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Osteoporosis is the fragile bone illness which occurs when body of individual loses bone. The present study will discuss case study of Mr. John. It will describe medical illness of the person. Study is based on medical illness Osteoporosis which creates many problems for individuals. Report will focus on pain management, as Osteoporosis causes huge pain to Mr. John due to which his happiness and quality of life get affected. Assignment will pay attention on managing pain of person by meeting with medical needs. It will explain the causes, symptoms and treatment options of Osteoporosis. Furthermore, report will describe theories and ageing physiological changes. The paper will adopt person centred perspective for Mr. John so that medical needs of person can be fulfilled. At the end of study, necessary recommendations will be outlined for improving condition of
Mr. John is suffering from Osteoporosis medical issue. He is 59 years old men who was able to play golf and cricket in his young age. Now, his knees are not performing well and he is unable to play games and walk properly. He suffers from huge pain which impacts on his sleep and general irritability. Mr. John has to bear huge pain whenever he walks.
As per the views of Cosman and et.al, (2014) Osteoporosis is the condition in which bones of the person become too weak and it increases chances of breaking. Lerner, (2016) argued that Osteoporosis is known as the porous bone. When healthy bones are seen at microscope then it looks like a honeycomb but in the Osteoporosis condition abnormal tissue structure form in the human body. It is medical illness in which bones of person have low bone mass and it becomes weak. This increases the risk of fractured in hip, spine and wrist. This is the medical illness which takes place majorly in women. Two out of one predicted to suffer with Osteoporosis medical illness.
According to Black and Rosen, (2016) the main cause of Osteoporosis is imbalance between new bone formation and old bone resorption. After a certain age, human body fails to form a new and old bones do not to perform their work effectively. Minerals help the young people in forming new bones and giving strength to body. Calcium helps in the smooth functioning of organs, brain, etc. If in the bone adequate amount of calcium is present, then it supports in maintaining blood calcium level. By this way, other organs form their work significantly. But if human body fails to absorb enough calcium then it creates difficulty in bone creation, that is the resona of bone fracturing.
As per the view of Papapoulos and et.al., (2015) Osteoporosis causes due to some hormones. It occurs in women due to estrogen whereas, in men, it occurs due to androgen hormones. If body of women fails to generate adequate estrogen level then due to lower estrogen, level of risk of Osteoporosis gets increased in women. Imbalance in hormones create difficulty for the person and that affect their medical condition to a great extent. Bruyère and et.al, (2014) declared that one of the major causes of occurring Osteoporosis is age. With the increasing age, individuals have to suffer with bone loss and there is inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. By this way, human body fails to perform their endocrine functions properly and it may weaker the bone. As per the views of Kemp and et.al, (2017) over use of corticosteroids, thyroid issues, poor use of muscles etc. impact on calcium level and create disease of Osteoporosis in the human being.
Wade and et.al., (2014) stated that bone tissues are renewed and new bones are being replaced with old and damaged bones. This is the way through which body mass remain maintain and individual becomes able to perform their daily work effectively. Bone density and integrity affect the medical condition of individual to great extent. As in the case of Mr. John he is suffering from huge pain due to his Osteoporosis disease. In this condition his body fails to renewed new bones thus, existing bones get damaged. That increases risk of fracture and breaking of bones immediately if the person get engaged in any kind of heavy exercise or activities.
According to Hernandez Bueno and et.al, (2017) there are many factors that are linked with the case of Mr. John due to which person suffers from Osteoporosis. One of the major factor that is the leading cause of this medical illness is family history. If parents have the same illness, then there is high chances that their children may get suffer from the same disease. Some times' genes get transferred to the children and child get suffer from the same illness. Mother of Mr. John was having Osteoporosis hip fracture thus, individual has suffered from the Osteoporosis medical illness. Reginster and et.al, (2015) declared that if bones are being used in excess then after a certain period of time these bones fail to perform well. Calcium and potassium etc. minerals get reduced from the bones and that may weaker these bones. Mr. John used to play golf and cricket in his young age. These are the games in which individual do more exercise which increases load on bones (Passos-Soares and et.al., 2017). When overload is being place on these body parts then after a certain time these parts fail to perform their work effectively and these parts start paining which impacts on quality of life of the patients. As per the views of Usala and et.al, (2015) smoking is considered as one of the leading cause of Osteoporosis. In the young age and even now as well Mr. John smoke in excess. His diet is improper, he consumes less calcium in diet and thus, individual suffers from Osteoporosis. Human body requires proper nutrition and healthy diet in order to become healthy. If body parts are not getting proper nutrition then it may affect the health of person to great extent. As per the views of Pietschmann and et.al, (2016) Mr. John is the player and he has to consume high amount of energy medicines. This toxic effects impact on its bone and reduces its bone mass (Osteoporosis explained. 2018).
