Organizational behaviour simply means the study or assessment of the individuals who works within the Organization (Organizational behaviour, 2018). Nowadays, it is must to create an effective environment at work placeso that any kind of cultural, communicational and other issues would not arise. As, it helps to assess the employees and various other people to behave ethically so that the company can attain its pre-set targets. In this report, AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. is being taken in this report which is a packaging and container company. This report highlights various cultural, power, political theories along with evaluation of how to motivate people, demonstration of theories to support corporation between employees and positive and negative aspects of philosophies of Organizational behaviour.
P1 the way in which organisation's culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance
Organizational culture: It is conceptual word that sets the values, understanding, thinking and rules which should be followed in a workplace. It sets out how the things are being done in an Organization. A positive Organizational culture makes the internal structure of the Organization run smoothly. If the culture of the Organization is helpful it can motivate the employees and the staff or at least prevent them from becoming dissatisfied as in the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. Happened (Coccia, 2014). The Organizational culture is relevantly described in Handy’s Typology and Hofstede’s work. If AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. implements these typologies then this may reduce the possibility of the issues that may take place in future. Handy’s Typology model of Organizational culture is a popular typology followed by many industries in describing their internal culture. These typologies are,
The power culture: It regards as the culture where there is one person by whom policies are framed and the work in an Organization is done (Creed, 2011). This culture attracts person with having high power oriented mind. If managers of organization, make culture right then it can promote satisfaction among the employee and can build a good culture and if done wrongly can lead to high labour turnover as well as dissatisfaction among the employees. As in the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD.
The Role Culture: It can be understood as the culture where there are different hierarchy of people managing their teammates and assigning a specified role. In such type of culture all the employees are concerned with their specific role and responsibilities. (Del Mar Alonso-Almeida, and Rodríguez-Antón, 2011). This type of culture brings efficiency in the Organizations working. This type of culture does not suggest bureaucracy as in the case of power culture. Unlike this, if AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. had applied this culture in their Organization then they may not have gone through the face of this failing Organization culture.
Task Culture: It is the culture where the employees work as per the given task. The culture depends on the power of a group which has been given a task to complete. It depends on team work and it produces results accordingly. If AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. had applied this culture, then the harassment would not have happened as the team would be regularly doing their projects.
Person Culture: In this person is taken as the important part of the Organization. In this type of culture person is mostly concerned about him and take organization for granted. In this type of behaviour, the Organization suffers a lot. In AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. Most of the employees are concerned with their own duty they are not concerned with organisational conditions.
For AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. task culture is very effective because this may help to help to find solutions for the organisational problems by allotting tasks to the employees according to their ability to deal with problems.
Organisational power can help an business to be more competitive in the market so that profitability and productivity can be enhanced. It affect the individuals as well as organisation because employees work for the company and they also contribute in the success of the company. Like French and Ravens power concept which help the Organization find the person’s leadership power. They classify power in different type’s whiz; Positional power and Personal power. Positional power is given by the Organization to the person and Personal Power is within the person as they make the perceptions. The taking and giving power rises from relationship between leaders and followers. As in the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. the power were delegated to the authorities who was leading to misconduct. All the workers of the company get affected by organisational power because it is focused to control and monitor all the activities of employees who are
Political Behaviour of is a behaviour where Organization is seen as a political space. According to Chanlet's political behaviour person behave according to the political behaviour so as to keep their position and keep their space in an Organization. Any organization needs variety of resources to run it. So, there should be the existence of diversity in the organization like AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. the main reason for failing is the political behaviour of managers as the employees are more prone to Organizational politics than others.
P2 Critical evaluation of motivational theories and its implementation
The term motivation means the force that keeps the person working in an Organization. Motivation is the way of expanding one's energy to achieve the goal. It is a function that brings passion for the work among the employees of any Organization. Motivational theories are basic physiological process which has been defined in two ways whiz; Content theory and Process theory (Dobrow, 2013). As in the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. it is very useful to get the best result from its employee's in both individual and team capacities. Hence, these theories play an essential role in achieving all the organisational goals.
Content Theory: This explains how need of employees can be satisfied to promote motivation among them. This theory suggests that people have some internal needs that have to be satisfied. As Maslow's hierarchical theory has defined it in the way of hierarchical need. This process contains five level of motivation which are described from bottom physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and at the top self-actualisation needs. As in AM (HOLDINGS) LTD., this theory helps the Organization to motivate its employees by knowing their needs that can be satisfied and if the needs are fulfilled then it can get best out of its employee's.
Physiological needs: These are needs which are required to live life such as water, air, sleep and all those which are regularly needed by people. If these needs are not satisfied then person’s ability to work does not arise (Wood, 2012). It can help to enhance involvement of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD.'s employees towards their work if this need is satisfied.
