P1 What is involved in being a successful leader?
The term leadership can bring to mind a variety of images, i.e. an explorer, an executive and a manager as well. A leader is the person who is able to deliver results without giving importance to their jobs. Sometimes they need someone who can reporting them. There are numerous misconception about leadership as it is overviewed that all leaders are managers but all managers are not leaders. Along with this, successful leaders have the power and intellect behind their associations. They are visionaries and steer their brand while pitfalls. Successful leaders are focused to know when to seize market opportunities and how influence subordinates to do any task or activity towards attaining firm's goals and objectives (Gayle, Tewarie and White Jr, 2011). Apart from this, leadership is a procedure of social influence which increases efforts of other towards accomplishing business goals and objectives. It can be also defined with nothing to do with superiority or anyone's position in organisational hierarchy. It supports to convert vision into reality. At the time of crisis, a leader steps up, think and act to face off and c
In this competitive, many large business associations wants to expand their business and for the same they tend towards developing leadership within their working environment so as to manage entire workforce in the best possible manner. In this regard, companies are emphasised on hiring experienced leaders with a right combination of charisma, self assurance and enthusiasm; all these supports a corporate association to gain high competitive edge. Although, leaders are blessed with these skills, but certain leadership traits are learned and sharpened with the time and practice.
The best leaders have a combination of three aspects, such are stated as under: -
Traits – In order to understand an individual's traits or characteristic it is essential for corporate associations to implement Trait theory of leadership; the theory is emphasised on determining several personality traits which are associated with successful and strong leadership in variety of situations. Trait theory of leadership is based upon “Great man theory” which signifies that ability to do something generate at the time when people born (Hendriks and Scheerens, 2013). Some of the main implications of leadership are stated as under: -
- Certain traits produce certain patterns of behaviour
- These patterns are consistent across different situations
- People are born with these leadership traits
Apart from this, there are certain traits which are linked with great leadership as great leaders are intelligence they have ability to make choices to move the team ahead. They are eager to accept various responsibilities and do not blame other for mistakes.
Leaders are able to accomplish specific tasks and activities on their given time frame due to their efficient skills and capabilities. For this purpose, they pay attention to employees needs and support them to achieve career growth.
Strong leaders are focused on improving skills and knowledge level of subordinates by providing them training and development assistance. As another role of leaders is to motivate and inspire people.
Skills – Where the trait approach taken into consideration the personality thus behaviour of a leader can be understood by Style Approach. In this manner, Katz’s Three Skills Model can be adopted by business associations thus to improve their skills and competencies. The skill approach of leadership states that different leaders have different behaviour which allows them to act in several situations. The three skill model entails that leaders must have these three skills, such as – human skills, technical skills and conceptual skills (Antonakis and House, 2013). For example – supervisors will need human and technical skills whereas middle level management requires all mentioned three skills. Importance of all these skills is based upon the structure if management.
- In which technical skills comprises with knowledge level and proficiency of an individual in a specific criteria. If leaders have strong technical skills, it will support them to do a task in innovative manner.
- Human skills is an ability to work with and relate to people.
- At last, conceptual skills consists with capability to work with various ideas and concepts thus to implement something new within working environment.
Styles – There is not a specific leadership styles suits for all situations but it aids to understand which a common approach of leadership thus to develop or boost up individuals skills. In this manner, Blake Mouton Managerial Grid, a popular framework for thinking about a leader's "task versus person" orientation. The model relies upon two dimensions, such as -
- Concern of people - It is the level on which a leader concern about needs and wants of its team members. Here, the person is willing to know their area of interest for personal development in order to accomplish any task or activity.
- Concern for results – It is a degree where leaders are focused on concrete goals and objectives. For this purpose, they starts to improve organisational efficiency and gaining high productivity by deciding how to accomplish any task or activity in the best possible manner (Griffin, 2013).
Contextual – This aspect of leadership involves three approaches, such as -
Situational approach - The basic premises of this leadership application is there are several situations occur within working environment which can affect individuals efforts or action. As above mentioned that, there is no specific leadership style for leaders to deal with all problems and issues; in this manner Situational approach suggested that leaders are required to implement theory as per the nature of situation. Here, situation consists with set of values or behaviour of people with which a leader deals; in this regard all activities must be planned and results should be appreciated. While applying the theory, various principles must be followed: -
- Language learning is habit-formation
- Mistakes affect negatively, hence they should be ignored cause it arises bad habits.
