Construction Technology


Construction technology refers as a technique by which civil engineers can use different tools and technologies to construct an effective building (Ghoddousi and Hosseini, 2012). This report is based on a case scenario where clients want to design a hotel near by Heathrow Airport. The infrastructure of hotel includes a 5-Storeys hotels and location is chosen to be 1 Km away from motorway. In this regard, present report is going to describe difference between residential, commercial and industrial building. Furthermore, different types of structures, functional characteristics and design are also explained. In addition to this, an explanation for various supply arrangement related to primary services are also highlighted.

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Differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings

In construction field, building can be classified on the basis of residential, commercial and industrial aspects. Therefore, there is a lot of difference among them which can be mentioned in following manner:-

Residential Buildings

Commercial Buildings

Industrial Buildings

This type of building includes apartments which are constructed for residential purposes (families). Therefore, priorities are given on the basis of family needs and requirements. Residential buildings are also known as houses which are built by general, beams and column slabs. It includes apartment building, detached, duplex, triplex, and more type of houses.

For constructing commercial building, it requires expensive equipments and high type of materials. It includes flat slab, aggregate mix, sand-cement ration, grade of cement and steel, etc. to maintain quality in structure (Skibniewski, 2014). It includes retail shopping centres, standard space for offices and more, which are made to either sell or lease the buildings.

These kind of buildings are generally made for manufacturing purpose. It includes those businesses which include construction, working with electrical or mechanical processes. Therefore, for constructing these types of buildings require special conveyance facilities like 24/7 shipping and receiving and railroad transportation.

As per current scenario, entrepreneurs seek to make a hotel on motorway sites which is linked directly with Heathrow Airport. Therefore, it includes both type of buildings viz. residential and commercial.

Ways through which sustainability could be promoted in building projects

While constructing the building projects, builders must ensure about quality of materials they are using for construction. As any poor quality may collapsed the building. Therefore, in this regard, sustainability plays a main role in developing an appropriate infrastructure. As per UK Green Building Council, near about 10% of CO2 and other harmful gases are emitted from construction (TamošaitienÄ—, Zavadskas and Turskis, 2013). In order to reduce this factor, some ways are given below for promoting sustainability in construction sites:-

  • Start with energy efficient premises: Since it has been evaluated that much of the pollution are caused due to construction sites. Therefore, civil engineers and builders are required to concern on efficient energy management. With this assistance, starting with some basic tools which are rating with Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) can help in reducing energy usage. In addition to this, by considering an on-site CHP system i.e. Combined Heat and Power also helps in making transition towards more renewable alternatives for traditional site power.
  • Taking care of construction waste: Wastage in construction contributes the largest pollutant factor in many countries. It is usually caused due to in-sustainabilityin building projects and dispose of wastages. Therefore, it is amendable for builders to concern on promoting sustainability into an appropriate waste management policy.
  • Keeping equipment running as efficient as possible: By using high quality of fuels, cements and other renewable equipments like lubrication can help in reducing carbon footprint from construction materials. For example: Using small generators for lower energy demand leads to promote sustainability in construction.

Terminologies used for constructing Hotel Building

According to present scenario, entrepreneurs have given contract to builders for building a hotel nearby Heathrow Airport (Zhao and et. al., 2015). The location of this hotel has been selected on either side of airport where a large stream is going parallel to motorway. Therefore, there are some terminologies given below which are required to understand for construction technology:-

  • Mastic: It refers to pasty materials which are used for setting tiles, thermal insulation and more. As this hotel is going to made near by stream therefore, using mastic helps in preserving building from moisture.
  • Construction based software: Using software like CATIA, AutoCAD and more, helps civil engineers in formulating a proper plan. It acts as a blueprint which is used for constructing the building in appropriate manner.
  • Aggregate: It includes crushed stone, water-worn gravel or slag which are available on different range of size and used for building roofs (waterproofing).


Pre-Design studies and different type of information for designing the most suitable foundation type

Pre-design is considered as a stage which consists various aspects of designing process. It includes space required for constructing building sites, timeline, cost and more. Therefore, owners of hotel require to arrange adequate amount of finance by taking loans from banks or investors. In this regard, information to design the most suitable foundation can be obtained by:-

Geotechnical study: It is considered as one of the most important part of pre-design study which undertakes various facts. It includes a detailed information about soil characteristics, geological conditions and measures geotechnical issues (faulty zones, landslides, earthquake etc.). Thus, these kinds of reports help civil engineers in choosing  the foundation type as per soil characteristics.

