The Development of Tangible Device Decision Making for Physical Access Control


Development of decision-making tool for the selection of tangible physical security access control devices


 Aim: To develop a decision matrix for the selection of electronic physical access control devices. 


  • To construct an essential assortment criterion in the selection of tangible physical access control devices.
  • To progress a tool for decision making that helps inappropriate selection of tangible access control devices.

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Physical Security

Physical security is considered as protection of personnel, information and property with property including hardware, programs, networks and data against circumstances which may cause harm or loss to an organisation or individual (Boran, 2009). It has been noticed that by having improved focus on physical security the institutions and organisations can attain effective protection from fire, theft, terrorism, etc. (Scherer, 2011). Physical security systems are framed in order to meet the diverse significant protective activities. At the initial level, security systems were designed to provide protection to ongoing assets. However, security systems are now framed to protect human resource, buildings, equipments, etc. It means by having use of system, it can be make sure that only authorised person is having access to the assets (Mahdavi, 2008). Within the physical security domain this can be achieved through a variety of methods ranging from a simple sign and systematic process. It is also essential to focus on procedures, environmental aspects and other values that may improve protection. Biometric readers and electronic locking devices installation in offices also promote physical security. In order to provide better protection consideration of all methods is beneficial. It allows to overcome barriers and improve conditions (Sayadi, 2009).

Decision Making

Decision Making is considered as a process that focuses on the formation of important decisions. It can be said that a structured decision process allows for the effective selection of logical choices from the list of available options (Turban, 2011). For effective decision making to occur a person must focus on positive and negative elements within each option. Such a process of deconstruction allows for the effective identification of alternative ways among a broad range of options so that the best option can be selected for achieving objectives. As per the detailed study, security manager need to take number of decisions on daily basis for improvement in services. It is significant for members to have decision according to consideration of diverse factors that are associated with risk management. It means on the basis of risk the security manager must take decisions so that goals and objectives can be accomplished (Stadler, 2009). Security domain also need to be referred for continuous improvement in security measures. Effective focus on formal systematic process allows to have identification of risk that are associated with environment. While having participation in decision making process the management must focus on diverse methods that allows to meet objectives. Evaluation of methods to manage risk is significant section and it helps in decision making process. Application of treatment strategies is also dependent upon the monitoring of existing process (O'neill, 2009). It means in order to have effective decisions security manager must evaluate number of methods that helps in meeting standards.

Theory Supporting The Study


The existing study is framed on the basis of theories of security science domain. It is beneficial to deal with specific kind of crime prevention and ensure that better support is being provided to Defence in depth. With an assistance of this, relationship between security and risk management can be improved. It also plays a key role in exploring the risk management so that decision making process can be accomplished effectively.

In addition to this, there diverse theories that may be used to have support in regard to access control. It helps in improving physical security system for continuous improvement. Many organisations adopt a physical security program to protect against fire, theft, terrorism, etc. There are various crime prevention frameworks that can be used to reduce the opportunities of criminal activities (Velis, 2012). The reduction of opportunity aspect of the framework involves measures that provide better protection so by focusing on the study, learning can be improved about these measures. By having a proper use of number of physical security devices can assist in meeting target. It is necessary to make sure that para-centric profiles must be well maintained so that issues can be overcome. Use of electronic access control readers will secure essential elements. Encryption of information is one of key factor that support the security system (Rangel, 2009). It is also significant for security manager to have better control over access so that potential targets can be accomplished. By having improved focus on exclude potential offenders the efficiency of security system can be advanced. It also helps to ensure that area is protected from potential attackers. In this, situational crime prevention may also be advanced for sustainable development. It does not only prevent from physical limit access but also protects from diverse risk and difficulties that may impact overall aspects (Dey, 2010).

Decision-Making Theory

Decision-making process is a non-linear, recursive activity which is framed to have improvement in services. It is necessary for security executive to have consideration of criteria and characteristics of choice so that issues can be overcome. Along with this, identification and evaluation of diverse alternative ways is also significant because it allows to have improvement in protection (Flick, 2011). In order to have appropriate understanding about decision making theory there are supportive theories that need to be consider in appropriate manner. In addition to this, utility theory is considered as policy that allow decision makers to accomplish goals and objectives in appropriate manner. With an assistance of this, alternative ways can be chose in desired way. Proper values can be provided to system by having improved focus on key guidelines.

Expected utility theory is also a critical aspect that helps in meeting objectives. It allows to have combined used of activities and add on values. Proper course of action must be designed to make sure that expected utility can be offered. The course of action or alternative with the highest expected utility should be chosen and that the decision is consistent (Goddard and Melville, 2014). It is significant for members to have decisions as per preferences so that issues can be overcome in desired way. Along with this, information must be collected and analysed in desired way so that complex decisions can also be taken. Access control system selection must be according to multiple criteria. It has been noticed that there are number of standards and criteria that must be considered for effective selection of an access control devices. It also facilitates in overcome issues and improve the overall working. Complex issues in respect to decisions are mostly related with diverse aspects. Traditional and logical belief must be referred to improve work conditions (Daniel and Sam, 2011). Approach of multi criteria decision making is beneficial to meet the objectives and offering opportunity to improve mathematical framework. It is advantageous for self consistent analysis so that decisions can be taken into account. It is necessary for security manager to have decisions in independent manner. For the development of the decision matrix this required an approach that allowed the large number of selection criteria to be shown. Along with this, decision matrix also need to be designed as per criteria to have weight that is beneficial for improvement.

