Domestic violence is a kind of behaviour which includes violence and other abuses by a person in the opposite of another in the situation of relationship or in marriage. The purpose of this abuse is to gain and hold the control over a person by someone (What is Domestic Violence? 2015). The domestic abuse includes physical violence, psychological violence, sexual assault and emotional abuse. The epidemic effects of it affect every person in the community. The result of domestic violence is physical injury; psychological trauma and many times, victim reaches at the stage of death (What is Domestic Violence?. 2015). The following study is related to the domestic abuse and to gain more understanding on this, some background evidence and statistics of UK to support the theme of study will be explained. Along with this, several strategies and ways will be explored that would help in developing nursing services in the home nation.
Diffusion from DOH (Department of Health)
According to DOH, the definition of domestic abuse is as follow:
“Any incident of controlling, threatening behaviour or any kind of abuse and violence which happened with that person who is having 16 year age or more then it, by his family members or partners regardless of gender or sexuality”. The abuse can be psychological, sexual, emotional, physical or financial (Domestic violence and abuse. 2015).
From the study of official statistics of UK government, it has been found that there are number of domestic violence cases that are recorded by the respective authorities every year. Along with this, it has been seen that many of the victims of domestic abuse do not tell anything to anyone about abuse that they are facing. These types of people are not filing the cases because of some kind of fear (O'hare, 2014). The satistics of domestic abuse in UK and India are as follows.
- More than 2.1 million people every year suffer from different kinds of domestic abuse in which 1.4 million are females and 700,000 are males in UK (Travis, 2015).
- Every year, more than 100, 000 people are facing serious injuries because of continuous domestic abuse in UK.
- As per the statistics of 2013-14, the recorded domestic abuse cases in England and Wales are around 887,000 (Top ten facts about domestic abuse in England and Wales. 2015).
- In 2013-14, the statistics of domestic abuse in UK is about 1.3 million.
By seeing and studying the above information, it can be said that there is a requirement of clinical leadership and developed nursing services in UK. This thing helps in asking right questions and refers possible support services to the victims.
According to Hines, Brown and Dunning, 2007 “in the past scenario, domestic abuse was considered as a social issue and it was solved by only social care workers. But with the time, UK government has made changes into the rules and regulation and then the following issues were taken into consideration in health care problems” (Hines, Brown and Dunning, 2007). In the present time, nursing knowledge helps to determine the types of domestic abuses in which a nursing holistic approach has preferred. Brandl, 2000 has stated that “under this method, several types of care services are provided to the victim which can easily support his or her health” (Brandl, 2000). But on the other hand, Henning and Klesges, 2002 have suggested that nursing services in the case of domestic abuse is not required because if victim experiences any kind of domestic violence and urgently required help then in this case, he or she will ask for it” (Henning and Klesges, 2002). From the study of above stated statements of different authors, it can be said that proper nursing services are required to be developed so that nurses can directly ask right questions to the victim and provide appropriate health care and other supportive services. These services should be according to the seriousness of injury and types of domestic abuses.
As per the research of Sugihara and Warner, 2002, it has found that “effective nursing services in the area of domestic abuse situation can be developed by considering the five domains” (Sugihara and Warner, 2002). The dimensions of providing supportive services to victim are identification of the domestic abuse, assessment, proper documentation and reporting, safety planning and referral. But Brandl and Meuer, 2000 have not agreed with the above author’s statement and recommended that “by using supportive approach and giving some empowerment to the nurses, a structured framework can be prepared which would help in developing the nursing services in the area of domestic issues in UK” (Brandl and Meuer, 2000). At the time of development of nursing services, two things are required to be considered. The first thing is ensuring the appropriateness and usefulness of services to victim and second is to take appropriate actions in the case when victim has disclosed the information about abuse. Therefore, from the above discussion, it has been explored that the domestic violence training has been provided to the nurses that would help in developing effective nursing services (Watson and Parsons, 2005). This helps in recognizing the injuries and then refers different supportive care services to the victims. Along with this, some empowerment has provided to nurses to ensure the appropriateness of health care services.
In the present time, health care systems of different nations faces a large number of challenges which are complex and interconnected with each other and this thing affect the quality and cost of care services. In UK, nursing is a different discipline which includes wide range of roles such as delver clinical services, making the coordination with patients care, bring the improvements in quality of care services and develop health care services (Wilson, 2005). Nursing leadership is needed to develop the services for domestic abuse in UK because it help the health care organizations to make the required changes in the services. It provides an important contribution in design and deliver the different new care models and manage the changes during their implementation (Nieves-Rosa, Carballo-Dieguez and Dolezal, 2000).
In current scenario, nursing leadership has found a powerful force in developing and shaping health policy in the case of domestic abuse. In UK, the government has focused on nurse leaders which support clinical leadership (Paymar, 2000). It helps in making the integration of different leadership practices and clinical expertise. The role of nursing leadership in developing services for domestic leadership is delivering and monitoring the practices, assess and mitigate the risk factors, improve the coordination with the victims during care providing etc (Hines, Brown and Dunning, 2007). By strong communication and collaboration with the patients, its easy to recognize the gaps in care services for domestic abuse and develop more improve health care and other support services. The roles playing by nursing leadership during developing services in the area of domestic abuse are care giver, ethical decision maker, clinical advocate, protector, comforter, communicator etc (Henning and Klesges, 2002).
Main role of nurse is to provide the health and care services to service users in the hospitals, nursing homes and health centres in UK (Department of health, 2013). Along with this, it is the responsibility of her to understand the psychosocial, cultural, developmental and spiritual needs of patients for providing better services as per their expectations (NICE guidelines [PH50]. 2014). As a health and social care worker, nurses have to deal with the patients of domestic abuse in day to day life. For recovering the stress and diseases of those patients, it is needed for nurses to render care services in a proper way.