Hydrology Studies: For effectively managing and maintaining the environment, civil engineers also require to concern about hydrology studies (Eastman, 2018). This would help in gathering information related to drainage patterns, ground water depth, locations of nearby flood zone, recharge zones and aquifers, etc. As present hotel is going to make nearby stream where loamy soil is founded therefore, deep foundation requires to be used. It leads to gain long term sustainability in construction site.

Construction of different type of foundations and their suitability for use with various  structures

For developing a strong construction of building it is essential for builders to select the best foundation type for various structures. For this process, they must concern that ground support will include concrete, columns and other slab materials. These materials will be responsible for holding load of building gravity to earth (Types of Foundation for Buildings and their Uses, 2018). In this regard, two main types of foundation as described beneath:

Deep Foundation: These foundations are placed at a greater depth and transfer the loads of building to deep strata. Therefore, it is more expensive than other type of foundation and its construction is also much complex. But it provides greater depth, lateral support as well as resists uplift. Henceforth, to transmit the load deep foundation refers to most suitable way for constructing the bridge over stream. It includes pier, pile and caissons type of foundation.

Shallow Foundations: It can be defined as foundation that is placed near surface of earth  or can transfer the loads of bridge at a shallow depth. It includes isolated, mat and combined foundations which can transfer load by end bearing. Shallow foundation also seems to be easier as compare to deep for construction. Generally, this foundation is suitable for residential buildings. But possibility of a settlement is generally applicable or lightweight structure of construction.

In context with hotel construction as per present scenario, it is better to construct mat or raft foundation. It helps in transferring the load of entire structure of building to deep strata. It has seen that this type of foundation support load from heavy structures like walls or columns in deep manner. Therefore, it is better for civil engineers who are going to construct hotel complex nearby stream to use mat or raft foundation.

Impact of Site Information on Foundation Design

In order to construct the foundation design of Hotel structure, it is very essential for civil engineers to collect right and accurate amount of data related to site. As if any discrepancy in measuring the soil characteristic will increase chance of collapse of respective building. In context with London, here mostly buildings are situated nearby sea levels. Therefore, there is a huge chance of demolishing the foundation of building (Wong and et. al., 2013). In this regard, Hydrological and geological study helps in measuring the water level and soil patterns and other measures. Since  hotel is said to be constructed on either side of Heathrow Airport, therefore, on such location there will be an intense vibrations in land because of aircraft take off and landings. This kind of information is required to be concerned by civil engineers while constructing desired hotel. Similarly, concept of raft and  matt foundation give advantage to builders to build effective foundation for transferring load into deep strata. Along with this, building needs to concern on legislations related to avoidance of any kind ground digging or other kind of activities, that may affect longevity of hotel complex. Thus, obtaining information about environmental legislations help in promoting sustainability in construction site also.


Description of functional characteristics of elements of superstructure and design selection criteria for their usage

Superstructure can be defined as a structure which is developed above the foundation. The type of superstructure for constructing a bridge can be varied as per range of factors i.e. from maintenance consideration to personal preference. In context with building a hotel complex, superstructure includes following elements:-

  • Walls: It is constructed with a wide range of blocks, concrete, bricks and stones. The external side of walls separate it from inside and enclose adequate space also. The characteristic of walls is that it resists damp penetration. The design criteria of walls for present hotel includes thermal insulation which keeps building from excessive heat loss, condensation as well as reduce the expansion and contraction of structure also.
  • Roofs: It is another main component of building which would provide effective weather resistance such as rain, snow and more. It includes roofing (which is exposed to the elements); pitch (rise over run); substrate (decking which carriers roofing materials); eaves (roof overhangs) and ceiling (finish material which is attached to underside of roof). In context with design selection criteria for roof of respective hotel, it includes prefabricated trusses as well as sheathing materials which has a slight slope for drainage.
  • Floors – Ground and Intermediate: Floors consists a lower horizontal surface of room which is constructed in two major aspects viz. suspended and solid floors. Suspended floors are made up by economical timber boards or may be of waterproof chip boards.  Mostly in buildings which have no basement, ground floors are made up of solid construction (Kozlovská, Kaleja and Struková, 2014). It includes slabs whose thickness vary according to bearing capacity of ground. Thus, design selection criteria of present hotel would be of floor sheets as well as concrete in ratios which enhances its functions.
  • Windows and Doors: These elements of building are made to allow entrance of light and ventilation within building. For hotel industry which is situated near by stream, windows and doors will be made by using aluminium and Glass-fibre-reinforced plastic.
  • Staircases: It possess the main characteristics of floors which is designed in such a way that gives a compliment to entire interior theme of present hotel complex. In this regard, size of staircases would be near about 36 inches wide which are constructed by using materials like concrete, marbles or wood as per interior theme.
  • Finishes: It provides the outstanding texture to designing criteria of property. The main characteristic of this element is that it would prevents building from corrosion and other destructive materials for longer period of time. In this regard, design selection criteria for finishes in hotel complex includes plaster on walls which improve its design.