Safety needs: Once the physiological needs are met, and then needs turns into safety requirement. In this the employee need safety from physical and emotional harm. This need can be fulfilled by AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. by providing employees with safe working area, medical insurance, job security etc.
Social needs: it is the upper level of need. It is the level of need which requires employees to interact with each other. It is a need which require friends, belongingness etc. Organization like AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. should create a working environment that make a space of belongingness among its employee's.
Esteem Needs: This is the need of a person to feel important among others. It can be classified into two parts which is internal and external. Internal are those which are related to self-respect and external are needs of social status (Gabriel,. 2015). AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. should recognise its employee's achievement and make them feel appreciated. Offer them job title that conveys the importance of position.
Self-actualization: it is the highest level of need which is never satisfied. As the person has lots of opportunities so this need cannot be satisfied fully. AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. should provide its employee's a challenge and opportunities to reach their highest career potential.
Process Theory: This theory is concerned with describing what people are thinking while taking decisions related to the work in an Organization. It determines the individual behaviour. There are different process theories described, one of them is cognitive theory. In the context of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. cognitive theory explains that there are two ways of motivation which are internal and external. The employee's which are motivated internally performs for their own achievement and satisfaction, while external motivation is always taken as negative. In this if AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. shifts from external reward to internal rewards that would result into its employee's motivation and total goal orientation of company. There are three different elements of this three that are perception, attention and memory all of them are explained below:
- Perception: It is a procedure of selecting, organizing and interpreting stimuli that evokes the individuals. It is the thinking of a person to look at one thing. It is very important for AM (HOLDINGS) LTD to build such perceptions in their employees that may help them to think positively.
- Attention: It can be defined as the way in which individuals are processing the specific information which is gathered from the present environment. It is essential for the HR professionals of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. To enhance attention level of their employees in order to increase productivity.
- Memory: It can be defined as the process of acquiring, storing and reminding the information as it plays vital role in the life of individuals. It is very important for the organization to enhance the memory power of their employees so that they may perform all their tasks on time.
Refined level of motivation helps in achieving AM (HOLDINGS) LTD.'s objective:
By implementing motivational theories, set out objectives of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. can be achieved. As it would help in improving its employee’s motivation and making them work in effective manner. If the employees of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. are rewarded and recognised this would help them in being further motivated and work with consistency to again win that reward. Employees should be valued for the work that they do in proper manner with some incentives, which would enable employee to work with that Organization for long term, making a good bond between them.
P3 State what makes a team effective as opposed to an ineffective team
An Organization creates teams that bring together group of people with different skills and interest towards a common goal. It is seen that employees who work in team are more productive when they work together rather than working alone. A team’s focus is on collective performance and winning the targets that are defined by top level. Any Organization can classify its people and make different types of team. As AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. is large Organization and require different teams to work in different department, so it must identify the requirement of teams (Hyde, Harris and Boaden, 2013).
Effective teams: These teams are mainly formulated by the organisations in order to achieve organisational as well as individual goals. There are many types of team that AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. can build according to its objective such as functional team, problem solving team, project team, virtual team etc. These are discussed below,
Functional team: This type of team is composed of different members from different level of hierarchy who perform specific Organizational job. A functional team will have several subordinates and managers who have authority to manage internal operation and external relationship of particular department. Management, accounting, marketing, human resource are examples of functional teams. As in AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. the Organization is large Organization hence require different teams to function. This can help it in innovating different ideas and delivering best reports to the consumers. This can be implemented in such a way that the team which is collecting the news will further send that information to the team which will compile it and so on. This way the work that is done would be done more easily, faster and more accurately.
Problem solving team: It is a team which consist of people who possess different roles, skills and interests. The priority of this team is to provide specific solution for a problem as fast as they can. It is a cross functional make-up which analyse the problem from variety of prospective (Kalliath, 2013). In the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. there was a problem in the management which lead to its failure, if AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. had a problem solving team earlier than this type of problem would not have risen. This team helps the company to maintain employee's satisfaction as their problems are quickly resolved.
Project team: It defines the group of employees who work collectively towards the pre-set target of Organization. This type of team works in specific, measurable and effective way. It specifies clear roles and responsibilities. It helps in routine work to be done in smooth way. This team bears the responsibility for success and failure of the project. This team is guided by project managers, who break down the projects into different functions and assign them according to employee's ability or area of interest. In Organization like AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. project team plays a critical role. As this team will initiate and assign different roles to the employee's according to which they will do their work (LA, 2013). This would enable Organization to be more specific toward their goals and provide the best result for the betterment of the Organization.
Virtual Team: This team enables its employees to participate in an Organization’s daily activity regardless of their personal presence. As the name defines this team is virtually connected with the Organization and communicate online. This type of team provide better work experience as the people are highly tech qualified and have scope to learn things quickly. This Organization provides with benefit of time as employee's can work at different time zones at different hours and in different shifts. As in the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. virtual team is the most important part as it provides the Organization with the benefit of working 24 hrs and the benefit of working around the world to collect news more quickly.
