Contemporary hospitality can be simply defined as relationship between customers and organisation whereby guest is received by hosts with friendliness involving the reception and recreation of guests, travellers, etc. It is made up of two distinct services provisions ( Woodside, Ramos Mir, and Duque, 2011). First one is all-night accommodation for clients that are living away from their homes and second one is giving services of foods for those consumers who are not cooking their own meal and eat away from their home. This organisation cover hotels, restaurant, bar, club and casino. This organisation includes broad categories of fields that consist of lodging, foo-ding, restaurant, planning of event, theme park, conveyance and many additional sectors that cover the tourist industry also. The hospitality industry is a several million dollar organisation that majorly depends on the presence of leisure hours and spendable income. Tourism and hospitality is the most increasingly growing organisation in the globe producing more than approx 75 million employment within this industry. There is a broad variety of carrier possibility or opportunities that are occurring due to growth of electronic commerce and globalization. The present report is based on contemporary hospitality services of Marriott. In this report current scale, scope and diversity of this organisation. The different organisational structure is also explained here.
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1.1 Structure of current scale, range and diversity
The scope of hospitality industry in United Kingdom is very vast and it is defined by several types of businesses that is used to form or create an industry. Organisation that provide services of food and beverages, catering services involves hotel, restaurant, corporation planning events, resorts, night club, etc. The scale of Marriott can be estimated by thinking of several indicators. The scale of this hospitality organisation by the end of 2014 is presented in the form of a table that is designed below:
No. of Employees
Hotels: more than 450,000; Restaurant: more than 1.5 million; contract and in-house catering: 800,000
Income from foreign
Over 8 billion Euro
More than 103 billion Euro, that is more than 6% of complete GDP.
Diversity of organisation differs from the services and goods offered by several businesses, target customers and the standard of services provided. For example, corporation offering services like accommodation, foo-ding, etc. to their clients. However, hotels of several stars categories including from one to five stars targeted users of different spending abilities.
Every sector faces certain issues in the sector that leads to hampering in the functionality.
There are certain issues which are identified by research and they are as follows:
- Economic issues (Rising fuel cost)
- Political issues (visa and passport requirement)
- Disease outbreaks (Foot and Mouth disease)
- Terrorist attacks
- Demographic changes
- Increasing urbanisation
- Growth in population level.
These issues has to be dealt with very cautionary approach so that there are less loss and more profits. The industry have many opportunity and hence its scope its large. It means there are range of different business within industry that are providing services, products and facilities to the consumers (CG Davidson, McPhail, and Barry, 2011). It not just include hotels and restaurants but also organisation which provide other type of products and services, such as casinos, clubs, etc.
The biggest category within the industry are:
- Travellers accommodations, hotels, camp sites and hospices.
- Tour operators, intermediaries, reservation, agents, etc.
- Restaurants, cafes, bars, etc.
- Education, betting and gambling, estate, etc.
There are many important factors that have impact on the industry and its working. If the customer preference changes to different product then industry will need to change its offerings too. The services and goods offered by sector is very diverse and contain both type of tangible and noon tangible elements. Also these products are so dynamic that they are easy to change and presented in a changed environment.
1.2 Organisational structure of different hospitality organisation
The main motive of organisational structure is to provide the ways that assists in achieving aims and objectives of corporation and co-operating the activities of different team members. It also describes working duties, relationship, obligations and channels of communication. There are three main types of organisational structure that is tall, matrix and flat. Each of them is described below:
Tall organisational structure:
The organisation is following autocratic leadership style if it is tall where most of the tasks are performed by managers or its management. It has many levels of hierarchy. In such type of structure, there are commonly many managers but each of them has small span of control over them as they are in charge of a medium group of person. These structures tend to be more complicating and tangled. This cannot be easily understand by their clients and working members also. These give response in a very slow manner to the marketing changes in comparison to managers where they have larger span of control. In this structure, there are different layers of middle management between the top managements and workers.
