Business Administration 46


Managing a business and its operations in market is known as business administration. It include every aspects which is related to forecasting and analysing business operations and decision making. Business administration is a broad management functions which include combination of finance, personnel and MIS services (Wilson, 2014). This project is based on the prospective of Mark and Spencer whose headquarter is in London, United Kingdom and founded by Michael Mark and Thomas Spencer in year 1884. Respective company are specialises in selling of cloths, home products and luxury food products. The covered topics in this report are related to importance of managing employer and employee development on individual basis at company workplaces such as purpose of performance review and appraisal, techniques to carry performance appraisal, training technique applied at workplace, advantage and disadvantage of learning and development methods, policies of organizational learning and development and so on.

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1.1 Purpose of performance review and appraisals

Performance appraisal is evaluating systematically of employee by the management, analysing how well an employee perform their task as well as evaluate their capabilities at relevant sector soft skills (Barak, 2016). For example capabilities of leadership and supervisory, managing relationship at workplaces ans conflict resolution. At Mark and Spencer their managers adopting performance appraisals and review method to evaluate, analysis and understand abilities of their employees or staff which help them for future growth and development. Their are numerous of purpose and importance of employees performance appraisals and review at Mark and Spencer, some major of them are describe below:-

  • Evaluation:- The main purpose of performance review and appraisals at respective company is to evaluate that how well their employees are performing their duties and jobs. It help them in keeping record of every staff work performance that involves the employees efforts they made and what they achieved. Evaluation of every employees is based on their job performance and other factors such as personality, behaviour etc.
  • Provide feedback:- It is important for superiors of Mark and Spencer to know the performance and achievements made by their employees to achieve goal and objective. But is also essential for employees of respective company to know where they stand, where they are going and how they can achieve the goal or go near to goal. This this employees can improve their performance.
  • Determine training and development needs:- It is not enough for Mark and Spencer manger to only identify weakness of employees they should also make efforts to improve it (Hillson and Murray-Webster, 2017). By conducting appropriate performance appraisals employers can determine the exact steps to improve employees performance by conducting training and development programs according to the needs and requirement.

1.2 Techniques to prepare and carry out appraisals

At a workplaces one of the most essential function is to do performance appraisal of employees or works to ensure the success of them in appropriate manner. Employer or superior of an organization needs to prepare performance appraisals techniques which leads to outcome of best performance from subordinates (Brulin and Svensson, 2016). Their are various type of techniques which help a company to prepare and carry out appraisals, some of them which is used by Mark and Spencer are mentioned below:-

  • Ranking method:- The respective company use ranking techniques which help their mangers to employees on basis of their overall performance. In this their manger simply arrange employees according to rank which help them to know the respective position of every employees of Mark and Spencer.
  • Forced distribution method:- This technique of performance appraisals help subordinates of Mark and Spencer to allocate certain rate of percentage for various categories according to work in workplace. Such as mangers are above average or average. Both the number of percentage or categories of employees at respective company are based according to work performance of employees of respective firm and this technique is designed and formulated according to the employees appraisals.
  • Critical incentives techniques:- In this techniques managers of Mark and Spencer generally focus on making list of statements on basis of employee's effective and ineffective behaviour at workplace. In this managers prepare logs of employees performance in which they evaluate, analyse and critical behaviour of employees which help employers of respective company to evaluate employees work performance at time of appraisals.

1.3 Private environment to carry out performance appraisals

For developing an individual career performance appraisals plays an important role because through it employee and individual can analyse and determine their career development and progression rate with an organisation (Ten and, 2015). Managers of Mark and Spencer sometime organise private environment to carry out appraisals in which they discuss an individual performance in a separate room or private environment where an individual feels comfortable and it is completely private and confident appraisals. Such as:-

  • Using consultative approach in Mark and Spencer help their manager or employer and employees to discuss appraisals in a private environment by evaluating and enabling certain issues and activities in respect of appraisals. This help an employees of respective firm to see forward themselves in Mark and Spencer through improving their performance.
  • Discussing in private environment in respective company help manager to discuss area where employee is lacking behind and which is helpful for him or her in future time. In other word manager disclose and discuss strength and weakness of employee in private and comfortable environment so that employee understand it and focus to improve weakness by training and development activities. And also employers of Mark and Spencer encourage employees to improve their performance so that he/she get more appraisals in coming time.
  • Creating private environment in Mark and Spencer help manger in recover weakness of their employees so that their will be enhance in productivity. Employers in respective firm discuss appraisal of individual in private environment because sometime appraisal of one employee is differ from the another which may create conflict at workplace, so to avoid it they use private environment to carry out appraisals in Mark and Spencer.

