Case Study on Causes and Effect of Human Behaviour

Question :

This assessment will cover certain:

  1. Analyze and provide social theories.
  2. Elaborate relationship in theories, values and practice.
Answer :


The theory explaining the cause and effect of human behaviour like for example defining how humans interact and how they react to stimuli is called to as social work theories. This is also the scientific method of resolving issue related to get the general explanation supported by all type of incidence and evidence as well (Hepworth, Rooney and Strom-Gottfried, 2016). This particular essay will be providing look into various type of social work theory and comparing them all to find out which one to best suited for the given case study. This will also demonstrate the reflective practice and discussing relationship between theories, practice and values for better understanding.

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Background of Case

Carol when she was 17 was living in remote area of Aboriginal community with her mother and her twin brother died when she gave birth to her son Alan. As they were not having any precise source of earning so she was very unwell when she was expecting her son due to her lay back attitude Alan was made to live apart from her in a home care. Then after this Alan was placed with the foster family losing up Carol’s contact with her family and her son as well. Then she started living nomadic lifestyle in taking drugs, alcohol, prostitution and uncertainty her relationship with family was also uncertain for about 6 years.

After this the health care professional reported that she was again pregnant but she was not agreed to work with the child care protection workers. As they were attempting into safe guarding Carol and her baby as the father of baby is expected to a criminal who is serving into prison. He is expected to harm baby and Carol who is one of the major drug dealer of community. Then once again her mother Robyn and one of her aunty decided to stay with Carol in way of protecting her and her baby as well. After this Carol gave birth to baby girl and named her Sharon then they both stayed within hospital to allow to safe guarded her daughter. There was change in behaviour of Carol which was noticed by hospital staff as she was providing strong support to Sharon and regarded to as good enough parenting.

But uncertainly during the second week Carol was becoming very much agitated she use to leave home for longer period of time and this also includes overnight absence. Her mother and aunty use to take care of Sharon during these times and problem between Carol and her family began. According to behaviour and visiting child protection workers it was reported that Carol was using drugs and her behaviour was also becoming erratic. Then during the 3rd week it was reported by Robyn about attack which Carol did on her and she was scared that Carol could harm Sharon as well. Carol informed workers that her own partner who was into prison was released and then she would return back with him the very next day. In this incident workers are expected or feared about risk of Sharon’s safety and planning to place her into home care.

Here are mentioned about some of the theories about the decision which as social workers must be taken as next very important step so that Carol and Sharon both are safe by applying some of the social work theories.

Critique and analyse of social work theories


According to Payne, (2015) the problem solving theory is that under which people are assisted to work with the problem stated with continuation of problem solving process. Under this theory social workers would not be trying to state what client must be doing rather they would be teaching them all how to apply problem solving method. Under this client could develop their own kind of solutions where they would be applying ideas and skills for gaining information. Problem solving theory is very much helpful for social workers as they could teach people and their client how to resolve any type of issue with simply skills and knowledge which they are having (Social Work Theories, 2018). This theory was exposed after the criticism of social work in 1970’s this gave birth to conflict and learning theories of social work practice. For this Perlman is given credit as she started problem solving model which was developed by learning theories linked into this. According to her view social case work is that process under which certain human welfare could help individuals in way of coping more effectively with their problem within social function.

As per view of Howe, (2017) helping the individual in way of dealing with problem which related to social functioning it is important to deal with the aim of resolving problem. This particular model is having and containing 4 P’s including that of Place, person, problem and process. All these will be linked with characteristic of client or person so that it becomes easy to simplify the problem related to social work practice. As explained by Maynard, Naeger and Dell, (2018) person includes that what are characteristic for social workers that person would need to help with emotional and social part of lifestyle. While problem is that view which includes life long process of solving and resolving issues and problems but not including difficulties that individual faces. At time when person is having or they are facing problem at that time they would not be able to function properly. Whereas place is that institution where social workers are working or aimed at working with all sort of issues so that they could become master of their life. There are many types of institutions which will be aiming at improving relationship of mind and socially handicap people.

Then the last one is that of process which series of resolving issue so that meaningful answer could be given. On the critic side of the particular theory it was stated by Mansbridge, (2018) that contemporary education for failing that there are incorporative online trends which are collectively problems solving into classroom.


As per Ghanem, Lawson and Pankofer, (2018) anti-oppressive is that practice or theory of social work that would be interdisciplinary approach which is primarily which is rooted within the practice of social work and focusing on oppression related to socioeconomic. All the practitioner of the social works will be powered with examining imbalance within organisation structure towards larger political contexts as well. this theory also help in developing strategies for creating environment related to that of racism, oppression and discrimination into larger society. This practice largely deal with the excluding certain group of society with having social justice, rights and reflecting social equality as well. This could be included very clearly that all imbalance between control of service and care will automatically lead to oppression among people.

