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In the present era, individuals have become very health conscious due to increasing rate of diseases and illness in the society. In order to provide protection and improvement regarding public health, government of UK has made various kinds of associations and institutions. In simple words, it can be said that public health is a procedure for rendering protection and improvement of the health of communities. In other words, it can be said that public heath refers to art of protecting diseases, prolonging life and promoting well-being of people with the help of organised efforts and informed choice of society, public and private communities and individuals (Seager, 2012). The following project will provide in-depth knowledge about various approaches and strategies which are used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of diseases in communities. In addition to this, the roles of WHO, department of health or public health England and local authorities will also be studied in th
1.1 Explanation of the roles by WHO, department of health and local authorities in identifying levels of health and diseases in communities
In order to estimate and identify the health and diseases in population, there are various government bodies such as World health organisation (WHO), European Union, department of health, public health England, etc. All these agencies have major role to control health and social work in the society. In addition to this, they are determining the health and diseases in communities. Following are some roles and responsibilities of these agencies:
World health organisation- It is an organisation working at international level which is dealing with the rules of trade among nations. In context of health care, this organisation plays a crucial role by providing guidelines and suggestions regarding various health issues, developing different health agendas, developing norms and policies and through effective monitoring on health care services at local communities (Hillier and et.al., 2009). World health organisation is a specialised agency of United Nations that is concerned with international public health. This agency is obligated for world health report and a leading international publication on health. This association has been established in 1948 and it aims to assess the people diseases and in this regard, WHO develops effective policies and guidelines so that rate of diseases can be decreased from public health.
Department of health- It is a national level agency in health and social care secror. In other words, it is a Ministerial department of the United Kingdom government that is liable for government policy on health agency. This agency is also responsible to identifying the needs and requirement of people regarding their health diseases and issue in the England. They are also responsible to identify the policy, guidelines and procedure depending on the type of diseases to improve the quality of care and satisfy the requirement of service users (Kovandzic, 2010). This department is managed by 23 agencies which are related to public firm.
Local authorities- Local authorities are responsible to carry out investigation to detect the causes of diseases, to identify the health measures and overcome illness. In addition to this, following organisation is also responsible for proving communities health facilities and encourages the health by use of poster, brochures, pictures and screenings etc. For example: CCG's stands for clinical commissioning group were created the health and social acre act 2012 and it is a NHS body which is responsible for planning and commissioning of health care services for their local area.
1.2 Explanation about the Epidemiology of infections and non-infectious diseases
In context of health and social care services, Epidemiology is the concept under which analysis of patterns, causes and effects of health and diseases conditions in defined populations. This concept assists with study design, collections and statistical analysis of data, interpretation and dissemination of results. It also aids in developing various kinds of methods for clinical research support studied in public health and biological health area (Law and Elliott, 2009). Epidemiology of non-infectious and infectious disease in the United Kingdom are as follows-
The human immunodeficiency virus is a sexual transmitted infection which arises due to the increase immunodeficiency syndrome. This kind of infectious disease can be transmitted by blood transfusion from mother to child at the time of pregnancy or breast feeding. It is a chronic potentially life treating condition that in return damages the immune system by CD4 cells that plays a great role in assisting the body to fight diseases. In the United Kingdom, facts and figures of HIV are as follows-
- In the United Kingdom, about 103700 people facing HIV disease.
- In the entire population, about 0.19% adults HIV prevalence.
- From the whole population in UK, 6,151 new HIV infections in the 2014.
- In the year 2014, there is 613 AIDS related deaths occur in the UK.
- There is 91% adults on antiretroviral treatments
From the above diagram, it has been ascertained that in the UK, approximately 103700 people are living with HIV. The prevalent of 1.9 per 1000 people aged 15 and over, the incidence rate of 6151 people were newly diagnosed with HIV and mortality rate of 613 people died of AID related illness.
Breast cancer is a type of non-infectious disease which occur in the females due to wrong process of growth of breast cells that starts multiplying uncontrollably rather than producing new cells when and where they are required. It starts in the form of tumour where cells expand in the near tissues and spread to distant areas of the female’ body. Generally, there are two types of breast cancer that are invasive and non-invasive.
Symptoms of breast cancer are numerous. It usually arises in the first stage at thickened breast tissue. In the female body, there can be change in the shape and size of one or both breasts. There may discharge from either of nipple and a rash around them (Kovandzic 2010). It may be streaked with blood, a lump or swelling in either of armpit, dimpling on the skin of breast and a change in the appearances of nipples.
