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Introduction

Development refers to a process of enhancing one’s own skills and abilities to effectively manage functions and operations of the organization in order to achieve professional and personal objectives (Boso, Cadogan and Story, 2013). This process involves enhancement of leadership styles, social and cultural development, communication skills etc. The assignment is based on InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG), a British multinational hospitality firm headquartered in Denham, United Kingdom. The report involves comparison of different management styles used by companies to maintain the quality of their service to satisfy the customers. It also includes description of different leadership skills, communication process and organizational culture of IHG. In addition to this, it involves how management skills performance, personal strengths and weaknesses and set objectives could help in achieving desired objectives. Lastly, how own managerial and personal skill would support career development is briefly discussed.

TASK 1

1.1 Comparison of different management styles used in organizations

Management is the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling activities of the organizations to achieve its overall objectives (Edmonstone, 2015). This process helps companies optimally use its resources and achieve the objectives in a productive and profitable manner.

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It is essential for companies to be appropriately managed by its leaders, management and employees. Administration of firms must gather information about factors that could drive the business towards profitability and must have experience to handle difficult situations overtime.

The key management styles adopted by companies to succeed are mentioned below:

  • Directive Management Style: This style is more of a coercive style to make employees work according to the managers. They control employees closely and give direct orders to them in-obedience to which would serve punishment to employees.
  • Authoritative Management Style: In this management style, authoritative ways are used to take decisions by managers of the organization. It aims at providing a vision and long-term direction to company’s employees.
  • Affiliative Management Style: This management style values people more than the operations of the company. It aims at spreading harmony within the organizations. Emphasis of this style is on avoiding conflicts and developing good relationships among employees (Crouch and Housden, 2012).
  • Participative Management Style: It focuses on participation of employees in managerial tasks and decision-making of the firm. The main aim of this style is to build consensus and commitment among employees. It also helps to engage employees more and give their maximum input.

The management style used by ICH and Carnival Corporation & Plc is described below:

ICH

CARNIVAL CORPORATION & PLC

Participative Management Style: Firm adopts participative management style to manage the organization. The company aims at cooperation from its employees without forcing their choices on the subordinates. Every decision taken at the firm considers inputs from individuals which ensure their long term commitment. The managers under this type of management style offer opportunities to employees to contribute in leadership processes of the firm (Wilton, 2012).

Authoritative Management Style: This firm adopts authoritative management style. Diverse aptitudes are used by managers of the firm to manage the firm successfully. The director of the firm poses the ability to coordinate employees within the firm. For most part of the job, the director of the firm would not counsel with their employees on various decisions taken by the firm. The decisions of managers must be followed by subordinates as they possess the authority in the firm.

1.2 Leadership characteristics required in organizations

In travel and tourism sector, it is very important for the leaders to have specific characteristics to effectively lead the employees as well as the whole organization towards long term success. Efficiency and performance enhancement of employees depends heavily on the skills and competence of their leaders who are responsible to guide them through their business activities.

The characteristics required for leaders of ICH are as follows:

  • Effective Communication Skills: In hospitality, it is essential that leaders and managers must possess effective communication skills to deal with customers, employees as well as people outside the organization. Effective communication is very important in ICH as it helps the leaders to establish a competent and efficient communication within the organization (Ouakouak, Ouedraogo and Mbengue, 2014). Moreover, it such skills help the leaders to motivate employees of the firm and increase their potential in performing their duties.
  • Effective Decision-making: A good leader is determined by his decision-making power. He must take subtle but appropriate decisions which are fruitful for the firm as well as its employees. During times of extreme pressure, leaders of the firm are responsible to driving out organization from these complex situations by taking effective decisions.
  • Creativity: A leader must implement strategies that are innovative and creative. Leaders at ICH must be creative enough establish innovative practices within the organization. They must also have the ability to introduce creative methods of working to ensure better commitment from employees and enhance their job satisfaction.

