Hospitality Operations


Hospitality operation management involves with multiple activities and it is mainly engaged with variety of staff members that includes from buying raw materials, producing quality of finished food and beverages, maintaining good quality of services to the customers. It is very important in hospitality operation to prepare and deliver tasty as well as healthy food and beverages to customer. In order to improve and overcome improper food preparation it is important to practice excellent services, maintain clean surrounding and invite ambience. According to case study, John Mclean was appointed as the Food & Beverage Director in the Lanesborough Hotel. He has gone through various Food & Beverage management courses from recognised and reputed organisation. He is quite competent in handling four basic field which includes food groups,food pyramid, recommended dietary allowance, minerals, vitamins and finally menu engineering. This report covers history, origin and development of menu , basic categories of menu and types of menu within in Food and beverage outlets. It also covers about the roles and responsibilities of Food and Beverage directors within food and beverage department. This report focus on menu engineering and analysis of factors along with the implementation of wide range of strategies that recognise nutrition concerns.

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1. Key milestone of the history, origin and development of the menu, basic categories of menu and types of menu within any food & beverage outlets.

In hotel and restaurant, menu is considered as a list of food and beverages that is offered to customers for place their orders. Through menu guests are able to choose their taste food item and beverages from a list of options.

History Of Menu

In context with the history, origin and development of menu, it is termed as list of prepared food that was discovered dating back to the song dynasty in China. Due to large population, the merchants and dealer found an effective way to cater to the customers that had very limited time and energy to prepare food items in evening. The word “menu”is French origin that is usually use for the terminology of cuisine. Menu is ultimately derives from the Latin “minutus” which means something made small. Earlier the original menu was offered as consumers choice that were mainly prepared on small chalkboard. The menu as firstly formulated and implemented in China during the second half of the eighteenth century or the era of romantic age. Earlier, dishes was chosen and prepared by chef or proprietors before the arrival and establishment of menu. Customer use to ate only those food items that was severed for that particular day. With the arrival and establishment of menu at restaurant and hotels customers are able to choose and select food items or beverages from a list of unseen dishes. The dishes were produced and prepared on the basis of order placed by the customers. Moreover, the arrival of menu allows customers to spend money according to their affordable prices or as little money they want to spend on their food consumption (Wright and Ransom, 2005).

In context to economics of menu production, in mid of 20th century there were many restaurants that relied on different menu specialists in order to design and print menus for implementation in food and beverages businesses. Before the introduction of digital printing there were niche printing companies that use to print coloured menus on offset presses. It terms of economics the practice of printing coloured menus becomes very impractical and expensive after short time duration. Later menu shell was developed in order to overcome this issue. During economics crisis there were many restaurants and hotels that where facing issues with the incur costs to reprint the menu as the inflation causes increase in the prices. In order to modify menu with new prices the presses were costing high prices. In order to handle the issues of reprint of the menus many restaurant started displaying the menus items and prices on board written by chalk. Now in the latest trends, handheld tablets are used that hold the menu and guests that can be browsed throughout by having a look on the dishes through photographs (Morley et al, 2013).

Basic Categories Of Menu

Basic categories of menu in the US are the appetizers, side orders, en trees, desserts, beverages and a la carte. The side orders and a la carte mainly includes soup, dips, salads, desserts and beverages. Moreover, there are advanced specific age restricted sections for different age categories that includes kids, teenagers, old aged people that is representing small smaller portion at lower prices. All the categories are mentioned separately and can be pulled out as separate menu which includes different types of dessert, beverages and list of wine. Kid's menu are generally presented as place mats that includes interesting games and puzzles in order to keep kids engage with entertainment(Davis et al, 2018).Menu also enables to provide some other useful information to the guests or diners. In some high proficient menu's the whole description about the chef's or proprietor's food philosophy, vision and mission statement of the restaurant and chef's resume. Menus also includes restaurant's policies regarding ID checks for lost items, gratuities for larger parties and alcohol. In developed countries like United States, health departments frequently asks restaurants to include health warning that is associated with the raw or under cooked meat, seafood, poultry and eggs.

Types Of Menu

There are various types of menus within food and beverages outlets. Some of the types of menus are discussed in detail below:

Paper: Menus generally varies in length and details that totally depends on the type of restaurant. One of the most common hand-held menus are simply printed on a single sheet of paper. This menus are small booklet of paper on which different food items with prices are printed. In order to protect this paper menu from spills it is usually laminated, covered by menu cover and heat-sealed by vinyl page protectors.

Menu Board: There are many typical fast food restaurant and cafeteria style establishment that provides their menus with different food items and beverages in large poster or displayed on board, hanged on walls or above the service counter. Through this the guests or the customers are able to see food item of there choices due to this the food and beverage outlets does not need to provide printed menus. Some of the expensive large format menu board used by the restaurants includes those boards that are having translucent surface, backlight , have a metal housing and board can be replaced with numbers for the prices. There are some restaurants such as small eateries and cafes that uses large chalk board in order to display the entire menu. The main advantage of using such board is that it becomes very simple to change menu items and prices(Wright and Ransom, 2005).

