Q. 1 Definition
Unitarism is a set of theory and values which hold conflicts at workplace that is not expected feature of relations between employers and employees. Pluralism on the other hand is such belief that maintains industrial relationship among employees and conflict in this is inevitable.
Unitarism introduces loyalty among employees towards their managers and higher authority (Kitada and Ölçer, 2015). Conflicts are very usual in every firm but unitarism reduces inconsistency within the premises and workplace. It does not create such situation within a company. The negative point in this aspect is that it has a narrow perception and does not recognize sources of dispute. On the other side, in pluralism theory unions are the better representatives for workers of entity. Union at organization has right to challenge management and employers. It ensures that conflicts are settled and create a good working relationship. It is a complicated form of managing dispute within enterprise.
- Scientific management theory: Management practices this theory that holds employment relations. Under this theory, workers are to be treated collectively and impersonally while the occurrence of any issue by managers (Hellman, 2012). It will create a good employee-employer relationship.
- Human relations theory: This theory helps in reducing conflicts within workplace. Function of management under this is to influence the workplace in such way which helps employees to feel personal satisfaction. The aim of this approach is to reduce internal disputes by developing job satisfaction among employees.
- System theory: It is the most popular theory of pluralism which describe that employee relations are best for sub system to widen social system. It includes various rules and regulations related to employment such as recruitment, selection, wages and bonus, working hours and many details of individuals.
This part concluded that employment relationship plays an essential role in managing people at workplace. This study focuses on two perspectives unitarist and pluralist. It described strengths and weaknesses of these two perspectives.
Q. 2 Human resource management
Human resource management (HRM) is such process which manages people within the organization to maximize productivity and profitability of entity.
HRM plays an essential role in staffing, training and development, employee compensation and designing work (Goffee and Jones, 2013). It is the responsibility of HR department to hire sufficient number of people for right job. Recruitment and selection can be done through two methods internal and external. Both of them have some negative and positive aspects. Under external method it facilitates new talent to company where as by internal method it restrict new comer to enter in the premise. HRM plays a vital role in building employment relationship. Department needs to take care about various activities of people that may boost their skills and knowledge. For this, HR managers held training and development session for unskilled or less skilled persons. This will help individuals to increase their working efficiency.
- Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory: This theory facilitates a complete view of human needs. Managers motivate employees towards their work by fulfilling their desires (Peterson, 2011). According to this model, lower need must be met first before fulfilling higher one.
- Herzberg’s two factor theory: It is an extension of the above model. It includes two factors such as hygiene and motivation. In this, managers identify various problems arises within the workplaces and then solve those by implementing such methods through which people are motivated towards their job and perform well as required.
This study described that HRM is very much effective in managing people within a corporation. It performs various functions like facilitating staffing, training and development, compensation, wages, etc.
Q. 3 Leadership
Leadership is an ability of an individual that influences, directs, guide and controls others.
In every enterprise leadership plays a vital role to enhance employee commitment. Therefore, it can enhance employee commitment in the following ways:
- Motivate and inspire others: An effective leader has an ability to inspire and motivate others and has a high level of energy and passion (Bush and Middlewood, 2013). Effective leaders encourage their team members to accomplish difficult targets and objectives of the firm. Without inspiration and motivation, morale and job satisfaction level of workforce decreases.
- Develop skills and knowledge among others: It is the responsibility of leaders to push employees to boost their knowledge, skills and abilities. This builds higher level of employee commitment and satisfaction.
- Building relations: Leaders create a strong and positive relationship with their team members. They stay in touch with all issues related to people in the group and solve them effectively. This will create a high level of employee commitment.
- Great man theory: It assumes that leadership traits are intrinsic that means leaders are born not made. According to this, characteristics such as intelligence, confidence, skills and knowledge, etc, are naturally presented in a great leader.
- Trait theory: It is a modern theory which proposes that people appear as leaders across various situations. It includes traits like self confidence, intelligence, adjustment, openness, etc.
- Behavioral theory: As per this, a leader should have a strong personality with a positive thinking and self confidence to perform his/her job effectively.
- Contingency theory: According to this theory, a leader has to come out with different characteristics at different situations. Here, single characteristic is not enough to perform job.
This study concluded that leadership is an ability of individual that enhance employee commitment. An effective leadership is essential for motivating, inspiring, directing, controlling and building relations among employees of a corporation.
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- Books and Journals
- Bush, T. and Middlewood, D., 2013. Leading and managing people in education. Sage.
- Goffee, R. and Jones, G., 2013. Clever: Leading your smartest, most creative people. Harvard Business Press.
- Hellman, S., 2012. Leading and managing change. The School Leader's Toolkit: Practical Strategies for Leading and Managing. 31(7) pp.126-137.
- Kitada, M. and Ölçer, A., 2015. Managing people and technology: The challenges in CSR and energy-efficient shipping. Research in Transportation Business & Management, 17, pp.36-40.
- Peterson, B., 2011. Cultural intelligence: A guide to working with people from other cultures. Nicholas Brealey Publishing.