Various Types of Leadership Styles

  • Autocratic: This leadership style allows leaders to take their own decisions without any participation of employees of the firm.
  • Democratic: This style focuses on involving the subordinates as well as other members of the organizations in decision-making. With proper consultancy and taking inputs from all the staff in an appropriate manner, companies derive and implement strategies and plans for effective running of business.
  • Laissez-faire Leadership: This leadership style gives power to the lower management of the organizations. There is no interference of upper management in decisions taken by the workforce and there is a liberal way in which organizations operate (Katamba, 2012).

1.3 Evaluation of communication process of ICH

Communication is the process of transferring information within an organization. In tourism and travel, communication plays a vital role in enhancing customer experience and the levels of their satisfaction. Moreover, communication strengthens an organization from within which helps it gain a competitive edge. To effectively run an organization, different communication processes are implemented by different companies according to their needs and nature of their firms. The communication process of ICH is as follows:

Formal and Informal Communication: The most common type of communication found in an organization is formal and informal communication. Inside ICH, both of these channels play a vital role in transferring information within the firm. Formal communication is effectively established in the organization and majorly followed by all the key stakeholders of the company. Formal communication ensures the transfer of information in a more reliable manner within the company. Since evidence is present of all such communication, it is hard to distort information under this channel. It seems more professional as compared to informal communication as there is a chain of command to transfer information within the company (Hendricks and Cope, 2013).

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Upward, Downward and Horizontal Communication: This structure of transmitting information within an organization helps the firm to effectively plan and develop strategies effectively. It ensures proper flow of information within the company. The flexible nature of this structure helps in speedy flow of crucial information at times of pressure.

  • Upward Communication: ICH uses this channel to direct the flow of information upwards i.e. from lower to upper management. It is very useful for the firm as it enables employee feedback for a plan or strategy.
  • Downward Communication: The flow of information under this channel is downwards. ICH uses this channel to ensure participation of the lower management.
  • Horizontal Communication: The flow of information in this channel is sideways i.e. horizontal. This channel is useful for employees of various departments to communicate with each other (Parker, 2012).

1.4 Analysis of organizational culture and change

Organizational culture includes all the cultural aspects within a company such as values and behaviors which constitute the social environment of an organization. Change refers to the shift from existing pattern of work. ICH focuses on changing the strategy and working pattern to enhance customer satisfaction from the group. It conducts different training programs for employees so that they work efficiently even when the firm change its methods. It is very crucial for organizations to adopt culture which best serves their purpose.

According to Charles Handy, the organizational cultures are:

  • Power Culture: In this culture, only few individuals in the firm have access to power. This culture is mostly result oriented with few rules and regulation imposed on employees. This culture best suits in quick decision-making (Busch, 2013). However, its non-participative nature might hinder performance of the organization in long run.
  • Task Culture: This culture focuses on the tasks the company needs to accomplish to achieve business objectives. Power often shuffles between individuals working in a team depending on individual expertise on tasks undertaken by the organization.
  • Role Culture: This culture is a highly controlled one and is based on rules. People within the organization are familiar with their roles and responsibilities. These organizations have a long chain of command. Power in this culture lies with individual as per their role in the company’s structure.

ICH follow role culture as their organizational structure. This helps the firm to effectively use power and carry out the tasks in an appropriate and systematic manner.

TASK 2

2.1 Assessment of own management skill performance

Tours and travel industry requires its employees to be efficient in order to provide best service to its employees and conduct their duties professionally (Puffer and Braithwaite, 2016). As a Management Trainee, it is essential that I assess my abilities with an aim to improve my shortcomings so that I excel at my workplace.

  • Decision-Making: For effectively carrying out my duties, it is required for me to take complex decisions in my organization. Effective decision-making would help me eradicate the threats and grab opportunities that serve well for me in the long run. I rate myself 3 out of 5 as I possess decent decision-making power and with few training programs, I would be well trained for complex situations too.
  • Communication: Managers must have outstanding communication skills in hospitality to attract more clients and enhance their experience (Kraft, 2012). I have always emphasized on using precision while communicating and I continue to work on my language and writing skills. Thus, I rate myself 4 out of 5.
  • Leadership: For effectively manage the employees, managers must possess leadership skills. However, I tend to fail sometimes in managing the team during complex activities and pressure. I still require training sessions to enhance this skill of mine. For this, I would rate myself 2.5 out of 5.

