In an organisation, effective management and administration helps in achieved desired objective within specified time. It assists to organisation in sustain within market for long time and develop competitive advantage. For improve business performance and productivity, manager and leader plays significant role as they have several roles and responsibilities for achieve objective. Management and operation is an area of management that concerned with plan, monitor, control the activities for achieve through which effective outcome can obtain. The current report outlined several theories and approaches of operation management with respect of Marks and Spencer organisation. It is the famous retail outlet which deal with customer goods and services (Iqbal and Sharma, 2012) . The roles and responsibilities of manager and leader within organisation and for achieve objective has been also addressed in this report. Furthermore, significance of operation management and factors that affect decision making of manager and leader regarding business has been also
a)Differences and similarities between leader and manager considering their roles and characteristics
Management and operation is an administration of business practices that helps in create a highest level of outcome. It is a systematic procedure for organising, managing and controlling business activities and functions. For conduct the procedure of operation and management, there is a great role for manager and leader who performs several responsibilities and roles regarding objective (Park and el.at., 2014). A manager is a person who have responsibility to design policies, practices and strategies for business and implement that strategies for address objective. He/she has also responsibility to lead, control, direct and manage subordinates or employees so as they can effectively carry out their task and achieve outcome. On the other hand leader have responsibility to manage the employee's performance. Leader regularly monitors and controls the activities of team member and lead them in direction through which effective results can obtain.
In the context of Marks and Spencer organisation, it has main aim is to provide excellent services and high quality of product and services to customers and earn maximum profitability. For address this objective, manager and leader have several responsibilities which are discussed below-
- In the Marks and Spencer, manager have responsibility is to design norms, structure and principles for better sustainability and continuous improvement in quality and productivity (Ghosh, 2015). On the other hand leader have responsibility to control, manage, monitor and analyse the performance of subordinates and team members so that they can effectively perform for address objective.
- Manager have responsibility of design company policies, strategy and practices. On the other hand leader have responsibility to implement that strategies, policies and practices in their activities and work so as determined objective can effectively attain.
- A leader is a self motivated person who always motivate, encourage and inspire to subordinates and team member for higher quality work and productivity. On the other hand manager is a self disciplined person who design principles and rules for business operation (Harwiki, 2013).
- A manager have responsibility to manage the overall organisation activities, function, structure and performance while leader have responsibility to look upon the performance of team members.
- A manager is responsible for carrying out major four functions of management that is planning, organising, directing and controlling. By use of these functions, manager always focuses on the objective of business. On the other hand leader have responsibility to develop healthy relationship with team member and conduct effective coordination with them so as they can perform in excellent manner.
- In the Marks and Spencer, manager takes risks regarding the business policies, strategies, structure, practices etc. On the other hand leader minimises that risk by develop coordination among team member and motivate them for higher productivity. A leader always influence their subordinates for achieve objective of business where manager always manage the entire business enterprise (Agarwal and et.al., 2012).
As per the above discussion it has been analysed that within the Marks and Spencer organisation there are different roles and responsibilities of manager and leader regarding the objective of organisation. For achieve business enterprise, both manager and leader perform their different responsibility and function regarding business.
b) The functions of manager according to Fayol
Henri Fayol was a French mining engineer, mining executive, author and director of mines who developed general theory of business administration that is often called fayolism. Henri Fayol have scientific management theory forms the base for business administration and business management. Following are some principles and practices of management that followed by Henri Fayol.
- Division of work- In an organisation, every employees have different skill and ability and they are recruited within company on the basis of their qualities, productivity and efficiency. Henri Fayol always consider this principle in their work as he promotes efficiency of the employees and increase productivity.
- Authority and responsibilities- This is another one of the effective function of manager according to the Henri Fayol through which organisation objective can effectively accomplish. An effective manager must have to fulfil their roles and responsibilities regarding business objective (Arnulf and et.al., 2014). As per this principle, the accompanying power or authority gives the management the right to give order to the subordinates.
- Disciplines- Fayol have followed the principle of discipline under which he always focuses on the mission and vision. With help of this principle, he always focused on the objective and followed principles regarding the working.
- Unity of command- As per the Fayol, this is another major principle of management by which employees should receive order and command from one manager. The employees should respect their manager and obey the rules and duties that imposed by manager. One manager should lead and direct employees regarding work because if task are given to the employees by more than one manager then it may lead confusion that may lead to possible conflicts for workforce.
