Management operations refers to those practices of a business which helps in creating advanced level of productivity in the organisation. It is the process of converting raw materials and workers into products and services effectively, in order to attain prescribed goals. It involves organising, planning, supervising activities in the organisational context such as – manufacturing, production and providing services (Ahuja, 2017). It is concerned with scheduling, value chain analysis, process analysis, inventory management and implementation. Marks and Spencer a British company which deals in household products, food items and clothes has been taken in this report for study. Roles of leaders and managers and their comparison is also explained. Leadership approaches and theories are mentioned in this project. Along with this external factors in business environment and their impact on organisation is also discussed above. Management operations and its approaches which are essential for improving efficiency are all explained in this report.
1) Organisation structure of Marks and Spencer
It is a British international company established in 1884 which is headquartered in London. Around 3000 employees are employed in the company and 60,000 + workers work in the company's stores. They perform different organisational functions such as – stock management, layout, maintaining accounts, marketing, etc. The company sells different products like – furniture, clothes, flowers, food, gifts, wine , beauty items, etc. The company has also its dealership outlets all over the world. The company follows flat organisation structure . Between front-line workers and administration level its management level is limited. Following this type of structure help employees in making effective decisions. It has consumer driven culture. This type of culture helps company in improving market research, consumer service, training and appointing right employees. It has its own culture, assumptions and beliefs.
2) Comparison of leaders and managers roles
Manager:- In organisations managers are essential, as they handles a part or whole of the business. Managers can be a company's in charge and manage the entire operations of firm in some exceptional cases. They performs managerial roles at primary level. A manager has power to appoint, fire, monitoring attendance, and discipline in M&S. Managers are at different levels such as – top, middle, and lower level (Brandenburg and et. al., 2014).
Leader:- Leader has important role in developing teams and individuals. Leader is a person who have great influence on people and motivates individuals to attain goals effectively. A leader must be committed deeply with the goals, in order to influence followers to achieve desired objectives in M&S. They have superior position an are capable of visualizing organisational targets.
Comparison of manager and leader's roles:-
Leaders are the persons who have ability to influence people and move them towards accomplishment of goals.
Managers directs and control a team or whole organisation to coordinate individuals to achieve desired goals.
Leaders are brilliant and sometimes they take comfortable or crazy risks, as their aim is to achieve high growth (Bromiley and Rau, 2016).
Managers are rational and problem solvers. They concentrates on objectives, personnel, structures and resources within the organisation.
Leaders are people intended, as they create followers and move them towards goal accomplishment.
While, managers are task oriented because they coordinates organisational activities and assign employees their responsibilities.
Leaders solve problems with new and creative ideas and motivate, excite and concentrates on individuals to solve issues.
While, managers creates methods and strategies for effective operations. They authorize employees by seeking their values, principals and views (Chevalier and et. al., 2015).
Leaders role is very important in an organisation, as they set clear objectives and guides individuals to attain goals.
While, managers have decisional and interpersonal roles which involves – managing daily operations and improving firm's execution.
Leaders take risk to achieve high success, as they have great impact on people and are interested in doing innovative things.
While managers do not take risk. They work to solve problems and control risk in the organisation.
3) Leaders roles and managers function
Managers functions:- Managers have different functions – planning, directing, organising, controlling, etc. some of them are discussed under:
Planning:- First function of a manager is planning which involves deciding future plans and strategies to achieve desired goals in the organisation. It consists policies, communication, budgets, standards, etc.
Organising:- It is a process to allocate resources and distributing activities. It includes determining actions, delegation, giving responsibilities, etc. In context to Marks and Spencer it is the second function performed by manager (Choi, Cheng and Zhao, 2016).
Leaders roles:- Leaders have various roles , as they plays essential role in developing team and employees in the organisation. Some are explained under:
Motivating employees:- One of the main role of leader is to identify individuals wants, needs and appreciating them for what they done. The leader motivate employees by providing clear paths, in order to attain desired objectives.
Building morale:- It is also one of the important role of a leader to encourage employees for working together to attain common objectives. An effective leader will always appreciate individuals for their work. In M&S praising them for their performance will help in building morale.