- Different languages have to be learned properly so as to deal with people of diverse nature.
- Analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis
- Meanings of words should be learned in a linguistic and cultural context only.
Contingency model – The model is based upon contingency theory of Fred Fiedler it is associated with effectiveness of leadership within business organisations. As the theory is based upon relation between performance of a company and leadership. It is one of the oldest situation-contingent leadership theories which signifies that if a corporate association wants to attain group efficiency then there is needed to evaluate a leader on premises of underlying traits or characteristics. In addition to this, contingency theory states that effective leaders should be able to deal with all problems and hindrances in several situations.
Path goal theory – The theory was formulated in order to define the way through which leaders inspire and support their subordinates for accomplishing specific goals and objectives. Specifically, leaders have to clarify the path thus followers get to know which way to go (Doh and Quigley, 2014). Path goal theory describes to arise the rewards along with ways and eradicates roadblocks which stops them to attain team goals and objectives. Path goal theory comprises four styles of leadership, such as -
- Directive – Here leaders render guidelines lets followers get know what expected from them. In this leaders set performance standards, controlling behaviour of people while not accomplishing these standards.
- Supportive – It is essential for leaders to be friendly and helpful for its subordinates. It displays to meet personal needs of followers in well being manner.
- Participative – In this leadership style, leader wants that employees take participate in decision making process of team, exchange information with them. Leaders is concern for tasks goals, issues and provide right path to attain these goals (Best theories of team formulation, 2017).
- Achievement oriented – In this context, leaders regulate certain challenges and inspire workers to achieve peak performance. The people believe that workers have capability to complete challenging roles.
Servant leadership – This leadership style signifies that servant-leader is servant first. Servant leadership style is a balance and blend of servant and a leader; thus servant leader is the person who have values contribution of every individual and seeks out their viewpoints. These people cultivate a cultural of faith or trust with others because won't follow others without having trust upon them.
Transformational leadership – Its a style of leadership in which leaders work with other teams in order to determine required changes and implement a vision thus to implement changes through inspiration and innovation. In addition to this, transformational leadership increase motivation, job performance and morale of followers by considering variety of mechanisms (Kim, Kumar and Kumar, 2012). The main objective of this theory dictates that to being a role model it is essential for leaders to develop interest of followers thus to attain a strong leadership at workplace.
Leader Member Exchange Theory – Its a relation based approach of leadership which tend upon the dyadic interaction between leaders and their followers. The LMX model describes that there is an exchange relationship between leaders and subordinates which puts a vast impact on behaviour of other subordinates, i.e. their roles, decisions and so on. It also promotes positive experience of employment which raise organisational effectiveness; LMX approach is acquired by managers as well thus to manage a positive working environment.
P2 Can good leadership be developed, and if so, how?
Every small or large business organisation is tend towards gaining high market growth and share; for this purpose they tend towards improvising qualities and abilities of workforce so as to gain high competitive edge. By considering leadership, it also can be developed or improved in order to deliver more effective and efficient guidance to employees as they put more efforts in accomplishing business goals and objectives.
Individuals' perspective – By taken into consideration of an individual, it is fundamental for management to recognise personal traits, skills, behaviour, attitude and working style of an individual so as to develop or improve them accordingly. But it is assumed that traits are quite difficult to develop because they are in-built in a personality so that leaders should focus on developing skills and styles of people; it enables to make them more productive and efficient (Lloyd-Walker and Walker, 2011).
Contextual perspective – In order develop their skills or ability, leaders can adapt a specific leadership approach thus better meet the needs of the situation and the subordinates. In this manner, Lewin's model of leadership can be acquired by leaders; its a foundation of many approaches and leadership styles. It involves three major styles of leadership, like -
- Autocratic style – Here, leaders make decisions without involving their employees. This leadership style can be beneficial while making instant decisions and team agreement is not compulsory.
