Current Trends in Networking


Networking is the practice of transferring or transporting data between nodes over a shared medium in an information system. In other words, it can be defined as the process in which computer networks are created or used with respect to protocols, software and hardware. It includes wireless and wired technologies that are used by different business entities (Barton, Soshnev and Geyer, 2015). Now a days new trends in networking are taking places frequently in order to reduce workload of individuals. Main examples of future trends are software defined networking, 5G, 802.11ac etc. All of them are designed to increase speed, provide software to detect and monitor issues. BT Group is a leading internet service provider in UK. Its headquarter is in London and currently it is operating its business in around 180 countries. The organisation was founded in year 1969 and its chairman is Jan Du Plessis. In this report a technical consultant of BT Group have been asked to provide best advice to make investment as they are willing to upgrade their infrastructure and diversify the services. Various aspects are analysed by the technical consultant including comparison of wired and wireless broadband technology, cognitive radio, unlicensed mobile access, role of cryptography and net generation network.

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Question 1

Wired broadband is a physical connection to a particular location which is connected through a cable. It is a secured and safe medium of using internet as compare to wireless broadband because no one else can use the internet. The reliability level in such type of connectivity is very high. For example, if huge number of individuals are using wireless system at one time then it will reduce the speed but in wired connection the speed of internet will net get interrupted due to number of users (Comparison of Wired and Wireless Broadband, 2012). A detailed comparison of both the technologies are as follows:


Wired Broadband

Wireless Broadband


Wired broadband performs better as compare to wireless networks because there is no data limit and barriers for the speed. As all the systems are connected with the cables hence they are more safe and it is not possible for others to use such networks illegally.

It also performs good but as its speed gets interrupted due to number of users  that affects the overall performance. Most of the people can use the network of a business entity if they are having the password to access.


Speed of wired network is very high as compare to wireless network because the service provider promise to provide a specific speed which is not going to be affected due to the number of users. For example, DSL is a wired broadband system which can be installed in homes or at businesses. Its speed always remains constant and will never decrease with the fluctuation in the number of users (DSL. 2018).

Speed of such type of broadband does not provide higher speed and it also get reduced when the number of network users get increased. For example, WAN is wireless broadband in which speed of internet get decreased if the users get increased.

Deployment challenges

Advancement in Fiber network and cables are the major deployment issues for the wired broadband because innovations in the cable material is continuously increasing and it is not possible for the business entities to change the overall setup as it requires a higher amount. If a company choose to install the advance technology at workplace then it requires higher investments and for all the enterprises it is not possible to change the cables because of insufficient funds (Deployment challenge for wired broadband. 2019).

Reduction in the downloading and uploading speed in the major challenge for wireless broadband as it is reducing its popularity in the market (Datta, Da Costa and Bonnet, 2015).

Performance metrics of Wireless broadband

There are various performance metrics of wireless network (Wireless broad band's performance metrics, 2019). All of them with their benefits are described below:

Coverage: Wireless networks have low coverage areas but the area which is covered by the system have good speed of internet. Only such users are allowed to use the network who have the password to access.

Capacity: Data limit in most of the Wireless networks is set previously and users are not allowed to exceed that particular extent. It helps the organisations to reduce the misuse of data by the employees (Dawson and, 2014).

Coexistence: Wireless broadband have a feature of coexistence in which it can be coexisted with other devices that can cause significant and dynamic interference. It is very beneficial for the organisation as it can be used with wired broadband.

Power consumption: In Wireless networks the main requirement is long battery life which is possible if the organisation is using such system which is having higher mah power. It is beneficial for the business entities only if the power consumption have long battery life.

Security: In wireless broadband only those users have the access to the network who have the password. This is advantageous for the business entities as the security key can be provided to such employees who requires it.

Performance metrics of Wired broadband

Highly secured: Wired broadband is highly secured because it is connected with through wires. It is not possible for the external user to access the internal network of a company.

Reliability: Wired broad bands are more reliable as compare to wireless networks because the service provide assure to render a particular speed of data. It helps business entities to complete their work without any interruption.

Uninterrupted speed: Speed in wired technology remain constant and fluctuation in the number of user does not affect it. For all the business entities it is very beneficial as it will not harm their work by decreasing the speed (Ganchev, Curado and Kassler, 2014).

There are various types of deployment hurdles for wired and wireless broadband that creates problem for the organisations which are using these systems.

All of them are as follows:

End user quality of experience: It is very important for all the service providers such as BD group to focus on providing good experiences to the customers whether they are using a wired or wireless network. It will help to capture large market share and also result in increased number of customers. If the users are not satisfied with the services then they may switch to other service providers.

