This assessment will cover certain questions -
- Give the analysis of culture, politics and power in AW Holding
- Explain the theories of motivation in organisation.
- Give all the philosophies and theories for growth and development.
Organisation behaviour simply refers to the study of creating healthy and good relationship with employees and other members of company. Hereby, employers should communicate and interact with their employees in a good and polite manner so that they remain happy and satisfied with the management and also with the company. In this report, the importance of implementing processes of organization behaviour is going to highlight. A W Holding Company Limited is being considered here in this project report. It is small and medium sized firm that deal with Mechanical or industrial engineering industry which is situated in United Kingdom and turnover approximately £20M to £30M per year.
The importance of organization behaviour in their business activities is going to discuss in this project report. In addition to this the implications of politics, power and culture on the performance and behaviour of team will be described appropriately in this project. Apart from this, various inspirational or motivational theories will also be discussed in this report. These theories assist to the management in motivating the employees of company and thus helps in enhancing or improving their overall performance.
P1 Analyse how an organisation’s culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance.
Organisational Culture can be simply meaning as a value, expectation, philosophy as well as an experience that impact on the performance of group members of an organisation. If the organisation culture is positive in an organisation this will be present that the employees or workers will be happy and satisfied with the organizational environment. Thus, it can be said that there is a great impact of culture upon the team and also its performance (Miner, 2015).
According to Hendy’s culture there are commonly four kinds of culture that are discussed below:
In task culture, an individual attains a task on the basis of their talent and qualification. This is good for the future of corporation as people or workers here work for the welfare of their organisation by giving their best efforts. A W Holding Company Limited can use this type of culture at their workplace for gaining profit in future (Luthans, et. al., 2015).
In this type of culture, the power of taking decisions is given to few people only so that instant and immediate decisions can be taken by decision makers. Employees can be controlled by some persons who have power in order to generate a disciplined environment at workplace. This kind of culture impacts negatively on the workforces’ performances. Employees get demotivated as they understand that power are not provided to them and discrimination is being done with them. Thus, A W Holding Company Limited should not implement this culture at their workplace (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015).
In this kind of culture, employees understand themselves as the superior of the venture and work according to them. In fact, they do not give priority to their organization and only visit workstation to the intention of earning benefits and money. This culture completely impacts the policies and procedures of an organisation in negative manner. Thus, A W Holding Company Limited ought to not use implement this person culture of their workstations (Hogan and Coote, 2014).
In role culture, various roles and responsibilities are given to different person as per their knowledge, past performances and their skills also. But this should be noted that such goals and roles can be achieved or completed by workers or employees within assigned time frame or before deadline (Hogan and Coote, 2014).
On the other hand, politics within organisation also impacts on the performance of each workers or employees and also to team members. People who are working in an organisation always play a dirty game with their subordinates and other associates with their own benefit and profit. They show themselves as good or innocent one in front of managers and superiors for getting their attention. At the same time, the lower level employees or workers get demoralized by similar phenomenon as they are working by giving more efforts. As a bad result, after getting demoralized, they will not provide their best in achieving targets and goals of an organization. Hence, managers of A W Holding Company Limited should determine that such dirty politics will not going on their working place (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015).
M1 Critically analyse how the culture, politics and power of an organisation can influence individual and team behaviour and performance.
According to the views of Miner, J.B, power, politics and culture are three factors that impacts mostly on the workers performance or overall team. If the power of taking various decisions are in inappropriate hands, then employees and team members would be affected belligerently. The power holder person can do discrimination on the basis of color, sex, caste, religion and also race. It is the duty of the management of an organization to authorized the power to the genuine and also in correct hands. On the other hands, organizational culture also affects on the profitability of an organisation in various manner which are shown in above stated content. Different culture has positive and negative impact on the organization and also its working process. This will also motivate or demotivate the employees or workers and also higher or lower inspiration levels.
P2 Evaluate how content and process theories of motivation and motivational techniques enable effective achievement of goals in an organizational context.