1.4 Performance review and appraisals in accordance with organisation policies and procedures

Appraising performance refers to the process in which management or manager of an organization appraise to their employees on basis of performance and behaviour (Manuti and, 2015). Through it employees get motivated and feel connected to an organisation. The procedures and policies are design in a firm which leads and ensure smooth and proper conducting of performance appraisals of all employees working at respective workplace. Mark and Spencer develop policies and procedures on basis of performance appraisals and reviews, they are:-

The major aim of performance review and appraisals policy are:-

  • It help employer of Mark and Spencer to evaluate and ensure that their every employee performance is assessed on basis of set rules and norms.
  • It is responsibilities of employers in respective organization to ensure that employees grading and review are taken in a fair manner, their should be no discrimination should be done on any basis.
  • Mark and Spencer employer must create trust among employees regarding to performance appraisals and review system.

Management of Mark and Spencer must develop that performance appraisals and review technique which can be used on long term basis (Saundry and Wibberley, 2014). Through this plan and procedures employees can identify opportunities to build a path to develop high job satisfaction. Process of policy and procedures of appraisal provide and create responsibilities for an individual employees and its mangers to conduct their work performance and review process in effective and efficient way. Due to this policy and procedures management of respective organisation bounded to provide fundamental rights of performance appraisals and review to their employees.

1.5 Clear, specific and evidence-based feedback sensitively

In every organisation, the major responsibilities of manager is to provide feedbacks to their employees which help them in enhance their learning and development. Superior of Mark and Spencer provide feedbacks to their employees not only at time of annual performance appraisal time but on the regular basis so that they can improve their performance (Gamrat and, 2014). Respective firm follow constructive feedback method which is majorly used when there is any issues and requirement to improve their mistakes and shortcomings on basis of feedback. There are some feedback which help respective company mangers to provide feedbacks that is evidence based and sensitively for their employees are determine below:-

  • Be specific and problem focused:- Managers of Mark and Spencer must be specific and focused that they communicate feedback of an individual or employee in effective ways so that they understand it. It is also the responsibility of superior to convey feedback in an appropriate manner so that it will not hurt any one emotions and feelings.
  • Not blame on individual, tell about situation:- It is the responsibility of manager of Mark and Spencer to convey feedback in proper and sensitive manner so that employees focus on outcomes rather then think as a personal attitude and take feedback as a motivation and improve it, then work accordingly in effective ways.

Above mentioned are some clear, specific and evidence-based feedback which is given by the managers and superiors of Mark and Spencer and ensure that each and every employees consider their performance appraisal feedback in an positive manner. It will help them in motivating themselves and improve their skills and complete their work in effective and efficient manner (Baron and Parent, 2015).

1.6 Future actions that are consistent with appraisal findings and identified development needs

Performance appraisals and review is an opportunities for an individual and employees to improve their skills and ability to fulfil future action by identifying their weakness and developing it in appropriate manner. It is important skill of an individual and employees to analysis and understand their role and responsibility which help them in managing their performance appraisals and contribute in improving their ability to perform future task.

It is responsibility of managers to develop needs of performance appraisals to improve performance of the employees in the respective organisation (Hunter and Warren, 2014). Managers of Mark and Spencer understand every employees needs so they can design appropriate training and development program which is beneficial for the improvement of the employees. It empower managers and superiors of respective organisation and engage and motivate employees to do work in effective manner.

2.1 Training techniques applied in workplace

Training is a technique of teaching an individual a particular skills and through it there is enhancement of individual skills, ability and work performance. In various aspects training is beneficial for the employees such as increase job satisfaction, enhance morale among employees, motivate employees, enhance ability to adopt new technologies and methods, increased innovation in strategies and products, enhance skills, ability and knowledge of employees and so on. There are various training techniques which can be adopted by an organisation, some major of them which is chosen by Mark and Spencer are describe below:-

  • Induction Training:- In an organisation induction training program is provided to their new employees so that they feel comfortable and part of workplace. Managers of Mark and Spencer design and develop induction program in a sensible and proper manner by considering every aspects in it so that it will helpful for new employees to feel comfortable in organisation.
  • On the job training:- For both new and existing employees on the job training is essential for achieving specific target and goal of an organisation. Mangers of Mark and Spencer provide on the job training to their employees who required it so that they enhance that skills of do particular work on which training is based in an effective manner (Astrauskaite, Kern and Notelaers, 2014). Such as providing new technology training during job help employees to do work in appropriate way and cope up with challenges may occur in future.
  • Off the job training:- In this employees of respective company are provide outside training through workshop, seminars and conferences with the large audience and it can be organized by the Mark and Spencer and may be not. Through it employees of respective company get relevant information, latest development, new technologies and so on.

