In the recent era, abusive activities with people who live alone are increased to a high extent. It has given chances to people to exploit and abuse others for financial gain or building sexual relationship (Dickinson and O'Flynn, 2016). These people are a threat to society and need to be punished. Along with this, it is very important to protect people from getting abuse or any other harm. So, nursing home provides care to them. It is their duty and role to safeguard those people who are threatened by such activities. Besides this, there are several laws and regulations developed by government to ensure that care homes deliver effective care to people. An effective management of professionals in health care can help in minimising abusive factors. This report will show why individuals are being abused and factors that lead to incidence of abuse.
1.1 Explain why particular individuals such as Bridget and other groups may be vulnerable to abuse or harm
People in society is are abused due to various reasons. This have an impact on their mental health for a long term. Besides this, if needs and demands of people are not met they involve in these kinds of activities to fulfil their needs (Taylor, Stevenson and McDowell 2018) In case study it is given that an elder Bridget was abuse by Mr. Y. he was living with Bridget in her house. So she was not dependent on him for financial needs. In absence of Mr. Y Bridget often drink alcohol. Bridget was having social. Also, absence of Mr. Y created a loneliness environment for her. But after an incident at hospital Mr. Y started emotionally abusing her. This affected her behaviour. Also, Mr. Y started isolating Bridget from her friends.
Besides this, elder people are soft targets for people to meet their needs. They are easily abused by others. Also, they depend on others to fulfil their needs. Apart from this, elder people remains alone and ill (Peckover and Trotter, 2015) This loneliness becomes the reason for change in their behaviour. It makes them frustrated that lead to affect their mental and physical health.
Another reason for getting abuse is poor conditions in which a person lives. This makes him to think about the reasons of those conditions. It changes their behaviour and makes him aggressive (Low, Roland and Chantler, 2015). Due to this person is does not communicate with other regarding what is happening in his life. Thus, in order to improve those conditions individual thinks a lot. This makes him suffer from depression. It rises incident of harming other in order to remain calm. Also, it leads to getting involved in abusive activities so that individual can be happy.
The risk of getting involved in abusive activities by elder people rises due to loneliness. In order to get involved with other person wants to remain engage in several activities. In this case also Bridget was abused by Mr. Y as he was living with Bridget in her house (White, Wastell and Waring, 2015) Also, Bridget was dependent on Mr. Y. for any kind of support . The relationship between them was also not so good after an incident that occurred at hospital. Besides this, they both was suffering from loss of their loved ones. So this affected their mental health.
1.2 Review risk factors which may lead to incidence of abuse and or harm to Bridget and others
In given scenario the Bridget is abused due to various reasons. It has given chance to Mr. Y to take advantage of that Bridget due to her loneliness. As Mr. Y was living with Bridget in her house this gave chance to Mr. Y for abusing Bridget. Also, her behaviour was changed after getting treatment at hospital. Besides this, the conditions or reasons due to which individuals feels that he or she is abused by others are known as risk factors (White, Wastell and Waring, 2015) Generally, it is classified in three categories that is given below :-
Individual Factors - It is related to personal factor that consists of any physical disability or mental disorder. Also, it includes factors such as behaviour, deficits, etc. These can affect individual’s mental and physical health leading to incidence of abuse or harm. Bridget was living with Mr. Y alone in her house so this created negative impact in his mental health.
Family Factors - These factors are raised by family members. It involves criminal behaviour, violence, conflicts, stress, etc. It creates poor environment within the family. Due to this, individual is not able to communicate properly. This results in the abuse or harm. Bridget was not having any family member for giving social support. So this may lead to risk of getting harm to Bridget by Mr. Y. also, Mr. Y was totally dependent on Bridget so he can easily cause harm to her.
Social Or Environment Factors - These are related to society or external environment in which individuals live. It includes unemployment, social isolation, etc. These factors affect people living in society resulting in abusive activities (Social, and August, 2015). the environment in which Bridget was living was very harsh. She was being alone for long time that affected her mental health. Also, Mr. Y gave her support by living in her house so Bridget was dependent on him for support.
