Introduction to Public health
Public health is meant by the science and art of preventing disease, extended life with good health through organized efforts and informed choices of public, private, communities and individuals. The role of public health is concerned with threats to health supported on population health analysis (Role of Public in Health Care, 2015). This report is based on a case scenario. This report will showcase the different approaches and strategies that are used to measure, monitor and control the incidence of disease in communities and to investigate the implications of illness and disease in communities for the provision of health and social care services along with the understanding of factors that are influencing the health and well being of individuals in health and so
1.1 Roles of different agencies in identifying the levels of health and disease
The roles of different agencies in identifying levels of health and disease in communities are as follows:
Public health England: Public health England plays a crucial role in identifying the level of disease and health in communities in UK. This organization protects and improves the country’s health and well being and decreases the health inequalities. Thereby, it is responsible for making public healthier by encouraging discussions, advising and supporting government for protecting and improving the health of people. Public health England plays a significant role in doing research into epidemiology/ incidence. The organization is responsible for helping local authorities and NHS to develop the public health systems with supporting its specialist workforce (Johnson, Beckenbach and Kilbourne, 2013).
European Union: The national government of UK organizes health care programs for public in UK and ensures that everyone is getting those benefits. European Union supports these national policies by promoting healthy lifestyle between people and providing them equal facilities (Szreter and Woolcock, 2004). Thereby, European Union implemented the laws and standards for health services, products and patients such as medicines, safety and health services, etc. The role of EU is to prevent disease in the communities. However, it is responsible for food labeling and action against breast, cervical and colorectal cancer.
World health organization: World health organization is leading and supporting authority for health within United Nation’s systems. WHO provides leadership on matters that are critical to health and engages in partnerships where joint decisions and actions are required (Wild and et. al., 2012). Moreover, the firm monitors the health situation and assesses health trends. The role of WHO is to develop vaccines and treatments to prevent the disease in communities.
1.2 Explaining the epidemiology of one infectious and one non infectious disease
The epidemiology of HIV/Aids is described below, which is infectious disease and spread over globally. The idea of HIV epidemic ratio differentiates in quality but provide some ideas of trends in various countries and regions. However, UK has a relatively small HIV epidemic with an idea of 103700 people that are suffering from this disease till 2014. In 2014 only, 6151 people were diagnosed with this disease and 613 people died because of HIV related sickness (Boorman, 2010). The infection is still frequently spreading and extended silently during the period which is often seems as diagnosed. Thereby, due to antiviral treatment in UK, this infectious disease has been controlled significantly over the past decade. People diagnosed promptly with HIV and started Anti-retro viral therapy that can expect the normal life expectancy very soon. However, there are many challenges with regards to this with high rates of late HIV diagnosis and ageing population.
Further, the epidemiology of Diabetes (non-infectious) disease is the fastest growing health threat in recent times and an imperative public health issue. Since 1996, the number of people who are suffering from diabetes in UK has increased from 1.4 million to 3.2 million. Currently, around estimation of 3.2 million people are diagnosed with diabetes in UK and increasing day by day. This disease is caused by the food habits of people. This indicates that 1 person in every 17 people is suffering from diabetes. Thereby, the government and health authorities in UK are implementing the epidemiology of diabetes to control the prevalence (Hudson, 2011).
1.3 Evaluating the effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control the disease
Different type of approaches and strategies has been identified in order to control the incidence of disease in communities. The infectious and non infectious disease can be controlled by applying population screening strategy. The concept of screening is spreading around these days which are particularly associated with genetics and ordering profiling for both infectious and non-infectious diseases. In the critical assessment of potential of personal genetics to control the incidence of diseases in community and population. Population screening involves medical screening of individuals which consists of testing health of people (Kereiakes and Willerson, 2004). Similar to other clinical tests, screening tests of population put people into higher and lower risk category rather than offering just a diagnostic. It implies tremendous logistical planning and health care organization to ensure that health care services are required to prevent the disease and these services are available for those who are in need of that. However, population screening cannot be driven by the political process. It will be driven by the individual decisions.