In the context of India, nurses have only the responsibility to act as the co-investigator for performing their roles (Press and media. 2014). They doesn't allow to involve in any meeting of research. But in case of United Kingdom, responsibilities of protocol management, conflict resolution and collaboration with research team are involved in the roles of nurses. In India, mostly nurses are appointed for the physical care of patients which are treated in the hospitals and only physical care is preferred by them instead of mental care. But in UK, both care are preferred equally by the nurses at the time of choosing occupation (News and features. 2014).
In United Kingdom, this profession has been considering as the most valuable occupation for women to build their career development and getting better opportunity. Along with this, they are focused on assisting to those women who are the victims of domestic abuse (Nursing and Midwifery Council. 2015). But in India, there is no responsibility of nurses in providing guidance in such cases and there are very less opportunities in this field for the women (Cole, 2015). When talking about the training practices in UK, four types of training such as adult training, children training, learning disability and mental health training are rendered to the nurses for deal effectively with different individuals. But in India, only general training related to health and care services is provided to the nurses (Department of Health. 2013).
Chances of sexual harassment and any injury can be occurred with nurses while working with the mental and learning disabled patients. For reducing the chances of such cases, security training is also given to the nurses of UK. But in India, there are no need to give such type of training because mostly nurses doesn't prefer to select the field of mental care and learning disability. In United Kingdom, Nursing and Midwifery Council is responsible for ensuring the practices of nurses and enhancing the development of them. All the nurses working in the UK are necessary to be registered with this council. In accordance to this, it has been found that, there are overall 6,41,000 nurses working in the United Kingdom (Number of nurses working in the United Kingdom, 2015). In case of India, professional bodies are not so active for enhancing the development of nurses as compare to UK and there are no data available related to number of nurses working here (Home office. 2005).
As per the changing perspectives, nurses in UK are allowed to give their contribution in the decision making process and problem solving because they spends more time with service users instead of other professionals (Department of Health and Poulter, 2012). Along with this, it is the responsibility of nurse to build a trusting relationship with each service user according to the the document published by the Royal College of Nursing in UK. On the other hand, Indian nurses are not involved in the decision making process and only tasks are allocated to them as per the decisions taken by top management.
In the current scenario, the Indian government has developed a mobile application for nurses which help them in determining domestic violence. It is a new program in which training has provided to nurses regrading the use of mobile device to identify domestic abuse. The name of this program is Mobilise and this mhealth application is used for public health (Worley, 2015). At present, there are more than 100,000 mhealth applications available for mobile to protect women from the different kind of abuses. On the other hand, in UK, a NightOwl application has developed in the against of domestic abuse for women. Under this application, the user can report any kind of dangerous situation about abuse via using app. Another most popular application for reporting about domestic abuse is Circle of 6 application which allow the user to make a text to the trusted friends in the case of risky situation (Worley, 2015).
In accordance to above description, it has been concluded that nurses of UK are more responsible than to Indian nurses in performing their duties and roles. Further, UK government is focused mostly upon the development of nurses as compare to Indian government (NICE guidelines [PH50]). Due to this aspect, it is required for Indian government to enhance the effectiveness of training practices related to nursing education in the area of handling the domestic abuse cases and provided more care services to them. In addition to this, they needs to take guidance by assessing the practices performed by the UK government.
Furthermore, it is needed for the Indian professional bodies of nursing to maintain the records of nurses in an effective manner and increasing the level of education, training and development for the better enhancement of them. In case of India, regulatory bodies are needed to ensure the level of security for promoting nurses to build their career in the field of domestic abuse. It can not be say that Indian government is not taking any kind of initiative for handling any domestic abuse (Press and media. 2014). Along with this, a dedication is also required from the nurses side to tackle the abuse and provide the complete safety and security to the victims. On the other hand, the partnership with the different private organizations also will help Indian government to take serious actions about stop the cases of domestic abuse with children, women and men as well as provide best supportive care services to them. In addition to this, the different kinds of training help the nurses to determine the signs and symptoms of domestic abuse. Beside this, by bringing the changes in the attitude of the nurses, it will be more fruitful in developing the appropriate services for domestic abuse victims (Cole, 2015).
From the above study, it can be concluded that domestic abuse is a serious issue in the society. In UK and Indian government have started to take some important steps in the direction of stop the domestic abuse cases in the community be developing nursing leadership. With the help of training and providing the some authorities for taking decisions, the nursing services can be developed in the area of domestic abuse.
- Brandl, B. and Meuer, T. (2000) Domestic abuse in later life.
- Brandl, B. (2000) Power and control: Understanding domestic abuse in later life.
- Henning, K. and Klesges, L. (2002) Utilization of counseling and supportive services by female victims of domestic abuse.
- Hines, D., Brown, J. and Dunning, E. (2007) Characteristics of callers to the domestic abuse helpline for men.
- Nieves-Rosa, L., Carballo-Dieguez, A. and Dolezal, C. (2000) Domestic abuse and HIV-risk behavior in Latin American men who have sex with men in New York City.
- Paymar, M. (2000). Violent no more: Helping men end domestic abuse.
- Sugihara, Y. and Warner, J. (2002) Dominance and domestic abuse among Mexican Americans: Gender differences in the etiology of violence in intimate relationships.
- Watson, D. and Parsons, S. (2005) Domestic abuse of women and men in Ireland: Report on the national study of domestic abuse.
- Wilson, K. (2005) When violence begins at home: A comprehensive guide to understanding and ending domestic abuse.