Funding: It is very important for the internet providers to arrange sufficient funds that can be used in the up gradation of the services so that all the aspirations of users can be fulfilled. Wired and Wireless both the broad bands require higher investment and it is very important to deal with this hurdle appropriately (Hansen and, 2015).

Latest innovations in the market: Now a days various innovations are taking place in the market of technology and it is not possible to change the system frequently. For example, new and innovative cables are being introduced by the manufacturers that are used in wired networks and it is impossible to change the whole wiring as it costs high. In wireless broadband market new technologies are also taking place such as 3G, 4G and 5G. As it changes with time and increase the expectations of customers hence for organisations it is very important to provide services according to their requirements. It will help to be stable in the market (Jiang, Cui and Faloutsos, 2016).

Question 2

In current era various technologies are emerging in networking and for business entities like BD Group it is very important to consider all of them and upgrade their services. These are Cognitive Radio and Unlicensed Mobile Access. Both of them are described below:

Cognitive radio: It is an adaptive and intelligent radio network technology which is able to automagically detect the available channels that are available in wireless spectrum. Various types of technologies such as software defined radio are used by it. Now old hardware components such as modulators, amplifies and mixers have been replaced by intelligent computer codes. It was firstly proposed by Mr Joseph Mitola in year 1999. Main purpose of using such radios is to reduce the use of hardware and use intelligent software so that the place acquired by hardware can be saved.

Functional architecture of cognitive radio: There are six different pilers of functional architecture of Cognitive radio. All of them are described below:

Reconfiguration management: It can be defined as the stage in which all the reconfiguration related activities are managed in order to appropriately run a software. It helps to organise the system in effective manner so that complexities in data services can be reduced (Functional architecture of cognitive radio, 2019).

Cognition enablers: It is the second pillar of functional architecture in which ways to deliver services are analysed. In this step relevant technologies are adopted by the organisations in order to upgrade their internet services that are rendered to the individuals.

Spectrum enablers: In this pillar the network providers analyse that their adapted technological trends are appropriate for the broadband or not. Possible benefits of up-gradation are analysed under this step (Khan, Freitag and Rodrigues, 2015).

Autonomic radio entry management: In this pillar entry of radio frequencies are analysed and managed by the enablers. It also focus on the reduction of obsolete entries that are not planned by the service provider earlier.

Cognitive radio access network optimisation: It is very beneficial in increasing and improving the usage of radio resources with the help of reconfiguring the wireless connection settings. Collected context information is used to make such type of optimum decision.

Radio resource management: It is a system level management of co channel interference and other radio transmission. The main functionalities of a cellular networks are analysed with the help of such system (Loo, Mauri and Ortiz, 2016).

Benefits of functional architecture of Cognitive radio:

  • It is very important to analyse the activities that are performed by a cognitive radio.
  • It helps to control the radio frequencies that may reduce the speed of internet and affect the users.
  • Functional architecture helps to finish all the tasks in a step by step process with higher accuracy.
  • It is beneficial while trying to stop entries of obsolete radio frequencies.

Current deployment status of cognitive radio: Now a days different types of up gradation and advancements in technology are taking places. Cognitive radio is also an innovation in which uses of hardware get decreased and infrastructure become more wireless. As various new technologies are emerging then the organisations like BD Group which are planning to invest in cognitive radio should analyse that it is able to meet their future aspirations or not.

Unlicensed mobile access: It is a wireless technology which is used to allow seamless transition between wireless wide area and local area networks. GSM, GPRS, 3G etc. are the main examples of such type of networks. It is commercial name of generic access network. It is very beneficial for the users because they can use their mobile handsets in different locations and networks with a single number (Unlicensed Mobile access, 2018). It also helps people to set their own wireless LAN. After the introduction of such mobile access the mobile communications has become highly reliable, cheap and incentivize. It is also very advantageous for the service providers such as BD Group as they can invest on WIFI hotspots rather then high priced wireless WAN hardware.

Functional architecture of unlicensed mobile access:

Core mobile network: It is the main network provider of unlicensed mobile network and cellular radios. It is impossible for both of them to perform their operations without support of core mobile network. The main function which is performed by it, is to offer numerous services to the customers who are accessing the same web system (Functional architecture of Unlicensed Mobile Access Network, 2019.).

UMA network controller: It is directed by core mobile network in which all the networks which are connected with UMA are controlled and monitor. For example, if limit of a wireless broadband is 50 GB and user has exhausted the limit then it interrupts downloading or uploading speed and remind individuals about their data extent.