4) Roles of Leader and Functions of Manager in Different Situations in Organization
Marks and Spencer is a type of public limited retail industry. It is British multinational organisation in all around the world (Ghiani and et. al., 2014). In a firm, there are different situation arises which affect the organisational activities. M&S deals in retail sector through which it has to face various challenges such as change in taste and preference of consumer, technological changes, government policies, market trends etc. All these situations make a large impact on profitability and sustainability of an organisation. Managers and leaders of M&S play important role to enhance performance of company in different situation. Some situations are discussed as under:-
Situation 1 (Stable Situation)
It refers to those situations which remain unchanged for long time period. In M&S stable situation is related with performance appraisal, company policies etc. these situation are changes on daily basis. Managers and leaders of M&S have to analyse performance of employees on yearly basis (Gillen, Jacquillat and Odoni, 2016). Managers and leaders play different role and function to deal with stable situation. Which are as follows:-
- Role of Leader-In stable situation, leader play an important role to motivate employees and enhance their productivity and efficiency to perform a task. They give actual information regarding the policy of performance appraisal of employees.
- Function of Manager-Important function of managers to deal with stable situation is to make an effective policies or strategies of performance evaluation. Apart from this, they also develop and improve the policies of M&S.
Situation 2 (Moderate Situation)
Moderate situation refers to nigher fast nor small changes in situation. It includes changing in taste and preference of consumers. Mark and Spencer produce women, men and kids wear, home and beauty products etc. So, as per current market scenario, there is changes occur in fashion trends and demand of customers which make impact on organisational performance and its effectiveness.
- Role of Leader- Leaders play an essential role to analyse market condition and demand of customers. It helps an organisation to keep better relation with consumers and retain long run sustainability at marketplace(Giuliani and et. al., 2015).
- Function of Mangers- Managers have different functions in organisation like planning, organizing, commanding and controlling etc. But in moderate situation, manager of M&S organising the research activities to determine market trends and preference of consumers.
Situation 3 (Fast Changing Situation)
In a business enterprise fast changing situation includes technological changes such as updates in mobile applications, innovate technologies etc. mobile application is one of the important technology for M&S which affect productivity of an organisation. Some employees don't have proper knowledge of innovative technology. So, in order to deal with this situation managers and leaders play different roles and functions which are as follows:-
- Role of Leader- In this situation, an important role of leader is to provide training and appropriate guidelines to workers about how to operate technologies in performing business activities. It helps to improve productivity of a firm which helps to gain profitability and sustainability of a business association(Muller, CommVault Systems Inc, 2014).
- Function of Manager- Main function of manager to deal with fast changing situation is to develop coordination among all employees. They provide proper knowledge of technology and build a team for work in coordination and enhance the problem solving skills.
5) Leadership and management theories
Management by objective:- The management by objective theory is simple. According to this theory employees having right on achieving their objectives are more valuable and make efforts to attain goals and success in the organisation. In context to Marks and Spencer, applying this theory will motivate employees to take possession of their objectives and accomplish their part of objective.
Classical management theory:- Classical management theory is supported by the belief that employees have only economic and corporal needs. It does not involve job satisfaction, social needs but advocates labour specialisation, profit maximisation, decision making and centralised leadership. In context to Marks and Spencer it provides clear information about employees responsibilities and tasks and increase their productivity.
Behavioural theory of management:- Behavioural management theory is concerned with determining employees motivation and behaviour. It relies on the concept that managers will interpret human features to employees and treat them as vital components, in order to attain desired goals. In context to Marks and Spencer this theory will assist in feeling workers special and encourage them to achieve desired goals.
Situational theory:- According to these theories leaders select best strategies by considering situational variables. Various leadership styles are more effective for taking different decisions. In Marks and Spencer if a elder is very talented, in such situation authoritarian style will be more effective. Democratic style will be most appropriate when team members have expert skills.
Systems theory:- The system theory provides a structure to interpret and present phenomena and realities. The theory was developed by Dr. Ian Macdonald. It helps in understanding individuals behaviour using different tools. In context to Marks and Spencer the leaders should provide solution to problems, in order to maintain healthy surroundings in the organisation (Mahadevan, 2015).
Contingency theory:- These theories concentrates on specific variables of environment which anticipates the best suited leadership style for various situations. It assumes that there is no best style for any condition. In M&S according to this theory success will achieve through followers qualities and situational aspects.
6) Strengths and weaknesses of leadership theories
It is practical, individuals can understand easily and apply it to different contexts.