It is been observed by that elder people are abused due to illness or dependency. They are dependent on other for fulfilling their needs. This hinders them to take any action against abusive situations. Also, it creates feeling of fear and frustration among them. Similarly, in given case Mr. Y was dependent on Bridget. This provided Bridget social support and restricted her to take any action. Along with this, there are several risk factors which may lead to incidence of abuse to other people. It is describes below :-
Family Conflicts - It is the most common factor that leads to abusive situations. For example- a child is being abused by his parents for whole life. This will make him repeat same situation with others (Glasby and Dickinson, 2014)
Isolation - In this an individual may does not get social support. It will make him feel frustrated. In this case chances of abusing other at very high.
Psychological Conditions - In most cases individual are abused due to improper mental health. Due to this other people take advantage of this. In this professionals need to provide support to them.
The mental condition of Bridget was not proper. It was because she has not effectively recovered. She remained upset and not coping. This lead to suffer her from dementia. She lost her memory that's why she didn't remember anything that was happened with her.
1.3 Analyse the impact of social and cultural factors on different types of abuse and harm
Apart from personal and physical factors, there are various other factors also that create situation of abuse or harm. In this, cultural and social factors play a crucial role. There are several reasons due to which an individual will be forced to abuse others (Low, Roland and Chantler, 2015). Moreover, society plays a vital role in developing factors that often lead to abusive situations. Various socio cultural factors are as follows:-
Social Exclusion - In exists because of socially boycotting a group of people or an individual in society. This creates a great impact on their behaviour and forces them to involve in abusive activities. In given case old Bridget was being abused by Mr. Y
Social Factors - It consists of different such as health, financial position, lack of support, etc. these all factors build an environment in that creates negative impact on individual mental health. Apart from this poverty and lack of support is major cause of abuse to old age people. Similarly, old Bridget was abused by Mr. Y (Grajales, Sheps and Eysenbach, 2014). In this Mr. Y took advantage of Bridget as he was living with her in cottage. Also, Mr. Y was only person who provided her support. So this factor lead to take advantage of Bridget by Mr. Y.
Cultural Differences - It is the most common factor that becomes cause of abuse or harm to others. This commonly occurs in society in which certain people avoid interacting with others. This creates negative impact on their mind. The differences occur due to availability of basic amenities to people. Also, in this people does not respect others. There was no cultural differences between them.
Social Isolation - it is also a major factor that leads to abuse and harm others. This leads to rise in various other problems like financial difficulties, physical stress, etc. It rises depression in individual making it difficult to take decisions. This becomes cause of abusing others in order to fulfil their needs ( Norrie, Manthorpe and Rayat, 2016). In case study social isolation occurred when Mr. Y was not present in the house, this was concern for Bridget for her safety.
Besides this, there are certain differences in culture, ethnics, nationality and religion can also rise of the socio cultural abuses, impacting the well being of individual and other people.
2.1 Analyse the strengths and weaknesses in current national and local legislation and policy
There are various policies that are set by government to safeguard people from various abusive activities. But those policies are having some strengths and weakness that is analysed below :-
Care Act 2014 - This act helps in effective management of practices and measures that are taken while providing care. In case of Bridget and Mr. Y it was the responsibility of social worker to provide support and care to them (Glynos, Speed and West, 2015) The strength of act is it ensures that practices are in proper place. This helps in giving effective care. Its weakness there are no set standards to measure the effectiveness of practises. This affects their quality in providing care.
Sexual Offence Act 2003 - This act prevents people from getting abuse or harm. It helps in meeting needs of people by identifying it. Its strengths is it helps whistle blowers to find out measures. The care organisation must investigate about sexual relationship between them. According to it they must take strict actions against Mr. Y.
Safeguarding The Vulnerable Groups Act 2006 - It safeguards rights of people or groups who are exploited to various kinds of abusive activities. It helps them to get proper treatment by defending their dignity and rights (White, Currie and Lockett, 2014) Also, effective support and other facilities are provided to them. Its strength is it prevents illegal person to access any information of those people. But its weakness is it restricts the investigation of care persons who work in care homes. In this case care organisation should separate Mr. y from Bridget house. They must take them to care home. Also, Bridget must be given support at her home. This will help in supporting Bridget.