Here all the layers of management, often create their own norms and processes that means that workers who are working several layers down in the corporation might have vast rules and procedures to precede. This slows the working and made it bureaucratic. This also adds cost because some of the functionalities are done by more than of employee. In tall structures, small number of workers are present , this makes the work of supervision more closely and also more period of time is giving in training of them. However, satisfaction level among employees are very less because different layers of bureaucracy and have most rigid norms, so workers are getting less chances to take on responsibilities (Bill Xu and Chan, 2010). Here decision making is done very slow as it have to be approved through a large group of people, so managers face difficulties in accessing executives without through a long line management. The communication is done in a systematic manner from upward through management chain, managers and then employees, due to this all of them face difficulties as they cannot communicate directly.
In contrast to tall organisation, it has relatively less number of layers or may have only one layer of management. This shows that chain of command from top to bottom level is shortened while span of control is very vast or wide. Span of control means the number of workers for which each manager is answerable. If there are a large group of employee under a manager then, span of control is said to be very wide (Bharwani and Jauhari, 2013). While if less number of employees are working under a manager, then this is a narrow span of control. As there are few people in such structure so this type of corporation is small. Some of the advantages of flat structured organisation are listed below:
- As less number of workers are present, the rate of communication between employees and managers is very fast and effective.
- Here team spirit is also good as employees are less so interaction between them is done very easily on different levels.
- Here, there is less authorities so, decision making is done in very easier way.
- The costing get also decreased because of few managers are available. Additionally, workers who are at higher level in enterprise expected to get more money in comparison to those who are in lower level.
- Some of the disadvantages are following:
- Here number of mangers are more so, each worker are performing their task at more than one managers. So, here wastage of money is going on as a group of people should need to work under a single manager.
- As there is wide span of controls, it may hinders in growing of organisation.
- Here as there is small system or firm, structure are limited for example partnership, co-operatives, etc.
- Lack of layers might diminishes the chances for high level of strategic management.
It is a combination of both autocratic and flat structure. It contains employee from several departments of the business. These team members are are elected for dealing with a special project under the guidance of a specific project manager (Ryu and et. al., 2012). Here, the team members exists for a limited period of time until project is created and this matrix structure is commonly used to develop a new product or services.
Some of the advantages of this structure are listed below:
- Here, special team members are selected as per the need of project. For example, a risk handler is appoint for handling risk, etc.
- In this structure, project team is dynamic in nature and are capable for viewing problems in several or different ways as specialist are elected and send for this purpose.
- Project managers are some one who is completely responsible for ending the project within allocated dead line and budget.
- Some disadvantages are also present that is described below:
- Here conflict of loyalty is risen between line and project managers regarding allocating resources (Ryu, Han, and Jang, 2010).
- As team members are given independence at higher extent, then it become difficult to monitor them.
- Costing can be enhanced if more number of managers are created via using project teams.
1.3 Role of hospitality related organisation and professional bodies
The number of hospitality organisation has been increasing drastically. Marriott is one of the same enterprise having different aims and objectives that are described below:
- Monitoring, implementing and designing strategies related to public policies under the hospitality and tourism sector.
- Coordinating horizontally and vertically several levels of organisation.
- Create different funds, policies and benefit services.
The different types of enterprises within this hospitality industry can be classified as social and environmental corporation, government and non-government organisation and state-sponsored economic agencies (Ramanathan and Ramanathan, 2011). The nature of this industry has a changing behaviour. Other major roles of such body to reorganize the trans-territorial, sub-national and supranational lines that are explained below:
Sub-national level: In this level, territorial, administrative division and localised government are working on several political issues, duties and rights that are following the sustainable hospitality development policy and schemes.
Supranational level: A supranational union is one of the types of international governmental union whereby negotiated power is given to an authority by authorized body of member states. This concept is sometimes used to describe European Union (EU) as a new type of policy-making entity ( Crick, and Spencer, 2011). UNWTO (United Nations World Tourism Organisation), WTTC (World Travel Tourism Council), and European Union, they are responsible to steer with different policies that are approved by different authorities impacting the policy-making in tourism sectors in a national as well as subnational level.
Trans-territorial level: These include trans -border local agencies.