- Democratic style – In this leadership style, leaders make final decision, i.e. what to do or what not do. Democratic leadership styles is based to involve all team members in decisional activities of the company. They encourages creativity within teams and members are getting involved in all decisions or projects.
- Laissez-Faire – It is based upon giving proper freedom to team members as they can freely take all decisions and do their work as per the deadlines. These kind of leaders gives support to its followers in respect of providing them essential resources and advises whenever it its required otherwise they don't get involved in any working procedure (Thiel, Connelly and Griffith, 2012).
Relational perspective – In this leadership styles, leaders are tend towards developing their relationships with their subordinates to improve the effectiveness of their leadership. For this purpose, they can use one among all these three approaches, such as - Leader Member Exchange Theory, Transformational leadership and servant leadership. Here the most effective leadership style is to transformational leadership style which is useful for all organisational levels, i.e. teams, divisions, departments as well as entire organisation. Although, transformational leaders are visionary, daring, thoughtful thinkers and risk takers who have charismatic appeal. One the other side, to bring major modifications For bringing major changes, transformational leaders should exhibit four aspects, such as – inspirational motivation, idealised influence, intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration.
P3 What distinguishes leadership from management?
Leadership – The word “leadership” has a vital role to manage growth and viability of a business organisation; with having strong leadership or direction companies' cannot survive for long run. Most of the business entities are created with an aim of obtaining pre-determine goals and objectives by putting efforts of human group. But for this, companies have to focus on managing and directing overall workforce in a systematic way (Currie and Lockett, 2011). Thus, leaders are the person who takes initiatives to starts and completing any tasks effectively through implementing certain specific policies or plans for subordinates as they can work systematically.
Management – Administration is an inevitable aspect which helps in directing as well as unifying employees efforts for accomplishment of specific goals and objectives. It is mandatory for management to recognise workers' aims and desires by taking necessary corrective actions. Management is required for all areas thus to cope a business or its activities. In other words, management functions have universal application.
Following is defined differentiation between management & leadership, such as -
Leadership is an ability to persuade people thus objectives can be attained willingly as well as enthusiastically. It is not same as management actually leadership is a part of management.
Management implies discipline of handling various things in a systematic manner. Its an art of getting work done by other. Management is founded in all fields, i.e. education., corporate, hospitality, sports etc.
Leadership is acquired for formal and informal group; it requires good foresightedness. A strong leadership based upon certain specific principles and guidelines.
Management is for formal groups; it has short range of perspectives. An effective management relies upon policies and procedures (Shahrill, 2014).
All leaders cannot be a managers cause there is a specific position has implemented for all em
A leader doesn't have an authority figure at workplace; the person can be anyone who has capability to direct or guide others.
Most of the managers can be a leader as if they adequately carry out all roles and responsibilities, such as – motivation, communication, guidance as well as encouraging staff members to arise maximum outputs.
Unlike managers, employees follow their leaders cause of their behaviour, personality and working styles. Leaders have a great role in success of their followers and provide them maximum job satisfaction.
Managerial duties are a formal part of job description, its a degree of a specific title or designation. The main focus of a manager is to meet desired goals of a company.
A leader tries to know where they stand and where they want to go. For accomplishing this, these are getting involved in team development and give then future path or direction (.Carmeli, Gelbard and Reiterâ€Palmon, 2013).
Managers builds a strategic vision and break it down through developing a gateway for entire organisation to follow it.
Leaders have certain people who believe on them and walk by their side on pre-set paths. These people are usually inspiration for others
Management is liable for its day to day efforts while allocating requires resources and anticipating desires of employees so as to make changes along the way. Beside this, management also have responsibility to implement work rules, standards and operating processes.
For example – Leaders like – Tim Cook who is the CEO of Apple and took over the company after Steve Jobs. The person is always enable to implement new and innovative leadership theories within organisation thus to provide proper guidance and direction to subordinates thus to obtain high competitive edge. On the other side, Bob Iger (CEO of the Disney Corporation), Elon Musk (CEO of Tesla and Space X) and Mary Barra (CEO of General Motors Company); these are the famous leaders who have followed effective and imperative leadership approaches within their working styles so as to improve organisational effectiveness and credibility. The reason behind success of their companies is strong leadership skills of leaders.