According to this theory it is difficult to define conceptualisation of commitment.
It concentrates on leaders flexibility.
It can't determine how to deal with some demographic traits.
This theory concentrates on attaining both individuals and organisational goals.
It is not practical and results in detainment of decision making.
It helps organisations in accepting changes in the environment (Nielsen, Chambers and Farr, CertusView Tech LLC, 2014).
Small organisations can't apply this theory because it assumes complex systems.
It gives important information about leadership types.
It is criticised, as it fails to elaborate individuals effectiveness according to different situations.
Information gathered from this theory helps to develop leadership visibility.
It is criticised subacute it can't provide solutions for situation such as mismatch in different conditions in the organisation.
7) Leaders and managers impact on the organisation
Leaders and managers both plays essential role in the organisation. In M&S leaders and mangers will help in attaining desired goals of both firm and individuals. Managing operations effectively is manager's responsibility by using different leadership styles according to various situations. In context to Marks and Spencer, these theories will help in manipulating employees by their performance and effective measures can be used to encourage them. It the duty of leader to determine individuals skills, qualities and assign responsibilities to them according their interests and qualifications. Recommendation in organisational context is – using innovative technologies for employees training and development will help in improving their performance and efficiency. Along with this leaders must motivate team or groups to obtain desired targets and achieve great success.
1) Key approaches used by management operations
Key approaches of management involves designing and controlling production activities and redesigning business operations. It includes different approaches:
Total quality management:- This approach involves detection, elimination and reduction of errors in production ensuring that giving appropriate training to individuals and improving their performance. It is an approach which solicits quality and performance improvement to meet consumer expectations. In context to M&S the company should participate in process, product and service betterment to earn high profits.
Just-in-time:- It helps management to reduce various inefficient processes – stocking, unloading, loading, storing, carrying, etc. and gives permission to individuals to foresee all those activities which is essential for the organisation. In just-in-time approach production takes place according to demands ate specific level. In context to Marks and Spencer this approach will help in decreasing wastes and improving productivity (Ravindran, 2016).
Six sigma:- This is an approach to improve business performance. The sigma represents standard deviation of population which is variations measurement in data gathered for processes. It is a measurement plan for process improvement and consumer satisfaction. In M&S this approach will reduce variations in systems which provides consonant and desired results.
Lean manufacturing:- Lean manufacturing is a process which concentrates on increasing productivity and reducing wastes in manufacturing systems. It is also called lean production. It means working more with minimum efforts. In context to M&S it will eliminate wastes in production and improve profitability.
2) Role of leaders and managers in different approaches of management operations
According to different approaches of operations in management leaders and managers have various roles. In M&S leaders should build the measurement of activities for the strategies and provide help at every level of organisation. It must ensure optimum utilisation of resources and reduce wastes in production. They should ensure that all workers have their own responsibilities and everyone is performing effectively or not. Supervision of machines is also essential which are used for manufacturing products. The leader should drive all the approaches in effective manner. While, managers should ensure effective production process improvement. They should maintain better relations with suppliers, in order to receive effective quality products. They should determine demands in the market and place order by considering appropriate quantity or quality of products. Along with all these roles, in M&S the manager should aware all the employees about the project in the organisation.
3) Importance and Values of operations management in Achieving Organizational Objectives
Operations management is a process of designing and monitoring the production activity. It is concerned with planning and supervising of different services related to manufacturing of goods and services. It is essential for Mark and Spencer to get better outcome after providing quality goods to consumers. There are different significance of approaches of operation management in achieving goals and objectives of Mark and Spencer. These are discuss as follows:-
Improve Overall Quality- TQM approach of operation management is important for M&S for continuous improvement in overall quality and productivity of a firm which ultimately helps to attain goals and objectives of an organisation. It also minimize wastage and enhance optimum utilization of available resources which reduce cost and improve productivity (Rosemann and vom Brocke, 2015).
Beat Competition- If a firm adopt the approaches of operation management then they get advantage from competition. TQM, Just in time, six sigma etc are important for M&S to gain profitability and sustainability for long run in market.
Small Investment Required- Just in time approach of operation management is important for an organisation to achieve their objectives because it does not need more fund for investment so small companies can easily adopt this approach. It also need warehouse for storage of stock because it take manufacture product as per the requirement of customers.