2.2 Personal SWOT analysis

For effectively manage and conduct my activities, I would conduct a personal SWOT analysis. It would help me to find my strengths and opportunities, I can grab at my workplace. It would also help me find my weaknesses and potential threats so that I can develop ways in which I could eradicate the same and enhance my performance (Schaper, 2016).

STRENGTHS

WEAKNESSES

I excel at communication which can be a contributing factor to my career enhancement in hospitality. Moreover, I possess impressive reasoning capacity that would enable me to deal with clients and solve their issues. Also, I am adaptable which makes me sufficient to operate even in extremely dynamic situations.

My biggest weakness is lack in leadership skills. This weakness can hinder my performance in the firm. I lack in effective time management too which is essential to enhance the experience of the customers.

OPPORTUNITIES

THREATS

Through effective training and developing programs at the firm, I will be exposed to certain opportunities that would help me increase my performance and enhance my service quality.

An ongoing threat in this industry is that the firm might find a better alternative than me to serve the firm. I shall work efficiently I order to reduce this threat.

To eradicate my weaknesses, I shall focus on reading journals and indulging myself in training programs so that I establish myself as a contributor to company’s success in providing quality service to its customers.

2.3 Setting and prioritizing objectives and targets to develop own potential

Objectives refer to long term goals set to succeed in the long run whereas targets are short term goals to ensure success in a short span of time. However, appropriate planning is required to set and prioritize objectives (Smith and Barrett, 2016). The most important objective of developing manager in InterContinental Hotel Group would be to effectively manage time to carry out daily duties effectively to achieve firm’s objectives. To develop own potential, however, it is necessary to prioritize development of leadership skills and time management. This can be done through indulging in effective training programs and research focusing on developing these skills. Moreover, observing and interacting with seniors would also create a long term impact.

TASK 3

3.1 Lead and motivate a team to achieve an agreed goal or objective

For developing manager of InterContinental Hotel Group Hotel, right motivational techniques and regular support hold utmost importance when comes to achieve a set objective. ICH has an objective of enhance its productivity to achieve this objectives, it is important that performance of its employees. As per the developing manager, the steps undertaken to lead and motivate the team to achieve this objective is mentioned below:

  • Appropriate alignment of objectives: For any organization, its objectives must be aligned in a structured way that can easily be subdivided among the employees so that they could be achieved in a timely manner. Moreover, these professional goals must align with the personal goals of employees to ensure their commitment in the firm (Loshin, 2012).
  • Motivation: This is the key to increase efficiency. For retaining efficient employees, the firm must use Fredrick Herzberg theory. Effective non-monetary benefits must be given to employees which could increase their job satisfaction plus it would ensure more investment of these employees in the firm.
  • Work culture: To accomplish the set objectives, it is required from the firm to implement friendly work culture. This would enhance the coordination among employees and would help to increase employees’ efficiencies. Working together in a friendly environment would boost their confidence and tasks could be completed in a timely manner.

3.2 Justification of managerial decisions to achieve goals and recommendations for improvement

Decisions are an important aspect required for development of a firm. Success or failures in achieving set objectives depend heavily on effective decisions taken by managers. These decisions can be regarding the health of the employees, training given to them or work culture followed in the organization. Customer attraction is a crucial objective of the firm and as a developing manager for ICH; there were certain decisions that were taken in order to achieve this objective that are described as under:

  • Enhancing Customer Relationship: More personalized connection with customers develops their interest and they tend to engage more with the firm. This decision is profitable for the firm in the long run. Regular customer feedback and spontaneous assistance would enhance the firm’s reputation as well as expand its customer base.
  • Involvement of Subordinates: Subordinates must be involved in development of new strategies for the firm. All the major strategies and policies must be discussed with company’s employees before implementation. This decision would engage employees and would ensure more effort from them. Moreover, it would increase their job satisfaction and such motivation would enhance their job performance,

Recommendation: It is strongly recommended that proper training to staff must be given to enhance customer service. Moreover, despite of having a decent environment, the upper management lack in satisfying the employees effectively. To improve these situations, ICH must consider emphasizing on the needs of its employees. This would help them enhance their service quality and profitability.