2.1 Requirement of staff in different hospitality industry
Staffing can be simply defined as a process of continuing, getting and deploying of the accurate quality and quantity of the manpower. The main aim of staffing is to make a positive influence of satisfaction and powerfulness of the corporation. Hospitality and tourism industries is a type of business where employees are needed in a large number having several roles and in a vast region or sector. The main problem in this field of staffing within the industry of tourism is to give best manageable individual service. The world of travel and tourism have estimated approx 250 million opportunities for women, youngsters and less modern persons in year of 2006. In United Kingdom, approx 7 or 8 percent of employees are selected in the sector of hospitality means that every 14 or 16 working employee are elected within this organisation. The reasons of increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector is scarcity of skilled or talented employee, due to population is decreasing or birth rate is falling down in certain nations. The characteristics of job profiles in hospitality and tourism industry are listed below:
- A large number of job opportunity are temporary in nature, so this gives no encouragement to young peoples.
- In these organisation, women and youngsters are highly appointed.
- Maximum duties are flexible regarding working arrangements and working time period which are appropriate for those persons leaving in special life situations like students doing part time job in hotels (Law Buhalis, and Cobanoglu, 2014).
- The hospitality organisation are not providing jobs through out the season while it provides majority of job in specific seasons.
- Structure of enterprise is some how hard-and-fast occupation with powerful traditions regarding the job roles and services.
- Tourism sector is dependent highly on the migratory employees.
There are certain disadvantages of different job profiles with in this improving industry. For example, less or low wages are provided in this sector in different positions (i.e. average earning of worker in UK is around 23 Euro per annum). Additionally, working hour are not regular or fixed and changes as per the occasions like in weekends, holidays, etc. employees have to do extra work (Kusluvan and et.al., 2010). Several job duty is very stressful that put emotional pressure on mind of workers (i.e. Consumers are always right and staff have to behave politely with them even when they are rude to them). They also have to put their all efforts in kitchen and working areas by showing their positive attitudes towards their work. Workers may also face several health related problems like accident, late shift, use of chemicals, manual handling, etc.). The ability and educational demand in different section of hospitality sector are listed below:
Food service management: In this position, most essential task is to make their consumers satisfied. The responsibility of food service managers ( restaurants, kitchens and feeding managers ) is to hire skilled workers who know how to behave at workplace that is should maintain discipline in working hours. If they are hiring any new employee then it is their responsibility to give them a proper training to them so that they make food of higher quality as well as standards. They also have to know the skill of serving food by decorating that in order to make them spicy and attractive. They needed to have an education or experience in the field of nourishment, accountancy, food preparation and sanitisation with a bachelor's or associate degree.
Hotel and accommodation management: The skill of overseeing different operations by supplying an upper-class experience to the users when they are staying in hotel. They also needed to direct their workers in repairing, safety, servicing of room, front desk management, house keeping and marketing, here the minimum requirement is also a bachelor's degree (King, 2010).
Food service staff: It includes hosts, hostesses, skilled worker, barkeeper and waiters. The employers have to provide trainings regarding sanitation, different procedures within corporation and several service techniques.
House keeping staff: They are commonly providing their training after joining the job but managers prefer already experienced and skilled staff members.
Travel agents: They have vast range of responsibilities, for instance entertaining the customers, planning trips, organising their conveyance and reservation, etc. The travel agents should posses the degree of high school as employers provide training to them (Kong, Cheung, and Qiu Zhang, 2010).
2.2 Roles, obligation and qualification necessity of hospitality employees
The scope and the general intention of the back house supervisor is to monitor and follow all work designation in back of house department in order to ensure that the sanitisation, training, inventory and control of all china, tableware and silverware component and pricing of operations are sustain with the food and drinkable goals and objectives. They are also having the responsibilities of taking care of lower-ranking back of house supervisors and back house door guard.
The main and core competencies of back of house supervisor involves action bound , ability, business centred, reserved, hospitality adjusted, wholeness, managing relations, importance and working with others.
The major roles are listed below:
- Performing duty in line with divisional standardized operational activity.
- Ensuring all clean-up schedules are performed as per the needed standards.
- Dividing work load to employees of first level whilst assuring that all fiduciary colleagues have been delegated jobs.
- Ensuring that each and every instruments are taking in use according to the instructions of manufacturer and must be keep clean properly after operating that.
- Supporting in maintaining level of quality of all products and services which is based on on-going.
- Helping in receiving goods while it is required.