IP access network: It is responsible for the smooth internet protocol connectivity. It is mainly used in 3GPP networks such as EDGE and GPRS but sometimes can also be utilised for other wireless networks such as LAN, DSL etc. It is the middle point between UMA web controller and unlicensed wireless system. It allows WIFI, Bluetooth and other mobile networks to access internet (Mahmood, 2014).

Unlicensed wireless network: IP access network allows it to access the internet. WIFI, Bluetooth are the example of such web systems. It supervises mobiles and other electronic devices to use data.

UMA Enabled Dual mode handset: It is an outsider pillar of UMA in which different types of mobile devices get access of internet. There are two different types of models that allows electronic media to use data. These are cellular radio and unlicensed mobile access networks. Both of them controls and monitor UMA enabled dual mode handset (Matin, 2014).

Cellular radio access network: Core mobile network supervises two access networks these are unlicensed mobile and cellular radio. The second on has three sub parts these  are base station controller, private network and based transceiver station. All of them work together and provide access to UMA enabled dual mode handset to use data and access internet. The limit and speed of internet is controlled by base station because in wireless broadband there is a fixed extent is decided for every user (Nkoro and Vershinin, 2014).

Benefits of functional architecture of unlicensed mobile access:

  • Functional architecture is very beneficial for all the internet service providers such as BD Group as it can help them to appropriately control and monitor the data uses of customers.
  • In this structure an effective chain is followed which is very advantageous for service providers as it is easy to maintain the mobile access.
  • In this structure core mobile network is the key controller if it stops the internet supply then it is not possible for cellular radio and unlicensed mobile access to approach a specific data limit.

Current deployment status of unlicensed mobile access: Most of the organisations does not prefer unlicensed mobile access as their work depends upon other electronic devices such as laptops. The internet service providers which are using such type of systems needs to make innovations as it does not attract corporates (Saxena and Kumar, 2016).

Application of cognitive radio and unlicensed mobile access:

Cognitive radio

Unlicensed mobile access

It is mainly used to reduce the uses of traditional wireless networking systems in order to make the infrastructure more wireless.

It is used to provide new access techniques to existing cellular network for electronic devices such as mobiles.

It is applied by the organisations to avoid jamming problems because business entities which are using wireless networks have to face network access issues due to climate change. It helps to reduce such type of problems by strengthening the web system.

It helps to establish a system that allows accession to mobile voice, data, multimedia and other services over an unlicensed spectrum network.

Recommendation to BD Group: The technical consultant of BD Group have recommended to the company to invest in cognitive radio and upgrade the infrastructure. It will be beneficial for the organisation as is designed to resolve the issues that are related to jamming of networks. Unlicensed mobile access will not be the right choice as it is focused on mobile phones and corporates does not prefer such systems because they depends upon laptops and other electronic devices (Sultana, Paul and Gavrilova, 2014).

Question 3

Cryptography: - Cryptography is the process of protecting information from third party interference. Converting text into unreadable format and it is called cipher text which is only understood by those people who know this art. It is not only protect information from alteration but also for user authentication. It convert simple data or information into confidential form. Cryptography provide basic functions like privacy, key exchange, integrity, non-repudiation and authentication. It is used in various applications such as card transaction, e-commerce transaction and  computer passwords. It provide fairness, accountability, confidentiality, accuracy to the organisations and it's users (Cryptography, 2015).

Role of cryptography in securing market: -

In the market, cryptography doesn't provide high level of securities. Most of the systems were not designed by as per cryptographer. Engineers think that cryptography is same as computer software. But it is not same, because people can't secure their applications or software through cryptography. Organisations spend billions of dollar on computer security and most of the time it waste because of insecure products. Their is a difference between two security pattern and only experienced cryptographer can identify the gap.

Those people who interrupting cryptographic system and try to cheat with rules, they can attack a system by using technique. It is not matter that how much money people spend on their security system. Such as home security system and other computer system it will not stand against this attack. Computer thieves steal data such as technical, collude, modify software and bribe insiders. In the future, number of fraud will be increase but if people wants to secure their data than they have to spend on security. Also know about each and every loop hole of that security system.

Methods of cryptography

Secret key Cryptography (SKC):- In this method used only single key for both encryption and decryption. Encryption means convert data into meaningless format and decryption means transfer cipher text into plain text. Sender used that key to convert data into encrypt form and send to the receiver in the cipher text form. Receiver also use the same format like decrypt the text and converted in plain text. Single key used for the both functions and it is also called symmetric encryption.  It is primary used for confidentiality and for privacy. Symmetric encryption is applied for confidentiality and make sure that data is delivered to intended party or recipient. For example: -  if two people securing their data with secret key and third party get the access of key. In that case third party can understand secret massage and he can interrupt between two parties. If third don't have access than information is secure between two parties (Yassine, Rahimi and Shirmohammadi, 2015).