A W Holding Company Limited should use different motivational theories in order to inspire and motivate their workers or employees. The organisation can use different monetary or non-monetary factors to motivate their workforces. They can also use content and process theories in motivating their workers. These theories are described below:
This theory is commonly use and explain the behaviour of employees or workers that focused, emerges, stopped and continued after specific period of time. Some of important process theories which are discussed as below:
Vroom’s Expectancy Theory:
This theory assumes that particular behaviour occurs from the sensible choices and the intention is to improve the benefits and reduces the workers or employees’ pain and also enhances the performance. According to Vroom, the workforce’s performance basically depends upon the factors like knowledge, abilities, skills and experience. According to the author, inspiration, performance, determination is affiliated with motivation of an employees (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). There are three variables laid out within this theory-
Expectancy refers to increased attempts that may lead to enhance performances. This might be impacted by skills and available resources. It emphasizes on rewards or pay- offs and also focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain (Robbins and Judge, 2014).
Valence refers to the emotional orientations’ workers hold with respect to outcomes or rewards. The depth of the want of an employee or worker for extrinsic or intrinsic. The organisation must determine what employees or workers worth or value (Robbins and Judge, 2014).
Instrumentality can be defined as the belief that if any worker or employees will perform in better manner and after that a good outcome would be achieved. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that.
Vroom recommends that an employee’s beliefs about Expectancy, Valence and Instrumentality interact expressively to make a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain.
A theory of goal setting by Locke & Latham
according to this theory, employees or workers who have more difficult but achievable goals perform better than those who have less difficult goals. Goal can be either accuracy or directional goals in nature. In other words, goal setting is powerful method that can be used in an organization to inspire and challenge workers, towards attaining the organization’s strategic targets (Podsakoff, et. al., 2018).
The five principles of goal setting are:
- Challenging goals
- Task complexity
A goal should be clear and understandable to an employee. It should be very explicit regarding what outcome is desired and how will be measured. A clear goal helps the management of an organization to measure the performance of an employees (Cao, et. al., 2015).
Unclear: Reduce time required to manufacture product.
Clear: Adopt new technology to reduce time essential to produce product from 10 minutes to 8 minutes by end of accounting year.
Setting challenging goals requires a careful balance to make sure the right degree of challenge. Goals that are either too easy or too hard negatively affect decrease performance and motivation.
Easily achievable: Convert more prospects to customers in Q3 FY 2018-19 as compared to Q2 FY 2017-18.
Challenging: Convert 80% more prospects to customers in Q3 FY 2018-19 as compared to Q2 FY 2017-18.
Whether the manager of an organization set the goals for employees, teammates or whoever else, in order to accomplish the goals, firstly these goals should be fully understandable and agree by them.
Incorrect: Project manager dictates goals to all employees or team members without considering their capabilities and bandwidth.
Correct: Project manager and his team member decide the expected outcome in a meeting depending on the subordinate’s capability.
In addition to selecting the right goal, the manager should also listen to feedback in order to determine how well the you’re doing. Feedback doesn’t necessarily have to come from other people but it can come from self-judgement as well (Robbins and Judge, 2014).
Incorrect: Set a deadline and forget about the task till this deadline approaches.
Correct: Check weekly to monitor progress of the design department and give feedback about whether they are on track or need to expedite the process.
The manager should more careful in adding too much complexity in the assigned goals as complexity can impact morale, motivation and productivity of an employees or team members. Task or goals should be easy and not more complex because it effects the performance level of an employees and also affects to the productivity and profitability of an organization (Cao, et. al., 2015).
Content theory explains that what are the needs and wants of an employee if they start working within an organization. This is also famous as need theory as it highlights the basic needs of employees and how they can be inspired or motivated (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). Some of important content theories which are discussed as below:
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
is a motivational theory in psychology comprising a five-tier model of human needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels that is explained below:
This need shows the fundamental need of a human that is food, clothes and home. If an organization will provide these basic needs to their employees then they will remain inspired or motivated and their performance level is also improved (Podsakoff, et. al., 2018).
This need concerns with safety of salary, health and job of the workers. If an organization will not provide these needs to their workers, then they all will remain demotivated. These factors affect the working process of an employees (Robbins and Judge, 2014).
This need shows that each worker require social relationship like family, love, members, friends and so on. If an organization would offer social needs to their employees, then they will remain motivated efficiently and effectively (Scandura, 2017).
This need shows that everyone in an organization wishes to be appreciated and respected by their superiors. This creates a feeling of inspiration within employees and as a result they will work for the attainment of their targets and aims (Cao, et. al., 2015).