Ineffective teams: Such type of teams are ineffective in nature because they suffer from lack or purpose. If the employees do not have specific purpose or objective than it may result in decreased effectiveness of them.
A team in an organization is the heart of its functioning. If the team is effective, then everything can be achieved by it and if not can lead to dissolution also. For making an effective team it is important to analyse the areas where there is requirement of team. Forming team sometimes takes time as members has to go through different stages to become a part of group with common goals (Mester, 2018). The physiologist Bruce Tuckman was the one who recognised that in any Organization there are four stages of development of team, whiz Forming, Storming, Norming and performing. These stages help to make effective team in AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. All of them are explained below:
Forming stage: This the first stage which is followed by the leaders while formulating an effective team. In this stage team members learns about the opportunities and challenges, after this they begins to tackle the task assigned. In this stage parameters are set for the job.
Storming stage: This is the second stage of team development where different ideas conflicts with each other for giving its consideration. In this, the individuals who work in different ways are enabled to work as a team for fulfilment of Organizational goals. Employee's here start questioning about their roles and the work they will do.
Norming stage: This is the stage where people start resolving the conflicts that arose in storming stage (Robbins, 2013). Workers try to build good relations to their colleagues so that all of them work effectively and with high level of involvement. In this stage employees commence to provide feedback and help each other to complete the assigned task. Employees begin to develop commitment towards the team goal which results in Organizations goal orientation.
Performing: At the end, the stage comes where the employees are organized for performance. It is the stage where hard work of the employee's leads to achievement of gaols without friction. In this stage it is easy for the employee's to be the part of the team and performance is expected from the employee's. Here the team is more strategically aware of the role.
Difference between effective and ineffective teams
Goals are defined to each employee of the organisation.
Goals and purposes are not defined to the staff members.
All the members of a team are free to provide their opinion because the leader consider their opinion.
Leaders do not give opportunity to the employees to provide opinion.
Members of such teams listen to each other and make effective decisions.
Team members do not listen each other and they are ignore to take advice.
A discussion is done among team members and than they make plan to work effectively.
Members ignore to discuss things with each other.
P4 Evaluation of concepts and philosophies of Organizational behaviour that influence the behaviour of employee's
Team performance and productivity depends on the motivation of employee's in an Organization. The leader in the Organization should encourage the employee's in achieving the pre-set goals. The performance and productivity can be improved in employees by following Path-goal theory of leadership. This theory classifies the goals and the path that is required for fulfilment of that goal (Schnurr, and Chan 2011). They are the one who clarifies the path to the employee's, helps in removing the roadblocks and increasing the rewards along the route. This theory if used by AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. would have led to increase in employee's performance and productivity. The theory is has been classified into four styles of leadership that will influence the entire employee's in the Organization which are:
Supportive Leadership: This style of leadership is concerned with the needs of employees. In this the leader shows concern for the welfare and creating the friendly working environment among employees. This increases the employee's self-esteem and making the job more interesting. In AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. it will lead to increase to motivation among employee's which was the main ground for its failure.
Directive Leadership: This style includes giving employee's the direction to do the work. Setting their schedules and specifying the job role. This is used mainly when the task assigned is unstructured and complex and the employee are inexperienced. This increases the employee's sense of security and motivation towards Organization (Suppiah and Singh Sandhu 2011). In AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. it could influence the employee's who were bullied and were feeling that their job was in risk.
Participative Leadership: This includes consulting with the employee's and taking their ideas into account when making any decision. This is the best way when the employees are expert in their field and their advice is needed for making the decision. It could help AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. in discriminating gender gap as that was the main problem over there because of which labour turnover was high.
Achievement oriented leadership: In this the leaders sets the challenging goals for their employee's and expect them to perform in the best possible way. He shows the confidence in their ability which will meet their expectations. In the case of AM (HOLDINGS) LTD. this would helped in enhancing the employee's trust in their leaders and would resulted in Organizations end achievement.
There were some barriers which effected the performance within AM (HOLDINGS) LTD., if that could be removed would have not resulted in its failure (Walsham, 2012). These barriers were Organizational culture, structure of the management and the HR policies which were not according to the mark. These barriers were contradicting and were deploying the employees of the Organization making them dissatisfied and causing them not to come at work.
As per the above mentioned report, it has been concluded that development of teams and individuals is necessary for growth and success of Organization. It is the prime responsibility of top manager to understand the political and cultural environment which affects the Organization. Employees are known as the principle resource of Organization, in this manner it is essentially critical to inspire and motivate them. Utilization of different Organizational typologies and theories can help in attaining the goals of organisation.
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