- Recognising need of fiduciary consisting of setting up Mice-en-place, checking all banqueting orders of events and subordinating with other divisional requirements (Janta, 2011).
- Assuring employees complies with safe and secure activities as instructed by managers. Each and every safety measures should be used or implemented in terms of proper use of chemicals under COSHH, appropriate moving or taking care of equipments, proper footwear should be used and all correct back care processes or methods for all fiduciary colleagues.
- To be completely familiar with hotel firing principles, procedures of security of hotel, health and safety policies and procedures of organisation, misadventure reporting procedures, hotel weaponry fright procedures, hotel departmental coding system of behaviour, credit and key management methods with the back of house department and operational standardised and methodologies within the back of house sector (Jani and Han, 2011).
Back of house supervising job is a very rigid task and having a wide range of responsibilities and obligation. The most of important requirement is to have experiences and knowledge of main operations of back of house. This involves working with crockery automatic washer, cleaning methodologies, COSHH norms, fire procedures, dealing with demands or wishes of managers and guests, etc.
Employees must be able to perform following task also:
- Complete with the allocated deadline
- Multi activity and perform task on priority basis.
- Guiding each and every team members in right direction when handling with faults.
- Leading by instances in enacting positively to do modification in demands or wishes.
- Understanding the requirement of business within daily responsibilities.
- Communicating with all team members effectively and openly regularly.
- Supporting standards of consumer service and their promises, assuring the team is working towards attaining them.
- Showing commitments and promises to standards of organisation and policies, leading by instances
- Building affinity with all members of team and managers, team members should be encouraged by their managers by doing impressive communications.
- Treating all employees with respect and pride.
3.1 Operational, Managerial and legislative issues affecting hospitality industry
In present times, hospitality industry is facing many contemporary issues like operational, managerial and legislative issues, these affects the functioning of Merritt hospital. Issues of hospitality industry are explained bellow :
Operational Issues : Hotels are part of everyone life because everyone have to stay in different hotels due to their travelling tours. So it is the responsibility of hotels to open their services 24/7, it provides delighted experience rather than providing normal goods and services, it is different from other business organisations (Ip, Leung, and Law, 2011). But it present scenario, hotels have to face many operational issues like employee turnover, operating costs and natural disasters. As hospitality industry open 24/7 then it requires those employees who can work for long period, but most of time workers refuse to work for long period because they do not want to work for full day shifts along with this they also do not want to work on weekends and holidays. So hospitality industry needs a huge number of employees who can work on nigh shift as well. Also this kind of enterprises needs well skilled workers who can interact with high personalized customers. Different Wi-Fi services also increase operating cost for hotels and other natural disaster like terrorism attacks reduce the efficiency of hospitality industry.
Managerial issues : Just like operational issues hotels have to face managerial issues as well. Management of a company determine its future growth and development. So it can be said that managerial aspects plays significant role in all business industries ( Harrington, and Ottenbacher, 2011). There are some managerial issues like customer satisfaction, labour & skill shortages, technology, high competition, unpredictable factors, changing travel trends etc. It is a huge issue of hospitality industry to satisfy different customers and their different needs. All companies are becoming customer oriented because consumers of present time have become more conscious and demanding about their needs so to survive in business market it is necessary for organisations to provide customer satisfaction. Besides this lack of skilled employees is also a challenging issue for management of hospitality industry.
Legislative issues : Establishment of various trade union has raise many legislative issues for hospitality industry. There are many legislative issues like minimum wages, foreign investment, foreign workers and legislative outlook (Hsieh, 2012). As different hotels want their workers to work for long period, but because of their opposition various trade unions have took place to provide them protection form illegal activities of their managers.
Hence, these are the some contemporary issues of hospitality industry which influence negative impact its performance.
3.2 Current image of industry
The current image of Marriott are described below:
Focusing on property websites: According to the statistics, hotels in UK spend approx 2.9 billion Euro as OTA commissions in year of 2010. In order to avoid such a vast expense, Hotels are trying to enhance methodologies of direct booking (Harkison, Poulston and Ginny Kim, 2011). For achieving this, corporation are making their own websites and making their efforts in convincing the visitors or guests to opt for direct booking and avoid ordering through OTA. Therefore, managers are focussing more on new contents, rich media and quick promotion updates in their internet site in order to enhance online hotel room booking.