2.2 Advantage and disadvantage of learning development interventions and methods

In an organisation there are different approaches to learning development interventions and methods which help in educating employees or increase learning in various manner (Qenani, MacDougall and Sexton, 2014). Every learning and development methods has its advantages and disadvantage involving costs times and course content in prospective of Mark and Spencer are discuss below:-


  • It is a simple method of learning which can be understood by every individual easy and fast manner. By adopting learning development method Mark and Spencer provide practical and fast learning and development way for an individual in effective manner.
  • To provide training and learning program to employees of respective organization help employees to develop specific skills and needs. It is costly but its result and outcome is satisfactory because through it one can enhance their skills and knowledge.


  • Not every trainer have proper skills to teach in effective manner or explain responsibilities in an effective ways. So it must be responsibility of employer of Mark and Spencer to appoint appropriate trainer for learning development programmes.
  • Sometime the learning development method chosen by company is not appropriate and it leads to low productive and it decrease moral of employees. Management of Mark and Spencer must select appropriate learning methods according to the requirement and which leads to productivity.

2.3 Organization learning and development policies and resources availability

Organisation policies and procedures are design and develop to enhance knowledge, skills and ability of employees which leads to improve efficiency of individual as well as organisation (Wilson, 2014). The superiors of training and development of Mark and Spencer will have to conduct training and development programmes in appropriate manner which help them in enhance their skills and knowledge. In respective organisation management ensure that the training and development must be conducted on regular basis and must be design on appropriate provision and needs and demand. It also develop opportunities for the learners to enhance their skills and ability according to managerial role and responsibilities, supporting and sustaining growth and development of Mark and Spencer staff and employees. So it is the responsibility of managers in respective company to identify needs of training and then design programmes according and given that training and development program to appropriate candidates or employees.

2.4 Reviewing individual's learning and development needs at regular intervals

Now a day, it is necessary for an organisation to review individual learning and development at workplace. An effective and successful reviewing of individual's training and development is helpful for employees as well as organisation to achieve goal and objective on both basis in effective and efficient manner (Barak, 2016). Some of them are describe below on the prospective of Mark and Spencer:-

  • Organization reviewing:- It is helpful for the both individual and organization to achieve their goal and objective on respective basis and through it they can analysis and evaluate strategical goal and objective are accomplish in appropriate manner to touch business solution in effective manner. Mangers of respective company analysis an individual performance by comparing it with other peoples who are of same competitive group according to position.
  • Personal reviewing:- In an organisation an individual review is important because it help in identifying person's potential participants and involvement in achieving organisation goal (Hillson and Murray-Webster, 2017). A mangers of Mark and Spencer do personal review to identify weakness and help employees in improving it which leads in increase in productivity and improve the weakness to ignore or overcome the shortcomings through employees weakness.
  • Training sustainability reviewing:- In an organisation training sustainability reviewing is helpful for managers to review individual ability to cope up with training and development programmes which are provide to them. And if employees of Mark and Spencer not understand and able to cope up to training and development program in that case they have to work on and must improve their skills. Management must conduct innovative development and training session for their employees according to requirement so that employees able to achieve target in effective and efficient manner.

2.5 Suggesting learning and development opportunities and interventions to meet individual and business needs

For an organisation learning and development opportunities and interventions are important for employees as well as for firm to achieve individual and organisational goal and objective respectively (Brulin and Svensson, 2016). Such as:-

  • Mark and Spencer must provide and maintain good working environment so that employees feel comfortable and do their work in effective and appropriate manner.
  • The respective company develop appropriate training and development programmes so that employees enhance their productive which leads to achievement of individual and organisation goal and objectives in effective and efficient manner.
  • They can provide training programmes such as on the job training, off the job training and so on to improve their employees and staff performance in appropriate manner which leads to increase in productivity and organization growth.

Above are the suggestions for Mark and Spencer management which help them in achieving their goal and objective in appropriate and effective manner.


From the above mentioned topics it can be conclude that managements of the Mark and Spencer have to develop and conduct certain strategies which help them in managing individual and achievement of goal in workplace. Because without motivation and appropriate environment no employees able to do work in any organisation for long duration. So to motivate and encourage employees managers use several techniques such as performance appraisals techniques, give rewards to employees when they perform well, reward can be monetary way or in non monetary ways

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