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Literature Review

The literature review is considered as most significant aspect for the study and it provides better learning in respect to subject by analysing number of secondary sources. It means literature in regard to decision making and its methodologies will be beneficial to understand the key measures of the study. It will also indicate the information about security and application of policies for effective selection of tools. The literature shows a trend of positive outcomes from the use of a structured decision-making approach. It also provides in-depth analysis of outcomes and make understand key objectives.

Decision making theory is one of critical aspect that helps individual to make decisions in desired way. In this respect, it has been noticed that individual must improve decision making process by appropriate selection of tools. By having improved focus on decision making theory the security executive may have effective application of policies. Lee (2011) identified a number of decision making approaches that can be adopted by security practitioners for the appropriate selection of tools. In addition to this, it can be said that the decision making tool provides a great support to accomplishment of systematic decision making (Lee, 2011). Listing can be designed as per needs of stakeholders so that the best selection can be provided. It is necessary to make sure that physical security must be considered as critical aspect and accurate decision must be taken into account. Moreover, author has also said that there are number of articles that are being published to understand the effective implementation of strategies. With an assistance of this, key goals and objectives can be accomplished and improve outcome of study. Along with this, Davis (2012) has stated that application of utility theory helps in make efficient decisions and communicate these decisions effectively. By having assistance of this, security professional can ensure about the funding and need of new technological tools (Davis, 2012). In addition to this, it can be said that the professionals also need to focus on diverse factors that are related with the physical security.



The study will adopt a qualitative research technique. In this, number of qualitative tools will be adopted by members to construct an essential assortment criterion in the selection of tangible physical access control devices (Bradley, 2013). Exploratory research design will be employed by researcher to provides more accurate knowledge and information about research topic and evaluator can compile several kinds of data without any problems. With the help of qualitative research approach better support will be provided to the study in order to have better outcomes (Creswell, 2013). In addition to this, it can be said that sampling methods also need to be referred as per need of organisation. Random sampling method will be employed by researcher to accomplish the objectives. It is a method that helps in primary research accomplishment. Interviews, questionnaire and surveys are also key methods that are mostly adopted by researcher in order to make sure that key standards are properly maintained. For accomplishment of current investigation, questionnaire method has been used to have appropriate collection of information.

Literature Extraction

As per the detailed study, it has been identified that literature study is considered as initial level study that offers appropriate learning about subject. In this section, the detailed will be gathered and analysed in respect to selection of access control devices. Journals, books and other sources will be used to gather information about decision making process. Data is accessed on the basis of keywords so that better support can be provided to study. For having effective collection of information, researcher will focus on primary and secondary sources. In primary sources the questionnaire will be designed with consideration of motive of the study. It will assist in gathering responses and testing the designed decision matrix. In respect to secondary sources, number of secondary material will be accessed by experts (Daniel and Sam, 2011). Books, journals, magazines and online sources will be considered as critical aspect that will assist in effective collection of information. Information will also be presented in literature format so that proper interpretation can be provided. In order to provide appropriate explanation of collected information different themes will be designed. It means information will be presented in form of decision matrix and physical security.

Structured Interview

It is a stage in which interview will be considered as critical aspect for appropriate collection of information. It is beneficial to provide better support to primary research and accomplish goals and objectives. In this, interview will be conducted for target sample audience. Participants of the interview will be security professionals so that better outcome can be attained. Along with this, interview will be conducted on the basis of key criteria that allows to meet objectives. Key motive is to understand professionals preferences towards selection of physical access control devices. Questions asked to participants must reflect the motive or purpose behind the interview. On the basis of collected information, different themes will be framed so that better support can be provided to literature extraction. Broad themes are being framed implicit knowledge of other relevant selection criteria particular to their field of physical security. It indicates that understanding in respect to physical security and other aspects can be attained in desired way.


It is a third stage where interview will be developed on the basis of decision matrix. Survey has been created to take responses from participants so that learning can be improved in regard to subject of the study. Online survey will be created with a use of google forms. Different kind of online tools are there that helps data collection and storage so researcher will focus on such aspects. It will provide a great support to overall process and allows to accomplish goals and objectives in low cost. It provides ability to have rapid development of survey that helps in meeting objectives. Online survey method is more effective as compared to traditional once so management need to ensure about it. With an assistance of this, proper outline can be framed so that optimistic outcome can be attained. Purpose of the survey will also be shared with the online forums so that participants may provide accurate and valid response to survey.