- Unity of direction- As per this principle of management, all employees performs the same activities for achieve the same objective. All activities should carried out by one group that forms a team. These activities should carried out by one group that forms a team. The activity of employees must monitor and analyse by the manager of organisation.
- Subordination of individual interest- This is another one of the significant principle of the management under which all individual have same interest and same objective regarding business organisation. When every employees have common interest then it may easy to achieve the organisation objective.
- Remuneration- It is another significant principle of management by which manager should motivate and encourage employees for higher productivity and performance. Employees can motivate by two method that is monetary and non monetary rewards. In the non monetary rewards, organisation should provide growth opportunity, higher responsibilities, increment, promotion according to their efficiency and performance. On the other hand in the monetary reward, company should provide incentives, fringe benefits, bonus, perquisites etc to employees (aur and Haase, 2015). By provide monetary and non monetary reward system, corporation can effectively encourage and motivate its workforce.
- The degree of centralization- As per this principle, organisation should properly delegate the responsibility and role to each functional department so as they can effectively achieve their business objective. In addition to this, this principle implies the concentration of decision making authority at the top management. This depends on the volume and size of an organisation including its hierarchy.
As per the above discussion it has been analysed that there are various principles of management according to the Fayol. Following are major functions of manager within Marks and Spencer as per the Henri Fayol-
- Planning- It is the major function of manager in the Marks and Spencer under which he/she is responsible to draw up a good plan of action. By design systematic plan for organisation, manager can achieve determined objective. Planning must linked and coordinated with several departments (Blanchard, 2010). For deliver high quality of goods and services to customers, corporation manager should design a well structured plan so as company can implement several approaches if operation management.
- Organising- Once the plan for business is systematically design then in next stage manager organise that plan. In this aspect, manager of Marks and Spencer focuses on the sufficient capital, staff, raw material etc through which company smoothly carry out their functions and activities for achieve objective. Manager must have to consider several sources that required for conduct activities and achieve business goal.
- Commanding- This is another function of manager in Marks and Spencer by which employees can get clear idea and instruction for smooth working within an organisation. Manager should give clear guidance and instruction so as employees can understand work and achieve determined objective.
- Coordinating- For improve quality of product and services in the Marks and Spencer, manager have to develop effective coordination among various activities and functional department. While entire activities are harmonised then organisation function can conduct in more excellent manner (Bonanni and Cafazzo, 2014).
- Controlling- This is one of the most significant function of manager in Marks and Spencer for improve quality of product and services. In this aspect, manager must have to control and monitor activities and functions that has been organised by corporation. By effective controlling and monitoring, company can easily achieve desired outcome. Controlling can take place in four steps that is established performance standard, measure and report actual performance, compare results with performance and take corrective and preventive measure (Khan, Asghar and Zaheer, 2014).
c) Situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency leadership
Leadership can be defined as leading the individual or group of person to guide and direct them complete the give task in give time and help them to in achieving their individual as well as goals of organisation. There are basically three leadership style of Marks and Spencer.
Situational leadership: Situational leader is the one who become leader according to the situation arose in the organisation and this style of leadership in mostly used in situation where that person guide according to the situation in the organisation. This is known as situational leadership style. In this style the M&S leader focuses on the requirement of the individual and then adjust their management style according to the requirement to meet those needs. They are more flexibility and adopt the leadership style according to the requirement of the conditions. The followers have trust in there leader and follows their leader (Mahembe and Engelbrecht, 2014). The leader knowns that how to make their follower do the job and then adopt that type of leadership style and get the job done by them. This leader should know the strength and weakness to their follower and then according to it should use leadership style. This leadership is used by the company, when they want to choose right leadership style from right person. The company uses this style because in this style their look more like partners more than the boss.
Systems leadership: This style follows formal and informal leadership style but has to follower the rules, regulation and procurers of the company. This kind of leaders are not free to take their own decisions they have to ask there boss before taking any decision. They can't change there leadership style on their own (Randeree and Chaudhry, 2012). This is not flexibility in nature, has to follower whatever is said by there leader. Mark and Spencer follower this style when they want full control is their own hands but they also think there should be more development in this style to get more effect from this style. This system is more complex in nature and provide proper progress to work properly in the company. This style also promotes importance of value in the organisation and individual work properly and on time. But this style of leadership need to be improved more to get more effective result, so that there could be free flow of communication in the company.
Contingency leadership: This leadership style depend upon matching the right situation and using the right leadership style according to the situation. This style is somewhat similar to situational leadership style but it sees that whether or not that style can be helpful in shaping the outcome or not. M&S adopted this style when they want right leader matching the right situation.