P4 What have you learnt about leadership from your own experiences, on this course and elsewhere?
As per this above discussion, I realised that leadership is one of important task for every business association; it supports firm to attain its performance objectives in an effective manner. I analysed that without having proper leadership no one business association can acquire its goals. In addition to this, leaders are the people who challenges the status quo; these people their own style of doing things, i.e. problem solving skills, decision making skills and so on. Apart from this, I have participated in our college project which is based upon “Principles of marketing”. At this time, I had played a leader's role cause of having strong knowledge of marketing and liable to manage all project activities and tasks. We worked in a team of 8 to 10 people and all of them belongs from different cultural. At this this, numerous hurdles came up in communication due to cultural diversity. But my past experience helps to reduces all these issues and good command on marketing helps to identify areas which can be developed and highlighted. It improves attractiveness of our project. Another failure war lack of time and costs as we couldn't give more and more time to research activities. But due to team cooperation and coordination supports us to complete project before its given time period.
As a leader my role is to provide necessary direction and guidance which is required for completion of this project; all of the subordinates were cooperative in nature even they were also willing to know new things and concepts. This improver their knowledge and competency in specific area and helps to get good grades in assessments. Apart from this, I get realised that a leader should behave as per the situation so as to deal with all adverse situations in the best possible. Thus, I have applied contingency approach and Lewin's leadership styles so as to direct staff members an effective manner. I also get determine that formulation of an effective organisational structure management should implement to all business activity in the best possible manner. Due to misunderstandings and misconception, various conflicts and disputes occurs while competition of the project; but I easily got overcome with this issue. In future I will try that these issues would not occur; it helps us in effective completion of project reports.
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Books and Journals
- Gayle, D. J., Tewarie, B. and White Jr, A. Q., 2011. Governance in the twenty-first-century university: Approaches to effective leadership and strategic management: ASHE-ERIC higher education report (Vol. 14). John Wiley & Sons.
- MacBeath, J., 2011. No lack of principles: leadership development in England and Scotland. School Leadership and Management. 31(2). pp.105-121.
- Hendriks, M.A. and Scheerens, J., 2013. School leadership effects revisited: a review of empirical studies guided by indirect-effect models. School leadership & management. 33(4). pp.373-394.
- Antonakis, J. and House, R.J., 2013. The full-range leadership theory: The way forward. In Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead 10th Anniversary Edition (pp. 3-33). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- Griffin, R.W., 2013. Fundamentals of management. Cengage Learning.
- Doh, J. P. and Quigley, N. R., 2014. Responsible leadership and stakeholder management: Influence pathways and organizational outcomes. The Academy of Management Perspectives. 28(3). pp.255-274.
- Kim, D.Y., Kumar, V. and Kumar, U., 2012. Relationship between quality management practices and innovation. Journal of operations management. 30(4). pp.295-315.
- Lloyd-Walker, B. and Walker, D., 2011. Authentic leadership for 21st century project delivery. International Journal of Project Management. 29(4). pp.383-395.
- Thiel, C. E., Connelly, S. and Griffith, J. A., 2012. Leadership and emotion management for complex tasks: Different emotions, different strategies. The Leadership Quarterly. 23(3). pp.517-533.
- Currie, G. and Lockett, A., 2011. Distributing leadership in health and social care: concertive, conjoint or collective?. International Journal of Management Reviews. 13(3). pp.286-300.
- Shahrill, M., 2014. Exploring educational administration: The relationship between leadership and management. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 4(1). p.525.
- Carmeli, A., Gelbard, R. and Reiterâ€Palmon, R., 2013. Leadership, creative problemâ€solving capacity, and creative performance: The importance of knowledge sharing. Human Resource Management. 52(1). pp.95-121.
- Hall, D., 2013. Drawing a veil over managerialism: leadership and the discursive disguise of the New Public Management. Journal of Educational Administration and History. 45(3). pp.267-282.
- Avery, G. C. and Bergsteiner, H., 2011. Sustainable leadership practices for enhancing business resilience and performance. Strategy & Leadership. 39(3). pp.5-15.