Operation Management is Essential Part of the Marks and Spencer


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  • Level: Undergraduate/College
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Organization Selected : Marks and Spencer


Operation management is essential part of the organisation. It manages, operates and controls the daily business activities of the organisation. This is the best process to concern about the following process such as planning, controlling, organizing, manufacturing and supervising etc. this is very important part of each and every organization to increase the productivity and profitability in marketplace.

This report will discuss about the Marks and Spencer because it is the fastest growing organization working in retail sector which expands their business all around the world. Manager and leader are two important people which controlled the entire business process in proper manner. They have capabilities and skills to provide the rights directions to the employee. This report will discuss about the Henry Fayol principle that are helpful for analysis the business development process for achievement of goals and targets.


a) Difference between roles and characteristics of mangers and leader of Marks and Spencer

Work of organization are designed and managed by manager. They are responsible for activities of various departments (Anıl and Ficici, 2017). Managers of Marks and Spencer provide employees with guideline to achieve goals of organization. They plan different strategies and policies to successfully achieve organization goals. They divide work in different departments. This lead to specialisation of work. Leaders are person that guide and motivate followers. Marks and Spencer influence behaviour of followers. Leaders use different type of leadership skills to motivate employees to accomplish target on time. They guide employees to work in particular manner. Leaders inspire employees to work hard. They play major role in improving efficiency of followers. Mangers and leaders almost similar role in organization but there are some differences in there roles. They are as follows.




They lay down goals and objectives of firm.

They provide followers with guideline to achieve target

Communication of strategies and policy are done by mangers.

Leaders influence employees to work according to plans and strategy

Mangers provide pathway to there employees.

They provide guiding pathway to followers

Managers make plan for betterment of business.

Leaders play important role in implementing of plans and strategies

Mangers are focus on goals and targets of organization.

They focus on behaviour and attitude of followers.

They plan organization structure.

They inspire employees to work in organization structure.

They control and mange behaviour of employees

They have trust on ability of followers.

Similarities between mangers and leaders of Marks and Spencer

  • Require at both level : leadership and management go hand in hand. They are require at all level of management. There should be proper coordination between top level and lower level management (Cheyns and Guéneau, 2017). They play major role in implementing of plans and strategies. They provide guidance to subordinate.
  • Representative of organization : they represent organization at conferences meeting and seminars. They communicate plans and strategy t of organization to general public. Mangers are also representative of their own department.
  • Integrate efforts of employees to achieve goals : they integrate efforts of employees towards single organization goals. Employees come from different backgrounds and surroundings. They have different needs and desire. It is responsibility of managers to reconcile there efforts towards organization. They influence employees to work willingly.
  • Monitor : mangers and leaders monitor performance of employees. They compare and measure there performance. Identify reasons for deviations and take necessary action to improve performance.

Leaders and mangers have similar role and character. Mangers require help of leaders to achieve target. They inspire people to accomplish goals. Mangers and leaders both are essential for growth and survival of business.

B) Henry Fayol functions of management and there advantages to manager

Fayol has mentioned five general management functions. They are planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling. These functions are performed by mangers to accomplish target. This provide manger with guideline. Mangers can refer these guideline to solve organisation problems. It help in improving relationship between mangers and employees. Basic functions of management according to Fayol are as followed.

