Urban cycle tracks in London are enforced with the thought of securing pollution free environment and healthy lifestyle in society. Promoting cyclic transportation in city is the way to manage air pollution, which is caused due to fuel emission from motor vehicles.
It is the concept that has its own pros and cons with regard to risk management of public, environment, health factors. The case study portfolio will be focused on outlining risk perception of stakeholders over cycle tracks of London. Thus, this study will be identifying risk perception of policy makers with regard to public and corporate clients.
Cycling is a critical topic as it is promoted in cities to reduce environmental risks, which are caused due to emission from motor vehicles. Further, cycling is a healthier option for entire society and is accepted by people because it offers low cost of maintenance. This concept was established to enable benefits of healthy living to human with regard to environment and healthy conditions.
Safety, health and environmental risk perception as per different stakeholders
According to Aldred and et.al., 2018, it has been identified that multilevel binary logistic regression model is implemented to analyse risks involved in Urban cycling tracks of London. With the findings, it has been determined that there is 18 percent decrease in accidents and injuries. Further, it has been identified that increased motor traffic volume is associated with higher odds of cycling injury. In accordance with findings and research by author, it has been evaluated that limiting speed of motor vehicles to 20 mph can help in reducing cycling risk in London.
According to Hull and O’Holleran, 2014, key cyclic lane and tracks folds risk of collision, therefore the focus of designers is on alongside and behind of cyclic track. In this, the developer ensures that nearside lane widths and avoiding widths needs to be in the range of 3.2 to 3.9 m.
Further, for promoting feeling of safety the developer ensures that urban cyclic tracks are away from heavy traffics, HGV interaction and away from high-speed vehicles. Safety conditions of tracks are based on traffic composition and condition of the roads. In addition, the cyclic lanes are designed according to journey’s time where the links of tracks are connected with average level of speed in order to derive comfortable journey time. Further, the stakeholders discussed about width of Urban cyclic track, which is planned according to range of riding zone.
Urban cyclic tracks are effective for preserving environmental conditions from the global warming but on the other hand, it holds chances of life threatening risks. Like, the cyclic tracks are one way and therefore cyclist coming from opposite directions head to risk of collision which can be injurious to both person. In accordance with this risk perception of stakeholders, need of two-way tracks with minimum width of 3.0 m is necessary.
According to above illustration, stakeholders discussed about risk of accidents due to breaking of mandatory line. As per above image it can be said that both, cyclist and motorist are in situation of hazard where the cycle routes are accident-prone and occurrence of collisions at turning point.
Apparently, from the perception of stakeholders, it has been identified that overtaking is comfortable and controllable to the level of 3.9 m. It becomes risky when both the parties reaches to the level of 3.2 m. Apart from this; the steepest inline of London is in between Highgate Cemetery and Hampstead Heath, which is specifically maintained for training of cyclists. In this area, risk increases with the formation of hilly area, which became a hazardous location for practising cycling.
According to Macmillan and Woodcock, 2017, participatory system dynamics modelling helped in developed loop diagrams of cycling in three different contexts that is London, Nijmegen and Auckland. The research is based on qualitative interview of stakeholders from where it has been identified that increased safety conditions for cyclists will assist in improving condition of environment. Apparently, stakeholders discussed about the road congestion in London and Auckland which is barrier to success of urban cyclic track. With this discussion, it has been identified that market saturation is congesting cyclic tracks, which can be dangerous for cyclists.
Further, as per the views of Thomas and DeRobertis, 2013, it has been that there risk of urban cyclic tracks are due to various reasons such as, box hill where the toughest part is to gradient over the distance. It has zigzag road infrastructure where the focus of stakeholder needs to be on speed and motor vehicles coming from other side. The path is not separated for cyclist but on the other hand is smooth to practice. Apart from this, there is Alexandra palace where it is necessary for the cyclist to focus on maintaining speed is necessary. Moreover, careful timing with the traffic lights to manage safety in Stephen road is mandatory because the speed and ride way can be hazardous.
Nevertheless, urban cycling concept is London is enforced and encouraged to boost morale of society to shift from driving into motor vehicles to rising cycles to reach destination. It is the concept which has encouraged reduction in Cardiovascular diseases such as, high blood pressure, stroke, heart attack, circulation etc. the Increasing interest of society in cycling is promoting cyclic strengths as to improves functioning of heart muscles, reduces level of fat from blood and also lowers resting pulse. However, Marqués and Hernández-Herrador, 2017, has argued that cycling is effective for reduction in cardiovascular diseases but on the other hand it is necessary for the people to ensure cycling goals. Like, on an average the individuals needs to cycle half an hour five days per week which assist the person is burning 1500 calories. It is important for the people to ensure safe and proper cycling because extra cycling enlarges prostate which develops in older men. Prostate is n walnut sized gland in men which becomes inflamed due to extra cycling.
Further, environmental barriers to urban cyclic track of London comprise, traffic which increases risk of accidents and collision, too many hilly site which require physical energy and increases travel time. In addition, no safety of parking bicycles and badly maintained street which increase cost maintenance of cyclic concepts.