Outdoor: Some restaurant distributes and provides a copy of their menu that is outside the restaurant. Fast food restaurants have walk-up window that often put up the entire menu on a board and poster outside so that customers can select their meals choices of their own choice. There are various high end restaurants that also provide a copy of their menu outside the restaurant along with pages of the menu that is placed in a lit-up glass display case.

Digital displays: With the upcoming invention of plasma displays and LCD, there are some menus that have moved from printing model to one which can change dynamically. With the help of flat LCD screen and computer server, it becomes very easy to digitally display menu with different food items and prices. It involves with moving images of food items, animated effects and the ability to edit details as well as prices.

Online menu: There are various restaurant that has owned and started online food ordering websites. It includes menu with different food item and prices on websites . Menus and online food item ordering along with delivering is available online due to which it becomes very easy to place order by customers.

2. Analysis of roles and responsibilities of Restaurant Manager within Food & Beverage department.

POSITION TITLE: Restaurant Manager

REPORTS TO: Director of Food & Beverage

POSITION SUMMARY: Restaurant Manager is required to manage overall activities in the restaurant with utmost sincerity and ensure its long term growth by developing effective strategies that helps the organisation achieve its objectives.

Roles and responsibilities

Restaurant Manager plays important role in handling the food and beverages operations. It is their duty to manage production of food and beverages products that conform to quality standards. These individuals play crucial roles in controlling and monitoring the excellent services, maintaining clean surrounding and handle all the improper or ineffective production procedures(Grayson and Hodges, 2017).

In order to perform good in any profession it is crucial to understand the roles and responsibilities to achieve competitive advantage in order serve excellent services to customers: Some of the roles and responsibilities that should be adopted and implemented by restaurant managers are as follows:

Maintain proper communication channel

It is one of most crucial role of manager to maintain proper communication channel in order to maintain proper food and beverages operations. By practising good communication skills in the restaurant conflicts among the different level employees is reduced. Communication skills helps to reduce misunderstanding while working in the restaurants. It is important to have good communication channel among various staff members at restaurant to serve best at their services. Proper communication skills should by adapted to avoid conflicts and run organisation smoothly.

Handling problems and issues at workplace

Restaurant Managers should be competent enough to handle problems and issues that comes in way while handling food and beverages operations. As there are number of problem and issues arises while running restaurants to serve best services. There are many problems that arises in restaurant regarding menu, customer services, hiring and training staffs, finance handling, marketing strategies. To overcome this problems problem solving skills is needed as it acts as a key for success and prosperity for any food and beverages outlets.

Strong decision making to handle food and beverage operations

Restaurant Managers crucial roles is to take strong decision in order to manage effectively different food and beverage operations. There should be practice of effective leadership skills so that productive decision can be taken and implemented to serve best to customers and guests. In restaurants, there in need of making various decision which includes making changes in menu, making changes in rates etc.

Forecasting future demands

As a restaurant manager, one should have the potential to forecast the future needs in order to attain competitive advantage. Forecasting skills is important as it is concerned about forecast of changing demand and preferences of customers that involves taste, dietary foods and drinks(Reinders et al, 2016).

Manage budgets

It is important role and responsibility of managers to overview and handle the budgets for different food and beverage department. Budgeting skills allows to manage food costs well, upholding and setting rates for food items, setting proper menu standards, purchase food and stock and controlling inventory stocks.

Customer Service

It is the duty of restaurant managers to maintain effective customer service throughout their role in the restaurant. This requires them to aid to the immediate needs of the customer, acquire feedbacks, monitor the service quality given to them and so forth,

Effective management

One of the most important responsibilities of restaurant manager is managing the restaurant. This means that alongside internal management, they also manage the vendors as well as equipments required to enhance effectiveness of the restaurant. In addition, inventory management is also one prime consideration of restaurant managers.


They are responsible to accelerate the marketing activities of the restaurant. They undertake the marketing strategies that are required to effectively achieve marketing objectives of the restaurants. They use both online and offline marketing methods to market their restaurant in the marketplace to maximum range of customers.

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3. Menu engineering, factors and systematic approach that John Mclean can follow for menu engineering in Celeste Restaurant in Lanesborough Hotel.

Definition of Menu Engineering

Menu engineering is generally used in hospitality industry in order to handle food and beverage operations. It is specifically used in the context with restaurant but it can also be used or applied to any order industry that use to display a list of product and services. Menu engineering allows offers to customers to choice food items and beverages of there own choice and taste.

Why Menu Engineering

The main motive and goal of menu engineering is to enhance firm's profitability. Menu engineering subconsciously motivate and encourage customers to purchase that they want customers to buy and discourage those purchasing of food item that customers don't want them to buy. As John Mclean has undergone through so many food and beverage management courses from reputed organisation he is potential enough to handle menu engineering. Some of the factors and systematic approach that John Mclean can follow for menu engineering in Celeste Restaurant in Lanesborough Hotel are as follows:

Calculating menu item costs: Menu engineering helps in balancing the low and high food cost items along with strategically featuring and promoting items in order to reach organisation targets. John Mclean can work on calculating menu item costs in order to maintain imbalance of both high and low food cost items. This will help John Mclean to identify and plan for promoting food item to increase its value in the market (Wood, 2018).

