In the present era, individuals have become very health conscious due to increasing rate of diseases and illness in the society. In order to provide protection and improvement regarding public health, government of UK has made various kinds of associations and institutions. In simple words, it can be said that public health is a procedure for rendering protection and improvement of the health of communities. In other words, it can be said that public heath refers to art of protecting diseases, prolonging life and promoting well-being of people with the help of organised efforts and informed choice of society, public and private communities and individuals (Seager, 2012). The following project will provide in-depth knowledge about various approaches and strategies which are used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of diseases in communities. In addition to this, the roles of WHO, department of health or public health England and local authorities will also be studied in this report.


1.1 Explanation of the roles by WHO, department of health and local authorities in identifying levels of health and diseases in communities

In order to estimate and identify the health and diseases in population, there are various government bodies such as World health organisation (WHO), European Union, department of health, public health England, etc. All these agencies have major role to control health and social work in the society. In addition to this, they are determining the health and diseases in communities. Following are some roles and responsibilities of these agencies:

World health organisation- It is an organisation working at international level which is dealing with the rules of trade among nations. In context of health care, this organisation plays a crucial role by providing guidelines and suggestions regarding various health issues, developing different health agendas, developing norms and policies and through effective monitoring on health care services at local communities (Hillier and, 2009). World health organisation is a specialised agency of United Nations that is concerned with international public health. This agency is obligated for world health report and a leading international publication on health. This association has been established in 1948 and it aims to assess the people diseases and in this regard, WHO develops effective policies and guidelines so that rate of diseases can be decreased from public health.

Department of health- It is a national level agency in health and social care secror. In other words, it is a Ministerial department of the United Kingdom government that is liable for government policy on health agency. This agency is also responsible to identifying the needs and requirement of people regarding their health diseases and issue in the England. They are also responsible to identify the policy, guidelines and procedure depending on the type of diseases to improve the quality of care and satisfy the requirement of service users (Kovandzic, 2010). This department is managed by 23 agencies which are related to public firm.

Local authorities- Local authorities are responsible to carry out investigation to detect the causes of diseases, to identify the health measures and overcome illness. In addition to this, following organisation is also responsible for proving communities health facilities and encourages the health by use of poster, brochures, pictures and screenings etc. For example: CCG's stands for clinical commissioning group were created the health and social acre act 2012 and it is a NHS body which is responsible for planning and commissioning of health care services for their local area.

1.2 Explanation about the Epidemiology of infections and non-infectious diseases

In context of health and social care services, Epidemiology is the concept under which analysis of patterns, causes and effects of health and diseases conditions in defined populations. This concept assists with study design, collections and statistical analysis of data, interpretation and dissemination of results. It also aids in developing various kinds of methods for clinical research support studied in public health and biological health area (Law and Elliott, 2009). Epidemiology of non-infectious and infectious disease in the United Kingdom are as follows-

The human immunodeficiency virus is a sexual transmitted infection which arises due to the increase immunodeficiency syndrome. This kind of infectious disease can be transmitted by blood transfusion from mother to child at the time of pregnancy or breast feeding. It is a chronic potentially life treating condition that in return damages the immune system by CD4 cells that plays a great role in assisting the body to fight diseases. In the United Kingdom, facts and figures of HIV are a


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