Policy maker risk perception for in context to public and corporate client
Policy makers in London for Urban cycling tracks are focused on increasing cycling in city from lower base to reduce risk of injuries. As per the views of Cycle lanes and tracks, 2014, it has been evaluated that in London infrastructure, behaviour of cyclist and vehicle design plays a major role in risk and injuries.
Further, as per perception of policy makers, it can be said that the major risk of cyclic tracks lies in Netherlands. It is necessary for the transport authorities to look over alternation and modification in infrastructure of cycle paths in accordance to changing vehicle designs and users behaviours.
In addition, it is necessary for the road makers to focus on legal considerations and regulatory changes, which are enforced to manage risk for urban cyclist’s paths. As per governmental regulations, the average speed limit is 20 mph which set by policy makers to reduce speed of traffic and injuries.
Apart from this, the focus of policy makers is on road environment of urban cyclic tracks, which assist in determining relative risk in different circumstances like vehicle design, infrastructure, speed, lights etc. Segmenting and analysing different risk factors is an advantage, which helps the developers in determining needs for changes in infrastructure (Is urban cycling worth the risk?, 2016). However, for deriving journey time of cyclic tracks, focus of policy makers is on width, geometry of cycle facility and its type.
Risk perception of policy maker with regard to public and corporate client on urban cyclic track is based on one way track which increases the risk of collision. As per Thomas and DeRobertis, 2013 findings, it has been identified that moped riders collide with cyclist and peds which is risky for both that is motor driver and cyclist. The urban cyclist tracks are safe plan for environment a healthy living of society but are dangerous in cases of crossroads. In accordance to views of different policy maker, it is important to prohibit motor vehicles on urban cycling tracks in order to manage risk of accidents. In addition, it is necessary for the policy makes to focus on modifying infrastructure of cycling tracks where the track needs to end before crossroads point.
Apparently, as per London's five toughest cycling climbs, 2018, Policy maker risk perception it has been analysed that introducing separate infrastructure for cycle tracks in London has reduced collision types like decrease in rear end crashes injuries. Further, two way cyclist tracks increases the risk of collision of two cyclists coming from opposite direction but on the other hand it reduced the risk of overtaking accidents.
In accordance to policy makers, it has been analysed that the urban cyclic tracks has boomed the environmental condition is London. With changing infrastructure of roads and tracks. There has been dramatic shift of people to cycling. Further, with the societal acceptance, it has been analysed that was effective for controlling air pollution which is the major cause of air pollution and increasing global warming. With regard to public and corporate client, policy makers have determined the need of improvement in bicycle infrastructure which is major focus and will assist in motivation of society to accept cycling instead of motor transportation. In accordance with this concept, it is necessary for the government to focus on safe bicycle parking, education, awareness, integration, training etc. Nevertheless whilst of cycling comes up with major risk such as risks of accidents, theft, physical energy, increased travel time and personal security.
As per risk perception, of policy makers it has been evaluated that as according to public, there is no place to cycle where motor vehicles are banned. Moreover, distances between to places is the major feedback which needs to managed in order to manage changes in infrastructure of Urbana cycle track with regard to public and corporate client. Risk perception of policy makes states that it is necessary to ensure proper infrastructure of cyclist track., where it is important for the developers to ensure two ways track with at-least 0.5 clearance between dynamic envelopes with width of 2.5 m (Cycle lanes and tracks, 2014). In addition to reduce the risk of collision, it is important to have 1.0 clearance between two cyclists and therefore minimum width of urban cyclic tracks needs to be 3.0m.
Policy maker of urban cyclic track in London and at improving Barclay Cycle Superhighways to enable high standard of transport services. Further the focus of policy maker on cyclic track is on segregation where no route intersect with the aim of reducing cross rail accidents. However, on the other hand, the individuals getting off from the motor vehicles will step into cyclic lane which increases the risk of hitting from cyclists (Thomas and DeRobertis, 2013)
Thus, from the discussion, it has been identified that there are various improvement infrastructure of tracks which needs to done and are being done. Semi segregation and completely parting route are to different measure son the basis of which it is necessary for the stakeholders to make changes in infrastructure of routes to prevent safety conditions of society ion London. However, from the discussion over effectiveness and risk of urban cyclic track it has been analysed that policy maker are aware about the stakeholders change requirement in order to assess risk of cycling tracks. Herein, it can be stated that it is necessary to make changes in road infrastructure because segregation of motor vehicles track and cyclic track is mandatory requirement in order to mitigate risk of collision.
The report summarized about urban cyclic track and hazardous situation related to it. Though cycling trend has which has boosted environmental and health conditions in society but on the other hand it has increased the risk of injuries to cyclist. However, from the Safety, health and environmental risk perception of stakeholders, it has been identified that increasing market saturation and one way cyclic tracks is the condition which is hazardous because it increases the risk of collision among cyclist and motor vehicles at cross rails. Apparently, from the view of policy makers, it has been concluded that separate infrastructure for cycle tracks will assist in managing effective modification on Urban cyclic tracks according to public and corporate client.
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