Food cost percentage: Food cost percentage can only be determine by dividing the portion cost with the selling price. Through calculating food cost percentage John Mclean can determine a selling price of any particular food item. This can allow him to focus on those food items those demand is decreasing in the market and more modification is needed in that particular food item.

4. Issues involved in implementing a wide range of strategies that recognise nutrition concern for healthier options on menu

Nutrients is defined as process of nourishing the body, supplying what is necessary to sustain in life. Nutrients are the chemical compounds that is needed for the growth, repair, energy and regulation of body function. The main six types of nutrients are discussed below:

Carbohydrates: They are the sugars and starches that provides energy to the body.

Protein: Protein helps in building and repairing the muscles tissues.

Vitamins: They helps in promoting normal growth, protect against the certain diseases and provide proper metabolism.

Fats and Oil: They helps in storing energy in the body.

Minerals: They helps and support the function of heart, metabolism, bones and teeth formation.

Water: Water helps in regulating the body function that includes nutrient absorption and body formation.

Some of the prominent nutrition guidelines are mentioned below:

  • The fruits and vegetables bought must be fresh and present in each meal by the restaurant.
  • Another prominent guideline for the hotel must be to adopt low-fat dairy products for customers in order to enhance the nutrition levels.
  • The firm must avoid in buying and serving food items that are rich in saturated fats, sugar, sodium and cholesterol.

The main nutrition concerns in purchasing is that vegetables should be fresh, properly froze-ned, cooked and canned. In concern with dairy milk products it should be fortified with vitamins A and D. There should be distribution of sodium free soups and sauces bases.

The nutrition concern in storing can be overcome by mainlining proper storage time and temperature along with proper packaging techniques. Each item in the storage must be timely and effectively checked in order to avoid any circumstance under which depleted items are used to production of food.

In spite of growing global recognition of the importance of the nutrition for both social and economical development stills there are some nutrition issues in high priority in context with national policy making processes along with resultant policies. It is important to make nutrition as an integral part of healthier options on menu planning and achieve substantial progress in reducing malnutrition and unhealthier practises. Some of the issues that are involved in implementing a wide range of strategies that recognise nutrition concern for healthier options on menu are as follows:

Cross-sectoral coordination

Nutrition act as an inherently cross sectoral issues and somewhere it does not fit well into administrate organisation. Complication with the nutrition is that it is not considered as separate sector but it is generally considered as sub sector of health. Nutrition does not have its own ministry and it often lacks appropriate administrative body in order to advocate for its national policy processes (Wright and Ransom, 2005).

Nutrition awareness in policy

There is issue of poor recognition by the policies and decision making for malnutrition as a critical factors of public health issues and ill health. Chronic health condition is usually accepted as normal condition but still as a part of context, government is still working best on such issues. Cognitive impairment, long term susceptibility and disabilities to certain disease are often not viewed in relation to unhealthier practices or malnutrition as their underlying common issues causes and milder impairment are less visible to eyes in compare other diseases.


It is found that the food and beverages operation management deals with multiple activities that is engaged with the staff members from buying raw materials, producing finished food and beverages, maintaining the service quality to the customers, keeping the inventory of materials, managing different events associated with catering and analysing the whole businesses. Menu enables to provide some other useful information to the guests or diners. In high proficient menu's the whole description about the chef's or proprietor's food philosophy, vision and mission statement of the restaurant and chef's resume.It is identified in this report that menu engineering helps in balancing the low and high food cost items along with strategically featuring and promoting items in order to reach organisation targets.In spite of growing global recognition of the importance of the nutrition for both social and economical development stills there are some nutrition issues in high priority in context with national policy making processes along with resultant policies.


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  • Douglas, N., Knai, C., Petticrew, M., Eastmure, E., Durand, M.A. and Mays, N., 2018. How the food, beverage and alcohol industries presented the Public Health Responsibility Deal in UK print and online media reports.Critical Public Health, pp.1-11.
  • Grayson, D. and Hodges, A., 2017.Corporate social opportunity!: Seven steps to make corporate social responsibility work for your business. Routledge.
  • Morley, B., Scully, M., Martin, J., Niven, P., Dixon, H. and Wakefield, M., 2013. What types of nutrition menu labelling lead consumers to select less energy-dense fast food? An experimental study.Appetite,67, pp.8-15.
  • Nascimento, L., Rabelo, H. and Riella, G., 2017.Menu Choices with Categories. mimeo, Universidade de Brasília.
  • Nishikawa, Y.S., Chow, J.S., Mingo, K. and Mugura, K., Sony Corp and Sony Electronics Inc, 2002.Provide two different types of service in a menu. U.S. Patent 6,348,932.
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