  1. Planning : this is basic function in management. Mangers draw good plans to achieve target. This forward looking process. They interpret future threat and draft plans to overcome them. Plans are drawn according future uncertainness. Manger can not start work without an effective plan. This required at all level management. Employees actively participate in this process. Managers welcome suggestion of employees. Implementing of plan is time consuming process. Mangers coordinate plans with different level of management. They must consider all resources of organisation before drawing up of plan. This is never ending process. Planning help in smooth functioning of business.
  2. Organizing : this process help in building up of organisation structure. To build strong working structure organisation must have sufficient capital and resources. Manger group similar nature activity. These groups are known as departments. Work is divided according to skills and capability of employees. Managers are head of department. Delegation of work increases efficiency (Classi and Randall, 2018). This also lead to specialisation of work. This function help in achieving over all goals of organisation. This process involves designing job according to individual potential and skills. Mangers coordinate efforts of department. This is important function of management.
  3. Commanding : in this process managers give instructions and command to employees. Mangers are required to have strong communication skills. In this process help employee to know about there work. Mangers must give clear instructions regarding work. Instructions must be communicated regularly in basis of audit reports. Employees can perform effectively if they get clear description about job. They guide and motivate employees to achieve target.
  4. Coordinating : it is important to have coordination between businesses activities. This help in maintaining peace and harmony in organisation. Mangers link all activities of organisation. They influence employees to reconcile there efforts to achieve organisation goals. This maintain discipline between groups. This process require good leadership and communication skills.
  5. Controlling : in this process mangers verify performance of employees. They compare actual performance with standard performance. They identify reason of deviations and take actions to rectify them. This is both forward and backward looking process. This is persuasive and continuous process.

c) defining situational, system and contingency style of leadership

Situational leadership style : according to this approach leaders adapt style in context with situations. Leaders directly work with employees towards desired direction that help in accomplishing of goals. They implement plans according to current situation of organisation. Leaders can modify there management behaviour. Adapting of right leadership style will increase leaders effectiveness. They select leadership style based on different task. This is flexible style of leadership. Leaders should follow style based on abilities of each followers. Leaders follow this style to improve their effectiveness.

System leadership style: this style has significant role in developing and improving of plans. This theory was proposed by Ludwig in 1940. it help mangers to analyse different system of management. They motivate employees to coordinate with each other. Organisation divide work in different department. This theory believe that organisation success rely on combined efforts of employees. All department are interconnected with each other (Elvandra and Sukardi, 2018). They work together to maintain harmony in organisation. In this theory communication play important role in exchange of ideas. This facilitates follow of information within different department.

Contingency style of leadership : this theory suggest that effectiveness of leadership depends upon situations. It was proposed by Fred Edward in 1964. there must strong relationship between leaders and employees. Leaders must clearly communicate task to followers. They provide employees with guidelines. Motivate employees to work willingly. Leaders has power to influence and motivate there followers. They has authority to reward and punish there employees. This theory fits where the are no team. People work together in organisation to achieve goals.


1 Different approaches used by Marks and Spencer

Marks and Spencer use different approaches to increase efficiency of employees. Some of the approaches are discussed below.

Six sigma

This strategy is adopted by Marks and Spencer to improve quality of product. This eliminate wastage caused in process of production. Marks and Spencer adopt this strategy to increase value of there product. This is very complex process and requires full support by top level management. Effectiveness of this process depends upon selections and approval criteria of project. Top level management has authority to select and develop department. Marks and Spencer assure that there employees implement six sigmas in production process. This is most powerful tool used by company to enhance quality of product. Implementation of six Sigma can be successful if employees are provided with quality training. Marks and Spencer evaluate skills and capabilities of employees. After assessment of skills they make necessary strategy to train them. Marks and Spencer influence employees to understand importance of this methodology. Six Sigma play an important role in achieving business goals. Managers are trained to implement six sigma in different businesses process (Esparza-Aguilar and De2017). Marks and Spencer allocate resources to achieve group target. Leaders carefully adapt there leadership style. They influence and motivate employees to work effectively. This strategy was adopted by Marks and Spencer to improve quality of product with minimum wastage.

Total quality management

Marks and Spencer adapt this theory to achieve long term success of management. This strategy play key role in satisfying desire of customer. Leaders of Marks and Spencer motivate employees to actively participate improving process of products and services. This strategy mainly focus on customer's requirement. Marks and Spencer believe in continuous improvement of process and products. They use data and strategies to make effective plan. They integrate discipline working culture of organisation. Customers are concerned about quality of product. Marks and Spencer focus on rendering quality services to there customers. They train and guide employees to deliver quality products. Marks and Spencer improve continuously upgrade there production process and computer software (Witti and Benkhelifa, 2018). They motivate employee to work hard and deliver valuable services to customer. Manger makes different committees according to skill of employees. This process deals with series of steps that managers need to follow to improve there quality. Marks and Spencer continuously monitor performance of employees. Marks and Spencer collect and analyse data collected from customers to improve there products. This process help in achieving accuracy. They make changes in production process to achieve customers satisfaction. They collect feed back from customers. Analyse data collected from feedback and take necessary actions to improve process. Marks and Spencer use this process to improve there products and working structure.