2.1 The current priorities and approaches to the provision of services
Being a member of a group of public health professional the current priorities and approaches to the provision of services for people with disease and illness are as follows,
Prevention: Prevention is the activities designed for the people to protect them from some infectious and non infectious disease. Moreover, it is designed for preventing from potential health threats and their harmful effects. The oncoming disease of illness can be prevent early care (Johnson, Beckenbach and Kilbourne, 2013). For instance, smoking cessation will prevent from cancer. Further, to stop progress of disease and reaction on its detection can be prevented by changing food habits, and by taking medicines. Thus, Prevention from the disease and illness is most effective approach for public.
Treatment: Treatment is a method of dealing with disease or illness. Treatment of disease can improve the health. Thus, with the effective treatment of any infectious or non infectious disease can improve the individual's health from any sickness. After detecting the disease and illness the priority should be providing effective treatment to the patient and improving their health.
Palliative care: This is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical care for people who are suffering from serious disease or illness. This approach focuses on providing the relief from symptoms of disease such as, pain, physical stress, mental stress and other symptoms of the disease.
2.2 Relationship between the prevalence of disease and requirement of services for individuals
Prevalence of disease is statistical concept mentioning the number of cases of a disease or illness that are existing in specific population at a particular time. The relationship between prevalence of disease and requirements of services to support individual within health and social care can be understood by facilities, expertise and training established for individual for creating awareness for their health (Bennett, 2010). The prevalence of disease provides the statics for the disease in population which enables the health and social care organisation to provide the enough facilities to people such as medicines and treatment for illness. Further these statics and number of cases for same disease also help in assessing the requirement of training for the population. In order to increase the awareness in people for about the disease health and social care organisation provide training to the public. Moreover, these health care organisations also facilitates the preventive vaccinations and treatments for the disease. The relationship between prevalence of disease and requirement of support services to individuals highly depends on the natural history of disease. For instance, in the case of some infectious disease number of cases in prevalence can be high. Thus, the requirement of services to support the individual will be also high for health and social care services.
2.3 The impact of current lifestyle choices on future needs of health and social care services
Lifestyle of individual includes the behaviour and activities that build up the daily life. This includes diet, exercise and leisure activities. In current lifestyle people are opting for trendy diets and fast foods which is not good for health. The diet of the individual make impact on the health. Unhealthy food create several diseases and illness in people Thereby, it is essential for people to include healthy food in their diet to prevent the disease and illness (Jones, Hillier and Comfort, 2009). A healthy diet provides nutritions to body which is required for maintaining wellness and to fight with diseases. The current lifestyle of people affects the health of the individuals. However, the decisions which is based on beliefs, attitudes and values highly influences the lifestyle of people. People's interaction with each other shapes the thought and activities of their life. These lifestyle changes in people causes various type of sickness such as, physically weaknesses, over weight, weak eyesights, and other serious illnesses. However, this can be prevented by applying healthy lifestyle. Apart from unhealthy diet people are also including alcohol, smoking, recreational drugs in their lifestyle which causes serious impact on health. For instance, if a person is continuously prefers smoking than it will affect their lungs and it may cause them asthma or cancer disease (Cutler and Miller, 2005). Similarly, long time consumption of alcohol can make impact on lever and weaken the human body. Currently almost half of the people with mental illness are smokers. However, to over come from all these lifestyle effects on health of individuals future need of health and social care organisation is to aware people about the impact of unhealthy lifestyle. Health and social care organizations can influence people to adopt healthy lifestyle with healthy diet, meditation and relaxation. Research shows that healthy fats and acids increase the immunity system of people and provides the strength to fight with disease and illness. Thereby, it is essential for health and social care organisations to increase the awareness about healthy lifestyle.
3.1 Assessing the health and well-being priorities for individuals
The extent of personal, social, economic and environmental factors which influences the health status are known as determinant of health. This determinant of health includes the social and economic environment, characteristics and behaviours of individual. In this context people is his own determinant of health. However, for well-being priorities for individuals should be safety and security, mobility, healthy diet, hygiene, dignity and socialization. With regards to this, higher income and social status is linked with better health and well being of individual.