According to the survey, it has been found that in the year 2014, there are 50000 women that are suffering with invasive breast cancer. It has also been found that younger women and rare cases in men can also get breast cancer.
1.3 Evaluation of the effectiveness of various approaches and strategies to control the incidence of any infectious and non infections
In order to control the incidence of disease in the UK , government has formulated various strategies and approaches. There are various kinds of strategies and approaches can use by the London communities. The effectiveness of that strategies and approaches are as follows-
- Legislation- In order to provide prevention, UK government has made various legislations which is used by various agencies to control HIV and breast cancer. Offences against the person act 2004 for HIV and women's health and cancer right act 2012 developed specially for breast cancer which aids women for breast cancer (Frahm, 2009). The major effectiveness of this offence against person act is that it assist those disease by condemning and criminalising the behaviour of men who are interested to have sex with men, transgender people, sex workers and the person who is addicted of drugs.
- Appoint public health consultants- In order to provide the protection and control over the health disease, it is another effective strategy in the UK. This approach assist to those people who are suffering from high disease (Bryans, 2005). This approach takes actions in order to promote the well being and it also created awareness to the people about the disease, their impacts and effective treatment top overcome that disease.
- The health education- This is another effective approach which have main aim is to prevent the development of virus. It aims is to increase the awareness in the populations about the HIV and breast cancer in the countries and rural area. In this manner, they uses the social media like advertisement, leaflet, brochers etc (Corbett, Travaglia and Braithwaite, 2011). The health promotion is the best strategy in order to provide the protection and awareness about the health in the various countries and rural area.
- The screening- It is a process through which easily investigate the healthy people who may at increase risk of HIV and breast cancer. By use of various measures like blood test, MRI scan and breast examinations and genetic measure, organisation can tackle the number of population who are infected with the HIV and breast cancer.
2.1 Determination of current priorities and approaches to provision of services to people with diseases
Disease burden is the impact of the health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity or other indicators. In the UK there are various current priorities to the provision of services for people who are suffering from HIV and breast cancer. These current priorities are as follows-
Primordial prevention level- This is the first priority of health care experts and services provider who deliver care services to patients. At this level, various legislations comprises and also sets various guidelines for tackle the spread of diseases. This includes the health promotion educations which assist in division of medications. Apart from that the new equipments and tools have adopted by the services user so as the quality of medical services can improve. It assist in improving the quality of care services of the patients who are suffering from the HIV and breast cancer.
Treatments- It is another priority under which health care provider have obligation to ensure that entire service users have got equal treatments to treat their disease (Brown, Cueto and Fee, 2006). In the secondary stage of prevention early diagnosis called screening to estimate the numbers of the service users may be at risk of disease like blood tests, mammography for breast cancer etc.
Palliative care- In this approach, medical organisation render the supportive treatment and psychological care to service users who are suffering from the infected disease such as HIV. In addition to this, this approach assist to the patients who are suffer from all ailment stages of HIV and breast cancer and patients who are counting days for their death.
Remedial care- The major objective of this approach is to maintain the cure and expansion of teenagers and support to those people who have physical incapabilities due to HIV and breast cancer. This approach aid in identifying the causes of disease, suitable treatments so as illness or disease in the UK can improve.
2.2 Explanation about the relationship between the prevalence of disease and requirement of services
The prevalence is the ratio when measuring the effect of a disease with in public and to evaluate the successive desire. Statistic on prevalence are relaxed to collect than frequency data. It is considered buy dividing the sum of occurrences of the health meter through the definite time gap by the properties of population of indicator happened.
Planning- In this stage, health care experts have to develop systematic planning in order to de;liver the care services to patients who are suffering from the HIV and breast cancer. With assistance of the effective planning, health experts can develop plan to overcome the diseases of the HIV patients.
Facilities- In this stage, health experts arrange the facilities through which service users can get information about the disease and take regular check up. In addition to this UK government can organise the various medical camp, events and other programs as supportive services to support individuals within the health and social care organisation (Birnbaum, 2012). In addition to this with appropriate facilitates, service users can get best treatments and suggestions to deal with HIV and breast cancer patients.
Expertise- Expertise as a high level knowledge or skill in a particular area through information from prevalence can identify the area where expertise should give proper attentions. In this manner, expertise provide effective attention to overcome the disease of patients who have illness of HIV and breast cancer.