Mental Health Law 1983 - This act ensures that people who are having some mental illness have to be provided with effective care and support. The strength of this act is that it consists of some guidelines that have to be followed by workers while providing support. Weakness is it restricts workers to work freely. Bridget must be provided care for improving her mental health.
Care Standard Act 2000 - this act ensures that care homes are operating legally to provide support to individuals (Glasby and Dickinson, 2014) It ensures providing proper health and safety environment to people.
Health And Safety Protection Act 1974 - This act states that care homes must provide protective environment to people. Moreover, the working conditions should be proper. There must be effective tools and equipments to ensure safety of individuals.
Data Protection Act 1998 - It states that the data of people should be protected and not disclosed to other. This act covers the of Disclosure act 1998. This was about whistle blowers in the society. It is the way to Improve the legislation practices and is a democratic option to build a healthier policy.
2.2 Explain how a range of key professionals are involved in the protection of individuals
The major role of professionals in health care is to provide support to people. It helps them to overcome harsh conditions (Munro, Taylor and BradburyJones, 2014). Also, they have to provide social physical support to patient to overcome any health issue. For this, there are various experts that work in this field like:-
Social Worker - These persons play a significant role in providing support and treatment to patients. They have the responsibility to provide security to people from getting abused within society as well as care home. Also, they help in taking legal actions and ensure that things are not repeated in the future. Social workers work as a teacher, supporter, etc. in society who provide social as well as emotional support. Moreover, by taking effective decisions, they identify the needs of people so that these can be effectually fulfilled.
NSPCC - They are the experts who provide support to children and families who are suffering from any sexual harassment. They work with those people to help and support them. Beside this, they provide care to them by handling situations (Dickinson and O'Flynn, 2016) Also, workshops and social gatherings are done by these people to make aware people about various rights and acts. These experts generally help youngsters and individuals whoa re suffering from any sexual activities.
Health Professional - It includes doctor, physicians, staff, etc. whose role is to provide effective treatment to individuals. They also ensure that risk of getting abused is minimised. These persons role is to help suffered person to get all those rights that exist within society. Besides this, they deliver high quality care to people so that their mental as well as physical health will get improved quickly (White, Currie and Lockett, 2014) Moreover, doctor advices people to perform certain activities so that it will help in improving their behaviour. They work with each other to organise camps regarding health issues so that effective measures can be taken. Furthermore, it is their responsibility to motivate people to create a better environment within society. Health professionals share their knowledge with people about different rights and acts that can be used in any case. Any sort of unethical activities that are prevailing within society are recognized by them by taking proper actions.
Community Care Practitioner - this person is responsible for providing care to person who are suffering from dementia. Generally, it includes adults with physical or learning disabilities. Their role is to follow practices of professionals. They are trainees who have entered in health and social care.
From this report it is concluded that individuals are abused due to various reasons. There are many factors that lead to incident of abuse such as Individual, Family, Social or environment factors. Apart from personal and physical factors there are various other factors also that creates situation of abuse or harm. In this cultural and social factors play a crucial role. There are various policies that are set by government to safeguard people from various abusive activities. The major role of professionals in health care is to provide support to people. It helps them to overcome harsh situations. It is very essential to stop or prevent individuals from getting abuse. For this there are several policies and practices that can be followed. Practises and measures needs to be evaluated so that its effectiveness and efficiency can be increased. It will help in providing quality care to individuals who are being abused. Various practise can be followed and implemented along with certain measures to minimise abuse in society. It will help in providing effective support and improving quality of services.
- Dickinson, H. and O'Flynn, J., 2016.Evaluating Outcomes in Health and Social Care 2e. Policy Press.
- Glasby, J. and Dickinson, H., 2014.Partnership working in health and social care: what is integrated care and how can we deliver it?. Policy Press.
- Glynos, J., Speed, E. and West, K., 2015. Logics of marginalisation in health and social care reform: Integration, choice, and provider-blind provision.Critical Social Policy,35(1), pp.45-68.
- Grajales III, F.J., Sheps, S.. and Eysenbach, G., 2014. Social media: a review and tutorial of applications in medicine and health care.Journal of medical Internet research,16(2).