If all the above discussed needs will be fulfilled of a worker, then they get motivated efficiently and effectively.
2. Herzberg’s two factor theory:
This philosophy or theory was invented by FREDRICK HERXBERG. This theory has cleared the concept of those factors that leads to dissatisfaction and satisfaction within the employees (Herzberg, 2017). There are five factors that is related with job satisfaction, these factors are:
- Work itself
- On the other hand, there are several factors that is related to dissatisfaction of job among the employees that are listed below:
- Working conditions
- Company administration and principles or laws
- Wages or Salaries structure
- Interpersonal relationship
M2 Critically evaluate how to influence the behavior of others through the effective application of behavioral motivational theories, concepts and models.
According to the view point of Luthans, A W Holding Company Limited can use used Maslow Hierarchy Needs Theory to motivate or inspire their workers or teams which enhance the performance level of an employees at all. For example, employers of an organization can satisfy the psychological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization needs of their employees in order to motivate them in efficiently and effectively manner. At the similar time they management of A W Holding Company Limited can also use Herzberg’s two factor theory for motivating their workers at workstations. These are achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, etc. If they will offer all these factors to their workers and also to the team members then they will accomplish their assigned goals and objectives in an appropriate manner.
D1 Critically evaluate the relationship between culture, politics, power and motivation that enables teams and organization to succeed, providing justified recommendations.
According to Podsakoff, there is a relation in between culture, politics, power and motivation of employees and team members. If there will be politics in an organization which affects the performance of an employees then the motivation level and also performance level of a team members gets lower down. At the same time, if power will be authorized to wrong intentional person in an organization then they will take incorrect decisions which affects the policies and profitability of an organization. Whereas the command and authority should be in correct hand which does not affect the organization and its people. Thus, the manager of an organization is recommended to give power in appropriate hands and determine that politics will not be present at workstations. On the other hand, if a person culture would be present at organization, then it would inspire the employees as they will achieve a chance to work for themselves but it will not beneficial to the organization. Thus, an organization should ensure that only task culture would be present at organization environment so that managers will distribute work to all team members according to their talents. This will create inspirational spirits within employees and motivate them in an appropriate manner.
P3 Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Effective team theory by various different author which are discussed below:
This model was invented by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is one of more known team development theories and has formed the basis of many further ideas since its conception. Tuckman model can be used by A W Holding Company Limited for making an effective team which completed the goals in an appropriate manner.
Tuckman has given five stages of creating an effective team for A W Holding Company Limited which are discussed as below:
The first stage of this model is forming in which teams are formed and roles and responsibilities are assigned to the team members. In this model, team leader plays an important role which supervises and motivate its team. The leader treats its subordinates with polite and also in positively manner. All goals are stated to the team members in an appropriately manner (Luthans, et. al., 2015).
This is second stage of Tuckman model in which conflicts are arise in between the team members because different members are work together which have different viewpoints. Thus, they perform in different manner and create unpredicted situation in the team. This will create irritation and conflicts among all team members (Podsakoff, et. al., 2018).
This is the third stage of this model in which the team members and leader also try to solve the problems and respecting their differences and views. Team members appreciates each other performance and also give feedbacks for everyone working style. Team members also help each other and also support (Cao, et. al., 2015).
This is the fourth stage in which present the performance of team members as they become serious about their jobs and work for accomplishing their tasks. This helps in reaching at final destination. Team members works with each other and complete the assigned goals in an appropriately manner (Robbins and Judge, 2014).
After completion of all steps, all teams comes at the stage of adjourning. Here, employees start binding up their work. For example, project is assigned to a team for specific time period and after accomplishment of that, team member is removed from their duty (Cao, et. al., 2015).
Kurt Lewin theory
A W Holding Company Limited can also use Kurt Lewin theory for creating an effective team for the organization (Scandura, 2017). Following there are three step model that is described below:
This is stage about getting ready to change. This stage involves getting to a point of understanding that change is necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone. This first stage is about preparing ourselves, or others, before the change.
The change is implemented if the team members would open up their minds. The process of change may be dynamic in nature, thus in order to gain efficiency, people would have to use effective method of implementing change.