2 Role of managers in Marks and Spencer

Managers play an important role in managing all business activities. They manage resources of organisation. They provide pathway to effectively utilise management resources. Marks and Spencer mangers play important role in smooth functioning organisation. Some role of managers are discussed bellow.

  • Manger play role of leaders. They guide and motivate employees to achieve target of organisation. They are head of various department in organisation. They are responsible for behaviour of employees. Marks and Spencer coordinate efforts of employees. They provide directions to employees (Granon and El-Hamed, 2017). Managers hire and train employees. Marks and Spencer influence employees to actively participate in decision making process of organisation. They influence employees to get thing done in appropriate manner.
  • Mangers perform several activities like motivating, communicating, guiding and encouraging team members. Marks and Spencer are responsible for maintaining team spirit. They coordinate activities of different departments. Marks and Spencer reconcile employees potentials to maintain harmony in organisation. Managers interact with employees. They motivate them to share problems and provide them with effective solutions. Mangers represent Marks and Spencer in general meeting and seminars. They communicate strategy of company to public and share holders.
  • Manger supervise performance of there subordinate (Gachukia and Muturi, 2017). They measure performance of employees. Marks and Spencer manager compare actual performance with standard performance. They identify reason of deviations ant take corrective measures to improve them. Marks and Spencer reward there employees of for good performance. This will motivate other employees to work hard.
  • Mangers scan environment and identify threats and opportunities. They make policy to deal with threat. Mangers receive information about internal and external environment of business. Marks and Spencer grab opportunities. They analyse strength and weakness of firm. Mangers collect relevant data and plan strategies on basis of them.
  • Mangers play an important role in setting of goals and targets of organisation. They manage all businesses activities. Marks and Spencer set target for different department. They encourage employees to achieve target.
  • Marks and Spencer manager have good communication skills. They effectively communicate plans and strategy to subordinates. Interpersonal skills help managers to stay in touch with employees in workplace.
  • Manager of marks and Spencer collect informations from various sources and deliver that information to authorised employees.
  • Marks and Spencer allocate resources of organisation. They are responsible for allocation of different resources like physical, monetary, and resources. They look after cost of project. Marks and Spencer focus on minimising cost of operation and increasing profit. They deliver quality product to there customers.

3 importance of operation management in Marks and Spencer

Marks and Spencer management deals with planning, organising, staffing, controlling and directing. Mangers are responsible for rendering quality products to customers. They look after businesses activities. Operation management helps in lowering cost of productions. Mangers purchase raw material at lower rate. They focus on producing goods with minimum wastage. Operation Management plays significant role in achieving target. They look after every process of business. Marks and Spencer focus on producing of goods and services in economy price. They manage activities of different departments. Management ensure smooth functioning of company. Mangers effectively manages all activities and departments of organisation. Marks and Spencer focus on increasing productivity (Greblikaite and Garcia-Machado, 2017). They motivate employees to fully utilise resources. Effective utilisation of resources will decrease cost of production and increase profit of company. Manager have ability to allocate resources of company. Marks and Spencer are responsible for allocation of resources. Marks and Spencer look after requirements of employees. Operational management is important process. It is required at all level of management. Marks and Spencer assemble raw materials from different resources.

They design there products specifically according to customers need. All resource of marks and Spencer are effectively utilised by management. They are responsible for marketing and sale policies of organisation. There are proper set of business operation followed by managers. This will increase productivity of firm. Marks and Spencer manager make all important decisions and handle important businesses issues. This company is customers specific and look after needs of customers. They take continuous feedback from customers and make continuous improvement in products. Mangers of Marks and Spencer coordinate activities of different departments. They make quality products available to customers from different distribution channels. They deal with every important business process. Mangers decide distribution channels for customers. Focus is minimising wastage with proper utilisation of resources.