The large gap between the rich and poor people make the huge difference on health. Thereby, the well-being priority of individual should be the social support networks. Support form families, friends and communities is also linked with better health of individual. The cultural systems and traditions changes the lifestyle of person and affects the health of people (Beresford, 2006). Furthermore, the physical environment such as, safety and security, healthy workplaces, communities and good environment are efficient contribution for good health and well being of individuals. If people feel safe and secure in their lifestyle than they may prefer for healthy lifestyle and give priorities to the well-being of lifestyle trends. Furthermore, communication with people increase the well-being of individual socially. For instance, if person is including healthy and hygienic diet, it will provide them good health. However, it is very important for individuals to adopt these well-being priorities in their lifestyle.
3.2 Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in health care setting
The effectiveness of systematic training to the health care service provider is essential in order to improve the quality of health care services and to prevent the infectious and non infectious disease in the people. The effectiveness of the training strategy can be evaluated by observing the prevalence of disease. The training strategies will ensure that health care service provider is aware of all the policies and laws implemented by the government in order to prevent the disease from the nation. The government of UK has implemented the policy of health and social care act 2015. This legislation is made for the provision about safety of health and social care services in UK (Seddon and et. al., 2013). As per this policy the health and social care organizations in UK will provide the information about health ans social care service in UK and make people aware of infectious and non infectious disease. The combinations of training strategy and health and safety policy will support in lower down the prevalence of disease. However, the only disadvantage of this strategy is that it will consume lot of time and money of health care service providers. Thus, the policy of health and social care will enable the people to understand the impact of disease and illness in the nation and ensure that they are applying healthy lifestyle. The strategy of training and quality of health care and provision is very effective in a health and social care setting.
3.3 The changes made to improve the health and well-being of individuals
The changes that can be made for improving the health and well-being of individual in health and social care setting is by providing people health education. Health education is related concept of health promotion. It is a complex term to define the scope of results of health education and communication activities. Health education to people can increase the awareness about various diseases and illness (Johnson, Beckenbach and Kilbourne, 2013). With this perspective, health education is must among the people which is directed for the health literacy. In current scenario, health education and health promotion is essential in order to prevent the diseases and illness from the country. With regards to this, health and social care organisations can organize various campaigns to promote the child and maternal health, to prevent the communicable illness and to promote well-being and immunity in health care system of the country.
In developed country like UK health education and health campaigns was directed for the prevention of non communicable disease by promoting health and healthy lifestyles. Furthermore, the another change can be made for improving health and well-being of the individual in health and social care setting is consultation. Health care service providers can consult with individuals people about the disease and reasons and root of the disease (Baggott, 2004). Accordingly, they can also provide them consultation for prevent those diseases. The individual consultation about health and well-being will improve their lifestyle and lower down the prevalence of disease from the country. However, it is very essential for health and social care organisations to adopt these changes like health education, health promotion and consultation effectively.
3.4 Evaluating the activity implemented to encourage behaviour change
There are various strategies evaluated for encourage the behaviour change in individuals for diseases. For instance, to change the behaviour of people about infectious disease. Such as, HIV/Aids, the health care service providers can organize various campaigns. In these campaigns they can educate the people about this disease and how they can prevent themselves from this disease (Cutler and Miller, 2005). The information about the disease will change the behaviour of individuals and it will be easy to prevent this disease from the country. However, the health and social service providers can encourage health education in people. For this they can take help of various campaigns and health promotion activities.
Furthermore, health and social service providers can also encourage the healthy lifestyle in people to prevent non infectious disease like diabetes. The healthy lifestyle, good food habits can prevent people from these non infectious diseases (Szreter and Woolcock, 2004). However, it is very important to encourage the healthy lifestyle in people to encourage the behaviour change. These behavioural changes in people will help them to support other people for helping them in their disease. Moreover, the health and social care service providers can motivate them to control their disease by healthy lifestyle.
It has been concluded in this report that public plays significant role in preventing diseases and illness in the country. There are various diseases which can be controlled by applying healthy lifestyle. Moreover, the health and social care service providers and government plays crucial role in encouraging people for behaviour change and for providing them health education. With effective knowledge of causes of disease people can prevent them this can be beneficial for both individual and country growth. Hence, it has been concluded in this report that there are several factors influences the health and well-being of individuals in health and social care setting.
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