Pre-design studies and types of information collected

For constructing proper superstructure, civil engineers of hotel complex are needed to concern on pre-design studies as described below:

  • It is necessary for builders to collect a proper geometric knowledge. As present hotel includes a five-storey structure therefore, it must comply with certain variances and tolerance (Skibniewski, 2014). This would help engineers to get knowledge about gravitational field of that particular area and geometrical shape also. This would help in formulating a perfect design which increases the effectiveness of load-bearing capacity.
  • Similarly, electricity which is required for construction and building structure requires to be well executed also.
  • Pre-design studies would aid civil engineer to develop effective construction, which helps in giving satisfaction to clients as per desired manner.

How the component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function

For developing a proper structure, it is necessary for project makers to develop plan according to client's requirement (TamošaitienÄ—, Zavadskas and Turskis, 2013). They must possess information related to various components such as walls need to be water resistance, durable and more.

  • Concrete: It refers to main component part which help in constructing the walls as per requirement of hotel complex. Concrete helps in developing fire and water resistant walls which increase durability of hotel for longer period. It also strengthen the structure of  building support.
  • Floor Sheets: This component of building includes capacity of floor which is to be sound, fire and water resistance. Thus, it helps in increasing overall strength of structure and load bearing capacity as well.
  • Drywall: It can be defined as panel which includes a solution of Calcium Sulphate and related hydrates like Plaster of Paris. This would help in making water resistant walls in present hotel.

Different types of structural frame used to carry primary and secondary elements of superstructure

For building the superstructure, civil engineers can use different types of structural frames like rigid and braced (Ghoddousi and Hosseini, 2012). Concept of these superstructures can be described in comparison manner as shown below:-

Basis of comparison

Rigid Structural Frame

Braced Structural Frames


This structure includes both fix-ended and pin-ended system which have the abilities to resist from deformation. Thus, it can be constructed monolithically by using columns and beams. It helps in resisting loads and moments which are generated due to applied load on structure. Henceforth, rigid structural frames gives more stability in building.

It refers to a structural system that is designed to enhance resistance against earthquake and wind forces. It includes column and beam of building frame which aid building to manage vertical load of structure.



In this structure, beam and column joints are made rigid which allows moment to transfer joints. Therefore, due to rigid joint, lateral load from each storey of building is transferred with some moment.

Under this case, when lateral load is applied towards a braced frame then it is resisted by bracing.


Techniques used for re-mediating site prior to construction commencing.

There are numerous ways in which engineers can achieve re-mediation:

Biological treatment: Biodegradation helps in breaking down organic compounds (Sargent, Hyland and Sawang, 2012). This process is used by civil engineers in bio-remedication techniques which help in hydrocarbon contaminants.

Chemical treatment: There are various techniques that can  be used for chemical treatment such as:

  • Chemical Immobilization:It is a complex process and executed by various treatment chemicals that are present in soil. Saturation of chemical solution with soil is very important and uses soluble chemicals.
  • Oxidation:It is an effective chemical treatment that allows elimination or removal of both toxicity as well as value of contaminants.

Types of substructures works required for the infrastructures

There are a variety of substructures available that help in effective conduction of construction.

  • Propping: It is a method which deals with providing primary support to structure and its adjacent properties as well during construction.
  • Groundwork: It is an overall process related to substructures which involves bulk and sequence excavations, probing , trimming and so on (Guo, Yu and Skitmore, 2017). It generally focusses on construction of sub structures or sub surfaces which leads to beginning of construction process.

Superstructure, Substructure and Civil Engineering Structures necessary for Hotel Complex

For maintaining effectiveness in construction process of a Hotel Complex, it is very essential that engineer is well versed with superstructure, substructure and other civil engineering structures. All these structures are defined below:

  • Superstructure: It is a name given to an extension of structure that is present above base. Superstructure of Hotel Complex will comprise of bricks, mortars, arches, slabs and so on.
  • Substructure: This part is below baseline and would possibly be mat foundation as a basement needs to be constructed for parking facility.
  • Civil Engineering Structure: These structures stay for long term and serve a unique purpose. In present context, a bridge has to be constructed over the river defines this structure. This can be constructed using a deep foundation as well as a combination of concrete and steel.