Public key Cryptography (PKC): - In this method use one key for encryption and another one is for decryption. It is also called asymmetric encryption and used for non-repudiation, key exchange and authentication. Two keys are used in public key cryptography first one is public key which is freely used by all. Second one is privet key which remains a secrete for others. Public key used for encryption and private key is used for decryption. It is applicable when one key used for encrypt and second one is to decrypt message. For example: - when whatsapp is installed in user's phone after that private key is registered with whatsapp server. In that case public key in not stored in the whatsapp server.

Hash functions:- In this technique key is not used for encryption or decryption and it is also called massage digests or one-way encryption. This method used a fixed length hash value to convert in plain text. Which is impossible to convert content into plain text. It is use for encrypt password by many operating systems. For example: - in the mobile phone every one set password for the purpose of security and it shows in the form of full length hash value.

Question 4

Next Generation Network (NGN)

Next generation network is totally IP based network which transports all type of services, information related to data, voice and videos. It is a pocket based network which provide telecom services to used multiple broadband. It is suitable for all kind of customers such as corporate, residential and wholesale. It is for those, who received a wide range of services from particular service provider. In the Next generation network, there is a separation between connectivity and services which is run currently top on that transport. It means provider can access the new service whenever they want. NGN is based on internet technology which includes internet protocol (IP) or multi-protocol label switching (MPLS). It supports wide range of applications, services, mechanism based on real or non-real time and multimedia. By using this network, it has various advantages such as data connectivity, voice telephony, multimedia, virtual call centres etc.

Internet protocol television (IPTV)

Internet protocol is like a delivery chain of television content which provide the complete internet protocol network. This is totally different from delivery thought traditional object, cable format and satellite. It offers the ability to stream source media on continuous bases. In result of that,client media player can start the content immediately such as TV channel. IPTV used for median delivery in the corporate and private networks. It is classified into three categories such as live television, time shifting and video on demand (El Kadiri and, 2016).

Applications of IPTV: -

Video on Demand: -

  • VOD is an interactive TV system that allow the users to select content according to their choice. IPTV commonly use these technologies to bring VOD on television, personal computer at the same point of time.
  • Interactive portal will influence the customers to navigate within different IPTV services and the variety of VOD.

Architecture of a video server network: -

  • It is a simplest centralised architecture model which is easy and simple to find out solutions.
  • Media content is saved in centralised server; it doesn't need it for other content distribution system.

Residential IPTV: -

  • Residential gateway provides connectivity with internet access,it is not so closely located in the set-up-box.
  • Because of the home wiring problems, wireless hardware become the solutions of all related problems.

Current deployment status of IPTV: -

UK market have huge barriers for the telecommunication sector to deploy broadcast IPTV.  BD company invest in TV, video on demand it became more costly and difficult due to the barrier of UK market. Company announced its plans to launch DTT and VOD  offering dual tuner STB. Trial is conducting in 150 home countries and start working on electronic programme guide (EPG). It means users are unaware about this idea that they will switching between VOD or DTT feeds. Other company's entered in the IPTV,VOD market and exploit the environment of LLU. Company believes that they have potential to expand telecom sector and increase the multi TV provisions.

Recommendations to the ISP: -

Telecom sector is a beneficial or profitable market in the current scenario. Nowadays customer's demand regarding network has increased considerably. Cable and wireless operators have benefited from IPTV service market. To get great success in telecom sector, company needs proper planning. Since this sector needs heavy investments, it is not easy to enter in this market for a small or medium based company.

Provide highly integrated service by IPTV, low cost based service since it uses computer networks. Video on demand, it's demand is  rapidly increased because of pre-recorded TV, audio and video over existing network (Zhang and, 2015).

Internet of Things (IOT) has affected consumer demand in term of network services which has increased popularity for telecom products greatly. Before making any strategies company need to know about consumer's demand and the ability to access content over the different devices. Provide versatile media experience to the customers which improve their lifestyle. These reasons increase the demand of telecom sector and company have to invest in this market. Telecom market already have big names of competitors.


From the above project report, it has been concluded that there are various new trends in networking are taking place that are leading the internet service providers towards up gradation. It helps to meet customer's requirements and fulfil their needs by offering them such services that they are willing to buy. Two different types of broadband networks are there in the market these are wired and wireless. Both of them have their own merits and demerits, but if these are compared then wired networks are more beneficial for business organisations as these are higher secured and reliable.


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