the authority for making any particular decision whereas the culture promotes the productive environment which leads to increase the efficiency of the output which are provided by the team itself. Also many motivational theories were discussed which involved Theory X and Y which states how different types of individuals should be tackled and how strategies should be formulated in order to motivate them. Company applies various types of techniques for motivating their employees such as providing various kind of benefits such as rewards which can be monetary as well as non monetary apart from that, employees are provided promotions, recognitions etc.
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Books and Journals
- Carney, D. R., Cuddy, A. J. and Yap, A. J., 2015. Review and summary of research on the embodied effects of expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal displays.& Psychological Science.26(5).pp.657-663.
- Christina, S. and et.al., 2014. How organisational behaviour and attitudes can impact building energy use in the UK retail environment: a theoretical framework.& Architectural Engineering and Design Management.10(1-2).pp.164-179.
- Coccia, M., 2014. Structure and organisational behaviour of public research institutions under unstable growth of human resources.& International Journal of Services Technology and Management.20(4-6).pp.251-266.
- Gabriel, A.S. And et.al.,2015. Emotional labor actors: A latent profile analysis of emotional labor strategies.& Journal of Applied Psychology.100(3).p.863.
- Hashim, J. and Wok, S., 2014. Predictors to employees with disabilities’ organisational behaviour and involvement in employment.& Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal.33(2).pp.193-209.
- Kitchin, D., 2017.& An introduction to organisational behaviour for managers and engineers: A group and multicultural approach. Routledge.
- Mickan, S. and Boyce, R. A., 2018. Organisational behaviour: understanding people in healthcare organisations. In& Key Topics in Healthcare Management& (pp. 164-179). CRC Press.
- Taylor, S.P., 2018. Organisational behaviour, leadership and change.& International Journal of Housing and Human Settlement Planning.4(1).pp.21-36.
- Waterson, P., 2017. Patient Safety Culture and Organisational Behaviour. In& Patient Safety Culture& (pp. 70-93). CRC Press.