If an organization wants to make a change permanent in nature, then they should reach its full effect. Team leaders should reach its full effect. Team leaders should create new standards for refreeze the change.
The organization should use these three above stages in developing a better team and achieve all pre-stated goals and objectives.
M3 Analyze relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic co-operation.
There are two different theories for the development of efficient team that are Tuckman team development theory and Kurt Lewin theory that helps in making an effective and efficient team for A W Holding Company Limited. The management of A W Holding Company Limited should use Tuckman Theory for developing better and effective team for an organization. They also utilize 5 stages of Tuckman in making an effective team for a future project. In addition, A W Holding Company Limited can also use Kurt Lewin theory to prepare an effective team for an organization. This will help in generating a powerful team within an organization.
P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of OB within organizational context and a given business situation.
A W Holding Company Limited should use different theories and concepts of an organization behavior in order to make an effective and healthy relationship with their employees. Some of theories and concepts related with organizational behavior are described as below:
Path goals theory
This theory is basically based on specifying the leadership styles and its behavior that will be best suitable for the employees and working environment of an organization. This theory offers four kinds of leadership behavior that are described below:
Participative leader behavior:
Leaders of this behavior encourage their group members in taking participation while making final decisions. In this method, the employees can directly participate in the process of decision making and this helps in creating a good feeling within the employees and motivate them (Luthans, et. al., 2015).
Supportive leader behavior:
This type of leader supports psychological behavior of an employees so that they do not feel any burden on their heads. The main motivate of this type of leadership is that it reduces stress and frustration among workers. This help them in working freely and also helps to employees in completing their tasks (Podsakoff, et. al., 2018).
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Directive path goals clarifying behavior:
This leadership style minimize or reduces the job vagueness. Leaders of an organization sets the principles and policies of achieving any targets on appropriate manner (Betts and Healy, 2015).
Lack of motivation:
This is considered as another issue that act as obstructer for the organization. If personnel’s will not get motivated effectively, then they not work for the upliftment of organization. Thus, it is very important to inspire employees so that they start work for the welfare of organization (Betts and Healy, 2015).
Achievement oriented behavior:
Behavior of this leader focuses on improving the performance of workers by setting a goal for them. After that they give challenges to employees for achieving the same task. This develops confidence level in team members and inspire them to attain that (Betts and Healy, 2015).
Hofstede’s Cultural dimension’s theory:
This is a special outline for doing cross cultural communication. This concept was invented by Geert Hofstede. This theory commonly describes the impacts culture of a society upon the values of its members (Podsakoff, et. al., 2018). This value is also related to the behavior that can be derived from Sample factor analysis. There are six dimension of Hofstede that are described as below:
- Power Distance Index
- Individualism Versus Collectivism
- Masculinity Versus Femininity
- Uncertainty avoidance index
- Long Versus Short Term Orientation
- Indulgence Versus Restraint
M4 Justify and evaluate a range of concepts and philosophies in how they inform and influence behavior in both positive and negative ways.
There are various concepts and theories that impacts positive as well as negative ways on the staff members of an organization. Path goal theory gives ideas regarding the different behaviors of leaders. This reflect an effective way to the front runners for handling their juniors and group associates. But these behaviors may not guarantee the successful handling of team members. In addition to this, it may also consume the time of an organization. Thus, impacts negatively on the performance of team subordinates.
D2 Critically analyze and evaluate the relevance of team development theories in the context of organizational behavior concepts and philosophies that influence behavior in the workplace.
As per the Podsakoff, Tuckman team development theory is proved to be beneficial for the organization as this help in forming an effective team that will perform better in comparison to an ineffective team. A W Holding Company Limited can achieve their predetermined goals and objectives in an efficient and effective manner. But these processes may consume a lot of time that can be used in other tasks or responsibilities. Thus, it is also considered as non-profitable method. The organization should use the same theory in forming a good team. This will also impact optimistically on the behavior of team members.
This project report is concluded that organization behavior is an important part that should be focused on by each and every organization. This will assist A W Holding Company Limited in creating positive and healthy relationship with employees or team members. A W Holding Company Limited can use various theories of team development like Tuckman and Herzberg to make an effective team for the future projects or also for products. These all impacts positively as well as negatively on the team performance and its members. A W Holding Company Limited can use apply various theories to enhance the performance level and productivity of an organization.
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