In this decision are taken by studying the situation and work on that situation and guiding the follower on that situation (Ghosh, 2015). All this leadership style are used by marks and Spencer to improve there organisation structure and to achieve its organisational object.
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1 Approaches to operation management and its implementation in the organisation
Operation management is a business practice that that helps business in managing, coordinate and control the resources and activities through which desired outcome can achieve within time period. The main purpose of operation management is to lead the practices and activities in such manner through which quality of product and services can improve. When company effectively apply approaches of operation management then quality of services can easily improve (Harwiki, 2013). The quality and productivity of the operation can improve with implementation of various approaches of operation management. Marks and Spencer have aim is to earn maximum profitability by deliver quality services. Thus, for achieve this objective, Marks and Spencer can apply following approaches of management and operation in its business-
- Six Sigma- Six sigma is a disciplined, data driven approach and continuous improvement methodology for decrease defects and wastage from production and manufacturing procedure. It is an effective tool for process improvement and this strategy implement within organisation to improve the quality of outputs.
- Lean Production- Lean production is an approach to management that consider on cutting out waste, whilst ensuring quality. This technique have aim is to cut cost by making business more effective and productive. Marks and Spencer can improve the quality and productivity of business, product and services by eliminate the wastage from production and manufacturing.
- Total quality management- A total quality management is one of the significant approach of operation management that deliver long term customer satisfaction. It main aim is to improve process, product, services and culture of organisation through which objective can effectively address (Hatch and Cunliffe 2013). In this approach, all members and employees of corporation are equally participated within the improvement of operation of business. In the procedure of total quality management, quality of production improve and additional wastage decrease significantly. In a simple word it can be said that total quality management is continual procedure of detecting and reducing errors in the manufacturing, streamlining supply chain management and improve the customer experience (Six Sigma, 2017). Manager of Marks and Spencer can improve the quality of product and services by implement approach of total quality management.
- Queuing theory- Queuing theory deals with problem which involve queuing. Basically it is a mathematical study of waiting line and queues. By user of this approach of operation management, Marks and Spencer can improve customer services, traffic flows and shipping order.
Hence, from entire discussion it has been analysed that Marks and Spencer can improve their quality of product and services by implement several approaches of management and operation. These approaches and techniques of operation management helps to organisation in improving culture, productivity, profitability and value through which growth and progress can significantly enhance (Total quality management, 2018). Corporation can develop competitive advantage by use of several approaches of operation management.
2 Role as a store manager a classic example of an operation manager
As per the above discussion it has been analysed that for manage the performance and productivity of organisation, manager and leader have great role and responsibilities regarding the business. A store manager is an individual who is responsible for manage the overall functioning of the store. He/she is also responsible for manage and monitor the day to day operations of the store and ensure the maximum profitability of their store. The major responsibility of the store manager is to recruit employees for the store so as they can effectively accomplish task within store. Store manager must ensure that all target are meet in effective manner (Hogan and Coote, 2014). In the Marks and Spencer organisation, store manager is responsible to manage the all inventory and resources regarding the business in effective manners as all function and activities can effectively organised and contributed. The store manager is also responsible for maintain the overall image of the organisation and he makes sure that store is kept clean, mannequins are kept at the right place to attract the customer into store. Store manager of the Marks and Spencer should design effective planning, managing profit and loss, handling cash at the store etc.
In the Marks and Spencer, the main objective is to produce high quality of product and services and deliver effective customer satisfaction. By produce high quality of commodity, organisation can effectively earn maximum profitability. For address this objective, operation manager is also very responsible. For example, Marks and Spencer is facing issue regarding the poor quality of services and product (Dietrich, 2016). In this situation, operation manager have great responsibility is to implement several approaches of operation management and improve quality and productivity of services and items. In this aspect, operation manager have to focus on management of resources, financial management, goal setting, communication etc.
3 Significance of operation management
Operation management is a procedure that consists with planning, organising, managing, controlling production and manufacturing processes. The main purpose of operation management is to successfully convert raw material into the finished product and ensure the timely delivery of product and services. In a simple word it can be said that it is a simple procedure for conducting and managing business activities and operation in such manner through which required outcome can effectively obtain (Reid and Bojanic, 2009). Furthermore, with help of operation management, organisation can overcome the wastage and additional cost from manufacturing and production procedure. In the Marks and Spencer, there are some significance of operation management which are discussed below-
- Increase quality of product and services- When organisation effectively perform operation management then it uses several approaches like total quality management, lean production, six sigma etc. By implement these approaches within business, corporation can improve quality and effectiveness of product and services and eliminate wastage. The main purchase of use of several approaches of operation management is to improve quality of services through which customer satisfaction can also improve.