Proceedings of raw material into finished products- Important function of operation management is to converting of raw material into finished goods. In context of Mark and Spencer, it helps to analyse demand of raw material which need to produce goods. It helps a company to meet with objectives by manufacturing quality product for their potential customers.
4) Evaluation of Managers and Leaders that can be Effective in Improving Operational Efficiencies of M&S
Managers and leaders can be more effective in improving the efficiency of operational management in order to meet organisational objectives. Some points are describe as under to determine the evaluation of managers and leaders in effective performance:-
Clearing Labor Redundancies: It is more effectual for a leader of an organisation to get rid of whole unprofitable hierarchical spots that are existent in lower level of organisation structure (Schönsleben, 2016). At the time of evaluating performance of employees leader can take decision regarding employees contribution in achieving objectives and improving efficiencies of Mark and Spencer. Leader also communicate about purpose of firm in direct way which is important to support and maintain productivity of operational management.
Creating Incentives Programs: It is an important technique that a manager require to impose in order to increase efficiency level of operational management. It is work as a motivation given to employees to perform better task in effective and efficient manner. It is beneficial for Mark and Spencer to improve productivity of employees which ultimately helps to achieve organisational objectives.
5) Impact of External Environment Factors on Operational Management and Decision Making
PEST Analysis is a primary component of external environmental factor of a firm which make large impact on operational administration of M&S and decision making process of managers and leaders (PEST Analysis, 2018). Explanation of PEST analysis and its impacts are discussed as follows:-
Political: Political factor refers to the rules and regulation made by government which affect business policy. In context with M&S, this factor make impact on operational activities of a firm because it decline the sourcing cost because of free trade policy. Brexit is a important entailment for an organisation. It helps to make effective decisions to impose policies about business activities in company which make direct impact impact on their productivity.
Economical: Economical factor include national income, GDP, interest rate, foreign exchange rate etc. M&S need to evaluate complete analysis of economy condition of a country. Through which, they have to concentrate on population and their demands. It affect operational management of a firm because company have to produce goods as per demand of customers which increase cost as well as profitability.
Social: In Marks and Spencer, this factor is primarily related to social norms, culture and tradition which influence the buying behaviour of consumers. In an organisation there are different kinds of employees who belongs from different social groups. So, at the time of making decision manager involve their employees to generate different ideas to identify customers needs which is based on society.
Technological: Technological factor make impact of decision making process of Mark and Spencer. Managers and leaders have to decide to implement advance technology to improve productivity and efficiency of a firm. But some worker don't have proper knowledge of innovative technology so, managers decide to conduct training program to improve skills of employees.
6) Critical Evaluation of the Application of Operations Management
Operational management is one of the important feature for Mark and Spencer in order to defeat effect of external environmental factor. Company have to follow rules and regulations made by government which helps to improve their brand image and reduce the impact of political factor. To decline an impact of economical factor, firm should have to pay tax on time and contribute in growth national income. Apart from this, company should provide best quality goods and services to there customers at reasonable price which decrease the impact of social factor. M&S also have to conduct training and development program to improve skill and knowledge of employees about advance technology (Schwarz, Hall and Shibli, 2015).
Impact on business ethics:- External environment factors has great influence on overall organization and its employees. Along with this it also affects business ethics. In context to Marks and Spencer it will influence all aspects of business conduct and individuals behaviors, morals, values, beliefs and the entire organization.
7) Conclusion and Recommendations for future improvements
As per the above discussion, it has been conclude that with the use of advance technology, organisation can provide quality products and services to their customers very fast. It support an organisation to improve their productivity and enhance knowledge and skills of employees.
There are following suggestion which helps in future improvement of business activities. These are given as below:-
- M&S have to provide training to their workforce to improve their knowledge and skills.
- Company have to adopt advance technology to gain profitability and sustainability for long run.
- Organisation should adopt digitalisation to meet current as well as future improvement.
From the above mentioned report it has been concluded that operation management an important factor for growth and success of a firm. Managers and leader play different roles to contribute their efforts in achieving goals of a company. There are different situations arises in a firm such as stable, moderate and fast which affect business activities. Key approaches of operation management is used by an organisation to improve overall quality and productivity. Along with this, every firm has to analyse external environment i.e. PEST which impact on business performance and purpose to overcome these impacts in decision making process by managers and leaders of a company.
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