Emphasising on current marketing: Managers of hotel realise that reaching a wider population and brand awareness is very important. An accord will improve of the fact that contented marketing is the best way to get the information out rather than focusing on conventional advertisement. Hence, a powerful online existence is very crucial. Attractive journal, interactional social media platforms, news report, electronic books, images sharing, etc. are expeditious and effectual tools that will make popular branding in a short interval of time.
Quality: Visitors will concentrate more on the affection-al belief to their trips and will attempt to experience an improved attribute of life during relaxation travel. Hence, instead of choosing for cost-efficient acceleration, they will aspect for a best education and get down to point full amount on ostentation.
4.1 Future trends and development in hospitality industry
Future trends and development can enhance the growth of hospitality industry. Every business organisation needs future programs so that they can increase their efficiency and it can be done by continue operating their management activities in some new and innovative styles. There are some future trends and development programs of this industry which are following as under :
Automated hotels: Hospitality industry wants to make it possible to have automated hotels. It will be a great initiative in hotel organisations to get greetings and services from different robots. It will help Merritt company to minimising employee turnover along with this hotels can provide 24/7 facilities without the cost of salary and wages (CG Davidson, McPhail, and Barry, 2011).
Future growth: Most of the companies have same object of future growth. Hospitality industry is giving their central attention to increase efficiency and effectiveness of organisation so that they can improve their performance and can achieve higher growth in their future.
Niche marketing: In present scenario, tourism sectors are focusing on niche marketing in which they promote only specific requirements of customers (Woodside, Ramos Mir, and Duque, 2011). Through this hospitality industry can provide special services in a particular segment of hotel such as retired personnel, extra sports services and health enthusiasm programs .
Consumer-facing technology: Hospitality industry was not that much aware about technological advantages but currently it is focusing on more technological factors so that it can improve its future performance. Various hotels are trying to provide better service experience to its customers. Through customer facing technology, consumers are becoming aware about different software and application so that they can discover appropriate hotel services.
Direct bookings: With the help of technology advancement customers of hospitality industry is preferring direct online bookings of rooms. With the help of this they can save their time and also can choose different alternatives according to their needs. For future growth hotels should provide option of direct booking.
Technology: Various technical factors have positive impact on hospitality industry, through the help of this hotels can get different software solutions. Small hotels can also compete their contenders with the help of technological advancement. Future up-gradation in technology can enhance growth and development of hospitality industry.
4.2 Impact of predicted trends and developments
The impact of predicted trends and developments over Marriott are described below:
- Automated hotels: As if automated hotels are made, this is effectively diminishes or lowers the work load of organisation. Robots will do the tasks of real man or workers. This will also save many revenues that are given to those workers in the form of wages per month. No faults will be done and correct measures will taken by robots. This will improve the working of hotel ( Bharwani and Jauhari, 2013). This will also decrease the unwanted crowd in hotel areas. Additionally, cleanliness is maintained at higher level as no one is present to create any waste. Consumers get most attracted by seeing their welcome from artificial machinery. This will attract large number of consumers towards their hotel and also the brand image will ultimately increase. Therefore, this is proved to be more benefit-able for corporation as it makes a revolution.
- Niche marketing: Now company is focusing in manufacturing specific type of products and services. This will increase concentration of mangers and workers also. Extra sports services and health enthusiasm programs are provided to consumers who are staying there. This will also attract consumers towards their hotels (Bill Xu and Chan, 2010).
From the above based report it has been concluded that contemporary hospitality industry is providing customer services such as accommodation, foo-ding, sleeping, etc. Several methodologies are used in order to improve quality of product and services like use of current technologies, artificial intelligence, direct booking, niche marketing, etc. Currently Marriott is focusing on improving their websites so that direct ordering can be done through this. The quality of food and luxurious services are improved in order to attract large number of consumers towards their hotel. Several issues are faced in this regard like operational, managerial and legislation issues. Different organisational structures are also explained such as tall, flat and matrix structure. This gives detailed knowledge about responsibilities of employees as well as their managers. Several roles, obligations, qualification that are required for staff of hospitality industry is discussed. These include consisting of bachelor degree and having experience of working as a staff in other hotels.
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