- Overcome wastage from production and manufacturing- By implement several approaches of operation management such as six sigma, lean production, total quality management etc, organisation can easily overcome wastage and additional cost from manufacturing and production.
- Optimum utilization of resources- When organisation engage with functions and activities of operation management then it can easily utilise all resources in effective and efficient manner. Operation management helps in handles several issues like design, operation, maintenance of the system used ion the production and manufacturing procedure.
- Deliver effective customer satisfaction- The purpose of operation management is to manage and improve quality of product and services through which organisation can meet customer expectations (Ruparathna ,et.al., 2017). By use of several approaches of operation management, quality of services improve that helps in enhancing customer satisfaction because customers always requires high quality of services and items. Only by use of method of operation management organisation can deliver excellent quality of product and services. When organisation delivers excellent commodity and facilities then it helps in improving customer satisfaction.
4 Factors that have an effect on the operation management
Following are some outside factors that can effect on operation management within Marks and Spencer-
- Economical factor- Due to changes in the interest rate, inflation, recession and other economic circumstances, operation management of Marks and Spencer can influence. At the time of making pricing policies ans strategies, economic condition should consider by operation manager.
- Social and cultural factor- This factor is related to the customer taste, preferences, choice, background, culture etc. While organisation takes any decision regarding product and operation then it should consider customer taste, preferences, culture etc.
- Technological change- Technological factor also affect the operation management of Marks and Spencer company (Sheehan and Griffiths, 2011). Due to changing technology at regular basis, organisation performance can influence in large manner thus operation manager should consider this outside factor.
- Legal and environmental change- This includes regulation, rules, legislation and regulation that imposed by government. This factor largely affect the operation of organisation because management must have to follow legislation and regulation that imposed by government.
5 Factors that impact upon the decision making of organisation
In order to sustain in the market for long time and design excellent competitive advantage, corporation have to analyse the business environment. It consists with various internal and external components that affect business activities and functions of organisation. Stakeholder are also very significant part in the business enterprise that can affect business activities directly and indirectly. At the time of taking any business decision, organisation must have to consider involvement of stakeholder. As they are those people who have interest in the business decision and they are influence by every activity of business. In the context of Marks and Spencer, it has various stakeholder such as customer, employees, government, investors and suppliers etc. While company takes any decision regarding product and services then it is very important to consider stakeholder. Following are some factors that should consider by store manager at the time of taking business decision-
- Customer- Customer are one of the major stakeholder that can affect the organisation business decision making in large manner. Customers always desires effective quality of product and services in the reasonable prices (Slack, 2015). If company makers changes in the product and services quality, features, prices etc then it should inform to buyers. In addition to this, company policies and practices can also affect this stakeholder so manager should always consider this stakeholder at the time of business decision making.
- Employees- Human resource is another one of the significant stakeholder who direct and indirectly influence by business decision making. They are major asset of corporation so business entity should always make the satisfy and fulfil their all requirement. While organisation design planning, policies, practices and strategies for business then they should consider the participation of employees (Wang, et.al., 2015). Human resources requires effective working condition, salary, incentives etc from organisation.
- Government- This is the major stakeholder of the corporation which impose regulation, rules, legislation, policies regarding business. Corporation must have followed regulation, rules and policies that imposed by government. At the time of design new rules, practices and strategy for business, Marks and Spencer manager should consider this stakeholder.
- Supplier- Suppliers are those stakeholders who directly and indirectly affected by organisation decision. They are those people who supplies goods, raw material and semi finished good to organisation for its production and manufacturing activities. When organisation takes any business decision then supplier can also influence (Zhou, 2016). Suppliers always desires effective order of goods and regular payment. Organisation should make healthy relationship with suppliers by make regular payment for order of goods and services.
From this entire report it has been summarised that manage and operation is a significant procedure through which each and every activity can control and manage in effective manner. By implement various approaches and methods of operation management organisation can deliver high quality of goods and services to customers and make them satisfy. It has been also concluded that there are various factors that affect business decision making such as suppliers, government, employees, customers etc. When company makes any policies, practices and strategies then they must have to focus on the stakeholders. A manager and leader plays a very crucial role in developing business management and leadership. They have different roles and responsibilities regarding the business success and profitability.