TASK 4

4.1 How own managerial and personal skills will support career development

Personal and managerial skills act as a support system for career development. It is very essential for a developing manager to keep enhancing these skills in order to sustain and grow in such dynamic and competitive environment. Personal traits like sincerity, behavior, dedication and attitude help the person to develop their career in an appropriate and structured manner. Moreover, managerial skills like effective communication, decision making and leadership helps individuals to be professionally sound. Ways in which these skill support career development is mentioned below:

  • Efficiency: Such skills happen to enhance efficiency of managers. These enable them to optimally utilize company’s resources to ensure maximum returns.
  • Professionalism: Most important aspect of working in tours and travel industry is professionalism. Customers tend to be attracted to firms with professional staff and expect to be treated as a priority and professionally. Personal and managerial skills would enable the developing manager in professionally carrying out their duties and enhance the service quality of the company.
  • Competence: In an extremely competitive environment, it is essential that the employees be competent enough to gain an advantage over employees of their competitors. Enhancing personal and professional skills would result in developing this competence in the managers.

4.2 Review of development needs, current performance and future development plan

To ensure long term career development, it is essential to track the development and review professional skills required in the organization. Following is a future development plan with emphasis on proficiency required to excel in my career.

S. no.

LEARNING OBJECTIVE/GOAL

CURRENT

PROFICIENCY

TARGET

PROFICIENCY

DEVELOPMENT

OPPORTUNITIES

CRITERIA FOR

JUDGING SUCCESS

TIME SCALE

EVIDENCE

1

LEADERSHIP QUALITIES

Currently, there is a wide scope of improvement in my leadership skills. Though, I tend to lead effectively in general situations, my performance hinders at times of pressure.

I plan to enhance this skills to effectively manage work of my subordinates,

Effectively distribute activities to concerned employees and involve them in decision-making

Top Management

3 Months

Feedbacks from employees, co- workers, and superiors.

2

TEAM WORKING

Through effective communication, I tend to manage the work of my teams and ensure coordination within each individual.

Manage teams during complex activities too without reducing the efficiency of the team.

Working with efficient subordinates who contribute towards working as a group.

Managers

2 Months

Reports prepared by managers.

3.

PUBLIC SPEAKING

I possess sound communication skill which makes me quite efficient during presentations and public speaking.

To enhance this skill and be an eloquent speaker when it comes to cross-questioning after long presentations.

In long run, this will be efficient and profitable for the firm as well as for my career development.

Senior Supervisors

2 months

Feedback from managers and co-workers.

Conclusion

Thus, it is concluded from the above report that organizations should adopt different management styles according to nature of their businesses. It is essential for senior managers to possess leadership characteristics to efficiently carry out their duties in the organization. Organizations must emphasize on developing a culture which best serve their purpose. Analysis of skills, strengths and weaknesses is necessary to grow in the workplace to develop individual skills and knowledge. Motivation is an effective tool for managers to lead a team towards goals and objectives. Lastly, it is essential to review proficiency in order to achieve sound and sophisticated career development.

References

  • Boso, N., Cadogan, J. W. and Story, V. M., 2013. Entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation as drivers of product innovation success: A study of exporters from a developing economy. International Small Business Journal. 31(1). pp.57-81.
  • Busch, T. K., 2013. Determining competencies for frontline sales managers in for-profit organizations. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 15(3). pp.296-313.
  • Crouch, S. and Housden, M., 2012. Marketing research for managers. Routledge.
  • Edmonstone, J., 2015. Developing healthcare leaders and managers: course-based or practice-based?. International Journal of Healthcare. 1(1). p.9.
  • Hendricks, J.M. and Cope, V.C., 2013. Generational diversity: what nurse managers need to know. Journal of advanced nursing. 69(3). pp.717-725.
  • Katamba, D., 2012. Principles of corporate social responsibility (CSR): A guide for students and practicing managers in developing and emerging countries. Strategic Book Publishing.

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