As per Matthews, McIntyre and Simpson, (2018) oppression is that relation which tend to divide people into inferior and superior one which will be based on domination and systematic contribution. The model of anti-oppression there are 3 type of barriers which is included within this Personal (P), cultural (C) and structural (S). These are the factors which refer to conformity, personal and other social dimension of personal life of humans. The personal aspect will be dealing with evaluation of gender helping in empowerment of women in constructing men as non-threatening factor. Thus there will be risk of domestic violence which is one of the biggest issue relating to construction of per anti oppressive theory. While on other hand cultural will be building up values and beliefs which will be sourced with language which is participating into constructing social structure. Lastly the structural part of anti-oppression theory will be relating with regulations concerned with pointing out direct proportion including use of religion and power.

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As per the view of Belgrave and Seide, (2018) this theory deals with the approach which is looking into all individual within context of combined factor of influence like mental and physical wellness as well with ability to function.  As there is very much stronger relationship between emotional and mental happiness and well-being of individual person that very limited people know of. While this is the study of factors like that of behaviour, thoughts and feelings which are all influencing actual or implied importance of other. There are conditions which will be greatly impacting social psychology and helping in interaction with other people. This theory helps in bridging up the gap between sociology and psychology.

The modern version of this theory started in beginning of the 20th century within USA which was based on old writing of Al-Farabi who was philosopher. According to Harris and White, (2018) there are mainly 2 phenomena which deal with intrapersonal and interpersonal one. These will include the self-concept which states how an individual would be feeling for themselves consisting with their special attention on mental and physical consciousness. As it is very much important that people are building up their own view and thought about themselves so that their belief and perception could be judged.

Northouse, (2018) explained that into the social attitude which is dealing with the global evaluation or all objects and people their own basic expressions. As there are various views and attitude which every person is having and that would be different from that of others. Like some of them would be disliking ice creams which is considered to be attractive for most people or some of them would be considering views of one political party while others would not be. Other topics will that of persuasion which is receiving more importance in this recent time which is influencing behaviour and emotions of people by another. This is the process of persuading or motivating person to believe what other is thinking so that they are able to do exactly what they believe. As discussed by Braunerhjelm, Ding and Thulin, (2018) social influence is part of interpersonal phenomena which is same as persuasion but this is done on larger scale like impacting whole group of people. It will be including 3 major area of influencing which are obedience, conformity and compliance as well. The way in which other people of group are thinking and then thinking the same way according to which they are thinking.

This theory is very much helpful which allow people to consider their thinking and view and then conveying it to others so that they could also get influence with what they are considering.


On the other hand Steen, (2018) define system theory as that which deals with the behaviour of human in terms with the complex and multiple process. As it is not easy for anyone to understand the situation and thought of any other person’s need or want. This theory also state that families, friends and relatives will also be directly get involved with the resolving all problem if the individual issue is not getting resolved. So the social theory will be dealing with support and help that people could be able to give to others that too in scientific method this will be describing how people are reacting and interacting with each other. This theory deal with 2 major aspect which are manmade and natural finding the interrelationship between changes of behaviour (System Theory, 2018). Under this theory it could be generalise that every system will be surrounded by environment with describing its function and purpose of structure.

 There are many type of systems or functions which would be dealing with others and supporting them so that failure from other systems could be prevented. There are systems, theories, models and concepts which are based on application of general and opposed principle to the domain of knowledge.

From the above theories of social work it could be concluded that in case of Carol social workers could be adopting Psychological theory. As this will allow worker to guide Carol into what should they be doing and dealing with situation. The Psychological theory clearly states the human behaviour, belief, thoughts and views so that it becomes easy for people in dealing and comparing the situation. This theory will be including how both mental and physical state and well-being of person could be joined together in way of coming on to specified solution. While social workers could also practice the problem solving theory which is not only considering what person should do to solve their problem but they also deal in showing path to them how to do it. As under this theory all social workers will be looking for how to teach people in resolving their problem by building up ability and knowledge as well.

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Reflective practice

From this particular essay it was easy for me to learn about what are various theories of social workers which will help me to resolve problem of Carol. As I will able to deal with situation of Carol that is becoming worst with her abuse of drug and not good relationship with her daughter and family. So with the use of problem solving theory I could be able to deal by her situation and provide her with specified and easy solutions.

Discussing relationship between theories, practice and values

It could be included that the relationship between practice, value and theory of social work will be very much complex in way of reflecting characteristic of social workers. As the professional into this field it is important that people are having basic knowledge of esoteric, autonomous and abstract which is generally accepted by all (van Wormer and Link, 2018). Thus this will be majorly dealing and analysing with strength of client so that their practice and values could be given importance. The interrelationship between that of practice and theory will be analysed by taking hypothetical instance or that of following theory. Thus identifying gap between what is been actually practiced and what it says about theory need not to have stronger impact on practitioners. However, focusing on the different uses of terms as an interesting subject of reflection requires a change of perspective and attitude. Meanings may vary dramatically across social groups moved by different interests and holding different cultures.


From the above essay it could concluded that practitioner of social works must be carrying on problem solving and Psychological theory in way of resolving issue of Carol. As her behaviour is getting worse with her abuse of drug and not living with her family so her behaviour and thought need to be addressed clearly. The model and theory will be preceding with 2 of the major ways which is stated into above essay this deal with minimising gap of theory and practice.

You may also take a look on some relevant pages - 

The development of social work in Australia

Relation of social welfare with social integration and social rights

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