Supply arrangements for primary services

In construction, primary services includes energy distribution, escalators and lifts etc. For constructing the Hotel Complex and bridge, it is necessary for civil engineers to arrange primary services that helps in execution of entire construction project. It includes following services:

  • Energy Supply: It includes supply of energy like solar geothermal, solar, biomass and wind energy (Cheng, Wu and Lou, 2012). For construction, it is crucial for arranging these resources in systematic manner for effectively construct the hotel in required manner.
  • Alarm Systems: It is most essential service in construction which would ensures effective alert of contingency as well as safety of workers and associated people on construction sites.
  • Lifts: This primary service involves lifts and escalators for transferring the heavy equipments from ground floors to different floors during constructions. It also lifts people which reduces time and effort to reach on floors in secure and safety manner.

Distribution arrangement for primary services

There are various distribution arrangement that is required for construction workers as well as engineers to carry out their construction tasks (Marks and Teizer, 2013). These distribution arrangements are described below:

  • The most effective arrangement would be transportation of raw materials to the construction site. This must be timely in order to avoid any kind of delay that could add to the cost of the project.
  • Supply of 3-phase electricity which enhances the functions of the electrical equipments and machineries.
  • The most important aspect however, is the construction of bridge to facilitate and speed up the distribution of these primary services.
  • Effective duct-work must also be completed to enhance the working of the overall construction project.

Elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services

There are many elements of superstructure include in construction which facilitates the primary services (Moteki, Fujino and Nishiyama, 2013). It includes energy supply, escalators, building control systems and more. These can be effectively used because of presence of superstructure components like floors, walls, roofs, doors and windows. Furthermore, for ensuring facilitation of primary services, it is also necessary to install fire safety equipments within building premises. In this regard, emergency doors and windows will effectively used for preventing people from discrepancies and other situations. Moreover, civil engineers are also required to concern on size of windows and doors which fit as per internal theme of building.

Distribution of the primary services impact on the overall design of the building

It is essential that distribution of primary services would be facilitated in such a manner that reflects the outstanding design of hotel (Sih, Carpinteri and Surace, 2013). Architectures must concern on interior designing of Hotel Complex which provides good experience to both customers and employees. Along with this, escalators and lifts that are installed within building would make ease for customers and employees to carry their luggages easily on different floors. The staircases within building and outside the hotel would ensure safety measures also.


It has been concluded from this report that construction technology helps in constructing the building more effectively. It includes all concepts and components which are needed to be concerned while developing a plan for construction of different structures. By selecting the right design of both substructure and superstructure aid civil engineers to build a sustainable infrastructure. Along with this, it is also essential for possessing knowledge of different elements like floors, roofs, walls and more.


  • Sih, G. C., Carpinteri, A. and Surace, G. eds., 2013. Advanced Technology for Design and Fabrication of Composite Materials and Structures: Applications to the Automotive, Marine, Aerospace and Construction Industry (Vol. 14). Spr inger Science & Business Media.
  • Moteki, M., Fujino, K. and Nishiyama, A., 2013. Research on operator's mastery of unmanned construction. In ISARC. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (Vol. 30, p. 1).
  • Marks, E. D. and Teizer, J., 2013. Method for testing proximity detection and alert technology for safe construction equipment operation. Construction Management and Economics. 31(6). pp.636-646.
  • Cheng, S. T., Wu, C. M. and Lou, H. R., 2012. A self-evolutionary model for automated innovation of construction technologies. Automation in Construction. 27. pp.78-88.
  • Guo, H., Yu, Y. and Skitmore, M., 2017. Visualization technology-based construction safety management: A review. Automation in Construction. 73. pp.135-144.
  • Sargent, K., Hyland, P. and Sawang, S., 2012. Factors influencing the adoption of information technology in a construction business. Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, The. 12(2). p.72.
  • Ghoddousi, P. and Hosseini, M. R., 2012. A survey of the factors affecting the productivity of construction projects in Iran. Technological and economic development of economy. 18(1). pp.99-116.
  • TamošaitienÄ—, J., Zavadskas, E. K. and Turskis, Z., 2013. Multi-criteria risk assessment of a construction project. Procedia Computer Science. 17. pp.129-133.
  • Skibniewski, M. J., 2014. Information technology applications in construction safety assurance. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management. 20(6). pp.778-794.
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