Hegde, Andreopoulou and Lane, (2016) research show that there is no significant symptoms of Osteoporosis. It cannot shown until bones get fractured. Osteoporosis causes pain to the individual in knees and other bones but person think that it is normal pain due to age or some heavy load. Bone loss take place slowly thus, individual fail to analyse the disease and observe its signs at the right time. Age, sex hormones, bone structure, family history are the unavoidable factors. But diet, life style choice are avoidable factors, individual needs to avoid smoking and have to take proper diet in order to avoid complexity.
According to Giangregorio and et.al, (2015) Mr. John is facing the medical illness of Osteoporosis in which it is essential for the medical professionals that to suggest proper diet which contains high amount of calcium and vitamin D. Having fish, fortified breakfast cereals are more beneficial for the patients those who are suffering from Osteoporosis. Vitamin D supports in absorbing calcium from diet (Lindsay and et.al., 2016). As in the case of Mr. John, person was taking methotrexate, proton pump inhibitors and steroids which have created this problem. All these medicines have caused Osteoporosis in the person. If individual consumes high amount of medicines then these medicines impact on bones and make it weaker.
Krege and et.al., (2014) declared that Osteoporosis impact on the human body to great extent. Individual has to suffer from huge pain as in the case of Mr. John he was suffering from severe knee pain. It affects daily life style of the individual because due to severe pain person fails to perform daily work effectively. Women mostly face heart attack, strokes and breast cancer if they are suffering from Osteoporosis (Papapoulos and et.al., 2014).
Recommendations For Mr. John
It would be great for the Mr. John if he starts doing normal exercise. Though in the initial phase of exercise individual faces pain in doing exercise but later on it helps in giving strength to the bones. But he needs not to do heavy exercise that creates burden on the knee. Mr. John is recommended to take Osteoporosis treatment. As in the age of 59 he may fail doing exercise thus, it is required for the patient that to take proper Osteoporosis treatment. In this treatment doctors try to minimize loss of minerals and try to enhance bone density. This treatment prevents the Osteoporosis patients from fractures. This will be the best way for the Mr. John for recovering from this medical illness (Mirza and Canalis, 2015).
Family history is unavoidable condition, in such condition children has to suffer from this medical illness and they cannot do anything. But it is essential for the patients that to take care of taking proper diet and have to avoid bad habits such as alcohol, smoke etc. All these preventions will support the person in recovering from this illness soon. Eating proper nutrition support in preventing from Osteoporosis and improving health condition of patients. This can be applied in the case of Mr. John as well (Hosking and et.al., 2016). It is essential for the person that to take vitamins, minerals so that bone mass can be increased. It is recommended that in the age of 59 Mr. John is required to have 1200 mg/day calcium. Vitamin D is another most important aspect that need to be have by the patient. It enhances absorbing capacity of the bone and these bones become able to absorb calcium. Vitamin D can be get by eating fish, egg yolks, liver etc. Mr. John needs to intake 400-800 IU of vitamin D.
There are various therapeutic medication are available that helps the patients with Osteoporosis to improve their illness and minimize sever pain in bones. There are various bisphosphonates that have been approved by FDA (Binkley, Krueger and de Papp, 2018). These are alendronate, ibandronate, etc. Raloxifene is being approved by the concern authorities in order to provide treatment and care to the Osteoporosis patients. Mr. John has to reduce his weight by doing normal exercise, if he does not perform any exercise then it will impact on bone mass thus, it is essential to do exercise and reduce the body weight so that bone becomes lighter and mass of bone can get increased.
From the above study, it can be concluded that Osteoporosis is the bone illness in which individual suffers from severe pain. This is the issue that creates difficulty in the human life and person fails to live life happily. It impacts on his sleep as well. The major factors that are linked with Osteoporosis are smoking, family history, heavy load exercise and poor nutrition. In such condition, person may suffer from the issue. Mr. John needs to pay attention on their diet and have to intake calcium and vitamin D in food. This will give strength to their bones and new bones will be recreated. Medicines such as alendronate and ibandronate are considered as the best treatment for patients who are suffering from Osteoporosis.
- Binkley, N., Krueger, D. & de Papp, A. E. (2018). Multiple vertebral fractures following osteoporosis treatment discontinuation: a case-report after long-term Odanacatib. Osteoporosis International. 29(4). 999-1002.
- Black, D. M. & Rosen, C. J. (2016). Postmenopausal osteoporosis. New England Journal of Medicine. 374(3). 254-262.
- Bruyère, O. & et.al., (2014, December). An algorithm recommendation for the management of knee osteoarthritis in Europe and internationally: a report from a task force of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). In Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism (Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 253-263). Elsevier.
- Cosman, F. & et.al., (2014). Clinician’s guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis international. 25(10). 2359-2381.
- Giangregorio, L. M. & et.al., (2015). Too Fit To Fracture: outcomes of a Delphi consensus process on physical activity and exercise recommendations for adults with osteoporosis with or without vertebral fractures. Osteoporosis International. 26(3). 891-910.
- Hegde, V., Jo, J. E., Andreopoulou, P. & Lane, J. M. (2016). Effect of osteoporosis medications on fracture healing. Osteoporosis International. 27(3). 861-871.