Sampling and Testing

In addition to this, proper selection of sampling is also essential because it helps in meeting objectives. For current study, sampling size will be 70 security professionals. In this, questionnaire will be presented to participants in order to take the responses in regard to the subject (Flick, 2011). By having consideration of this, information can be collected effectively. Along with this, the testing of decision matrix will also be considered by the researcher in order to ensure about the decisions. It will also require an assistance of sampling size. With an assistance of this, suggestions can be taken into account because it will assist in continuous improvement. On the basis of outcome of testing the decisions can be framed in desired way. It means in depth learning can be gained in respect to electronic access control and its application (Chui, 2007). It is beneficial to improve security measures and lead business to impressive level of success. Issues in regard to application of electronic access control also impacts the overall performance. By having assistance of feedback the responses can be taken from the sample size so that better understanding can be developed in regard to security system.

Data Analysis

In respect to present investigation, experts will focus on qualitative aspects of data analysis. For effective analysis and interpretation of the gathered information, researcher will focus on thematic approach. With an assistance of this, themes will be designed by the members as per consideration of gathered responses (Jackson, 2008). It will also allow to present information in tables and graphs so that overall findings can be presented in appropriate manner (Goddard and Melville, 2014). Appropriate analysis of literature expansion is also significant because it allows to meet objectives. With an assistance of themes will be framed to attain better outcomes from the study.

Validity and Reliability

In addition to this, it can be said that every research study requires an appropriate consideration of content validity so that accurate outcomes can be attained. By having improved focus on validity the research outcomes can be improved in order to meet objectives. If these aspects are not properly maintained then critical issue might be faced. Researcher must focus on effective application of reliability and validity so that proper support can be offered to all research methods (Philips and Clark, 2012). Validity is consisted of two factors that are classified as internal validity and external validity. Internal validity is helpful to make sure that results obtained are from authorised sources and it is beneficial for improvement.


Limitations of the study is that the values and belief of researcher may get influenced due to mechanical security solutions. It may also affect the overall outcomes of the study. Along with this, allocation of finance for completion of study is also significant (Daniel and Sam, 2011). If allocation of finance is not appropriate, then effectiveness of the study may get influenced in negative manner. One of limitation of the study might be that it focuses on random sampling. If researcher has not considered key principles of random sampling then it might be possible that random selection has not accomplished in authentic way. It might affect the overall development of results in diverse manner. Access to security professionals is not easy that also impacts the effectiveness of study (Merriam, 2009). Overall process of data collection might be delay because of lack of availability of security professionals who are ready for survey and interview. Moreover, lack of information in context to decision matrix may also impact the results of overall study. It is significant for researcher to ensure about key principles in order to make sure about the limitations and maintain effectiveness of the study.


It is necessary for researcher to make sure that the results must be presented in such manner that overall outcome will be useful of public. If data interpretation is not understandable then process of interpretation can not be rate in appropriate manner. An example of the interpretation of data is the condensing of various access device functions. In addition to this, it can be said that interpretation of information must provide learning about diverse factors that are related with physical security (Gibaldi, 2010). The context in which these terms were located assisted in the development of the weighting documents question assist materials. It means end user and reader must understand the key values so that study objectives can be accomplished in desired way.

Decision Matrix Development

In present study, development of decision matrix will be presented in appendix so that selection of physical access devices within context of asset protection can be taken into account. In this, information gathered from primary and secondary sources will also provide assistance in designing of decision matrix (Flick, 2011). Physical Security Access Device Decision Matrix is systematic method that helps in appropriate selection so it will be considered as significant aspect.


As per above study, it can be concluded that in order to have designed of decision matrix the key aspect of study will be considered effectively. Questionnaire will be framed in order to take the responses from the participants. Along with this, information about wide range of physical security access devices has been gathered from secondary sources. It will assist in effective designing of decision matrix. By having improved focus on AHP the security practitioners may have designing of spread sheet that renders information about security aspects. It facilitates in decision making process for sustainable improvement. Evaluation of studies indicates that AHP might be accessed to have appropriate accomplishment of decision making process. It is a matrix tool that provide appropriate evaluation of key values. Decision-making theory is one of critical aspect that helps individual to make decisions in desired way. In this respect, it has been noticed that individual must improve the decision making process by appropriate selection of tools. 


  • Awasthi, A., 2011. A multi-criteria decision-making approach for location planning for urban distribution centers under uncertainty. Mathematical and Computer Modelling.
  • Boran, F. E., 2009. A multi-criteria intuitionistic fuzzy group decision making for supplier selection with TOPSIS method. Expert Systems with Applications.
  • Bradley, N., 2013. Research: Tools and Techniques. Oxford University Press.
  • Chui, W., 2007. Research Methods for Law. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Creswell, J. W., 2013. Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 4th ed. SAGE Publications, Inc.
  • Daniel, S. P. and Sam, G. A., 2011. Research Methodology. Gyan Publishing House.
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