Operation managements has two primary objectives which are effective utilisation of resources and customers satisfaction. Both objective are inter-connected with each other. At end of the day Marks and Spencer focus on delivering valuable services to customer's. They plan various strategy in order to satisfy customers requirements. Making customers happy is main object of every company. Operation management assure that customers need and demands are fulfilled. They collect feed back from customers (Hahn and Schiemann, 2015). Mangers make sure that resources are utilised effectively. It focuses on decreasing cost of production to increase company profit. Marks and Spencer focus mainly on achieving both target. Mangers look after quality of product at same time it ensures minimum wastage in production process. They manage all process of management.

4. Key factors affecting operation of management in Marks and Spencer

Operation management is the part of organization to performs different functions for growth and development. Marks and Spencer is a leading organization and always analyse the actual need and requirement of business process. There are many factors affect the business development process which are discussed in following:

Economical factor- this factor is playing important role in the business operations because they affect the economy of country. The elements includes exchange rate interest rate, growth of population, inflation rate, etc (Moretti and Re Cecconi, 2017). This factor impact on the macro-environment and this environment is deals with the management system of organization.

Technological factor- this is very important factor because most of the organization uses new technology to increase their brand value in marketplace. Technological enhancement greatly affects the business operations of Marks and Spencer. The organisation begin to use technologies like mobile communication, smartphones applications, etc. for promoting their product and services to their target customers. This organization is adopted new technology to increase the sales and productivity in marketplace. Digital marketing is the most impressive features and most of the people are attracts towards the organization with the help of digital technology. This is the best platform to launch a new product in market and provide the product information in proper manner.

Social Factor- According to Marks and Spencer, Social factor includes social economy, community and lifestyle of people on the basis of religions. This factor is affect the relationship between the people and social community. It also influences to taking a right decision regarding the business and their operations. This factor is to impact on the different field and areas such as health, population growth, career, distributions etc. This factor affect influence for business operations and managerial decision making.

Legal Factor- Marks and Spencer follow all the rules and regulations that are generated by the government. . This rule and regulation is very important because they provide all the rights to their employee welfare (Lindgren, 2017). This is important role playing in the business development process. This policy is helpful for employee to use this law for growth and development, safety and security etc. This factor is change the policies regarding the constitutions, corruptions and international trading etc.

5. Factors Impact on the decision making as a store manager in Marks and Spencer

There are different factors that are helpful for increase their productivity and profitability in marketplace. These factors are concern about the business condition to apply a new strategy on the business development process. There are may type of factors impact on the business operations and functions.

Missionary goals- Marks and Spencer organization has some specific goals and targets. They always try to achieve their objectives. This objective is useful for the business development process. As current scenario, the level of competition is increases in day by day so that they faced many difficult situations regarding the development and growth. The demand has been change according to the trends and fashions.

Technological Factor- Marks and Spencer is the fastest growing organization to expands their business all around the world. This factor is directly impact on the business process and Manager can take important decision regarding marketing etc. this organization use different platform and tools to promote their product in proper manner. Manager has planned a new strategy and using different tools to implements new idea towards the growth and development.

Governmental Factor- This rule is very important because they provide the safety and security. This efficient law is applicable in the business process to establish the fastest growing organization. Marks and Spencer is the fastest growing organization to enhance their business all over the world. Government making the efficient rules and regulations for growth of organizations and employee (Lindgren, 2017). Government policies change according to the demands in marketplace. It also affected the business operations and its function. Manager of this organization has faced many issues to solve the problem by planning. They taking an efficient decision according to the policies.

Commercial firm factor- This factor is affect the business operation because they perform different tasks to manage the entire departments. Marks and Spencer is use different resources that are required for organization to enhance their business in other countries. It is key element of every business process to manage the entire business in proper manner.


This report is discussed about the manager, leader and they have some specific role and responsibilities towards the organizations. They manage the entire business in proper way. As per analyse, it is found that each and every organization has needed to hire the efficient manager and leader because they have skill and knowledge to handle all the business process and activity in efficient ways. This report is discuss about the internal and external factors which are impact on the business operations. Manager and Leader plays an important role in the business development. 

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