Partnership working- This assist in providing the advance medication, funding for facilities and make resources allocation for services (Bogg, 2011). With assistance of partnership working in the health and care organisation , heath experts and care providers can collectively render the highly advanced and quality care services to patients.
2.3 Analysis of the impact of lifestyle choice such as diet, exercise and substance
In the present time, individual life style and diets highly influence the health of individuals. In this manner current issues are as follows-
- Diet- Diet is the kinds of food which directly affect the health of person and animals. In order to growth of physical as well as mental, diet play a very crucial role. If human being takes ineffective food and diet then it will directly negative impact on the health which causes of various issue like gastric, obesity and other life threatening (Atwal and Jones, 2009). In order to provide the awareness regarding diet, health care organisation should organise campaigns and to publish those on mass as to how to prepare healthy diets.
- Exercise- Exercise is an activity that needed physical efforts to improve health and fitness. With assistance of exercise may physical disability can imp[rove like obesity can easily decrease with help of daily exercise (Beresford, 2006). Health care organisation should introduce the weight reducing schemes so as patients can improve their health and decrees weight.
3.1 Assessment of the health and well-being priorities for people in health and social care setting
It is very important for health and social care organisation to assess the health and well-being priorities for individual in the UK. In order to assess health and well being priorities, Joint strategic need assessment methods can considered. This method aids in analysing the health priories and requirement to inform and guide the well-being and social care services and commissioning of health within the local communities. On the basis of assessment various health and well being priorities can identifies which are as follows-
- Decrease the teenager pregnancies, overweight issues in children and adults.
- Render the medical support to the individual who are suffering from the health issues and make them in depended and capable so as they can live their normal life (Annor and Allen, 2008).
- Overcome the quantity of individuals who are addicted of smoking, drugs, alcohol etc.
In order to implement these plan and priorities, health and well-being boards bring together key commission, including representative of clinical commissioning groups and senior manner from London city will support and give their effective contribution in the UK (Thew and Mckenna, 2008). This stated plan and priorities will bring the important improvement in the treatments and minimise several issues and diseases by using preventions techniques.
3.2 Evaluation of effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health or social care setting
Following are some effectiveness of strategies, policies and system in the health and social care setting-
Complaints policies- The local authority social service and national helath service englnad complaints regulation 2009 support to Complaints policy which have a positive impact in providing care and services to the populations as the opportunities to render for service recovery, create awareness on the part organisation and the opportunity to improve the service. This complaints policy is effective because by this various complaints related decision can taken by the organisation. It aids in ensuring that complaints are investigate promptly, honestly and openly.
Quality of provision- Care standards act 2000, the care quality commission assist in monitoring the quality of provision. This provision is responsible for render effective, efficient and high quality care services to patients in the various communities and encourage these services to make improvement in the organisation.
Partnership working- Working in partnership assist improving the quality of care services in the health and social care organisation. It involves multidisciplinary teams which collectively accomplish the assignment in the organisation and sharing their idea to attain desired objective (Anderson and McFarlane, 2010). In this manner, surgeon, social workers, nurses, pathologist, police and dieticians are involved. Working in partnership strategies assist in saving the time, taking effective decision and achieve target within the time in the health and social care organisation.
3.3 Changes that could be made to better the health and well-being of human beings in a health and social care setting
In order to make changes to improve the health and well-being of individuals, some of the measures can adopted which are as follows-
Health education- Health education is very important to make the changes in the health and improve well-being. In this manner,health and social care organisation should provide the education by organising workshops, programs,campaigns etc
Physical exercise- Physical exercise is also very important in order to make changes and improve the well-being of individual (Alakeson, 2013). With assistance of physical exercise obesity problem can remove. With the help of this, obesity issue from the children can also decrease.
Health promotion- In this manner, organisation should use the social media and various medium of advertising so as it can spread the awareness among the society about the health.
From this project report it has been concluded that in the UK there are large number of patients who are suffering from the breast cancer and HIV. These are too senior disease which largely affect the human being so health acre organisation should effectively provide awareness so as these diseases can remove from the society. It has been also concluded that WHO local authorities and department of health is an association which assist in identifying levels of health and disease in communities. It has been also concluded that by effective diet and exercise human being can improve their disease and health issue so care organisation should provide awareness among the society.
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