Culture heritage is the heritage of physical artifacts of tangible things that are inherited in past generation are still maintain in the present and are also saved for the future generation benefits. Culture heritage includes both tangible and intangible things like building, monuments, landscapes, folklore, traditions, language and knowledge. Culture heritage also include natural heritage which includes landscapes and biodiversity. The intentional act of keeping the culture heritage from present to the future is known as conservation in British English and preservation in American English. The following report interprets about the various measures that UK government take into consideration for the growth and development of the cultural heritage in the UK. In this report role of culture management in travel and tourism sector is also discussed. The main purpose of this report is to create awareness in the mind of an individual related to the heritage, culture organization and different types of ownership (Page and Connell, 2006). In this report purpose of heritage and culture attraction will be going to be discussed in order to overcome the potential conflicts faced. In this report role, responsibilities and ownership of the organization is also discussed in lieu of heritage and culture industry. At last in this report role and methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry is also discussed.
1.1 Analyze the growth and development of the UK heritage and cultural industry.
UK heritages are dominated by London, with depository and museums, art gallery superimposing the list of UK heritage and ethnic attractive forces. UKŸs starring compensated for heritage attraction is the Structure and the tower of London which has millions of travellers every year. London has a national art gallery, Allen Tate Modern and British Museum with maximum of 3 million of travellers which is preceded by the South Kensington tierce of Earthy History, Discipline and Empress Victoria and Prince Albert. This in turn gives travellers a beautiful aura. London has beyond question the skyrocketed fame regarding global traveller. In UK the most dominated heritage that helps in the economy that is London. Analysis of UK museum’s exhibit that the major domestic museums in the UK are situated preponderantly in London that raises their tourism economy substantially. Moreover, in London, the ethnical and culture industry and tourism has an extended time of being in a clenched relationship. In the case of Lhasa, Tibet which have beautifully built and have an attraction points can help London in raising its economy.
Attractive forces in London are widening their offerings by bringing Lhasa, Tibet to merge into a hefty existence. For occurrence, InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) thought to open ‘Resort Lhasa Paradise’ that proposed theme building with 1,100 suites that promote children and adults to explore the history of Tibet. A further maker of involvement in mansion house and imposing locations has been their accelerating engagement in the summertime activity aspects, with galore now contributing for picnic in fully vaned festivals. Art galleries have also summed travellers’ numbers. Still, once again chiefly an outcome to raising the visitant happening with proponent presentation and betterment to their abiding show. Leading shows at the UKŸs 2 starring art galleries, Allen Tate Modern and the National art Gallery.
The Growth and Development of Culture Industry
On the international phase, the UK has extended and plays a governing place in global touristry and the ethnic cultural industry. Still, UK is sliding its market stock in the worldwide tourism class and coming up with increasing rivalry in the domain of taste and standard supplied and consumed. The UK holiday making places are powerfully connected to culture. For illustration, the inheritance sphere has been delineated as a primal strength of the British activity for abroad traveller. It has been estimated to render approximately 30% of all UK tourism outlay every year. The heritage area has also been boasting as a leading possible development region for tourism in the UK.
The most advantageous parts of development in cultural industry are to be exploited as a conveyance for profitable growth and development. Cultural tourism is been set at the midway of a large urban revival schemes, cause is been render for the foundation to inspire town sub units. It also revitalizes present cultural installations, making brand-new cultural artefacts. Moreover, these developments make the towns looks different from various spheres, and this in turn alters the town images. Cultural tourism has also interpreted as a leading role in the attractive force of indwelling investment as in the town so much as in case of Glasgow situated in UK. The progressively blurred edges between cultural and economical activities defines that cultural industry is more and more about occupation and income, and less about publicity of culture.
The cultural industry has advantages they are as follows:
The culture and tourism are in the relationship which is largely known for their reciprocally benefits. It is said that the growth and development in culture make extra income line for both and outcomes, keep up and heighten up cultural rootage.
Likewise, cultural tourists get to know about the heritage and the culture of UK. well enlightened, loaded and generally heavily travelled, and they mostly symbolize a extremely desired type of upmarket traveller also reasoned that cultural industry is seen by many plan of action makers as a means of developing quality tourism and draw in high disbursement passengers.
Nevertheless, cultural industry can be a dual bordered blade, that means it can surely excite a growth in tourism to peculiar areas, but the flourishing number of goals difficult to evolve cultural tourism means that rivalry for the cultural tourists will get even hefty. It also inevitably to be acknowledged that the cultural industry is becoming exploding combative and cultural attractive forces must combat for a stock of the tourism market. Not only with other cultural attractions, but with other holidaymaker attractions as well (Page and Connell, 2006).
1.2 Discuss potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
Cultural tourism can be utilized as a merchandising and improvement instrument in a broad scope of situations to boost a huge assortment of tourism argumentation goals. This shows the potential conflicts that aim to identify and then work on it in the successful development of it. In the case given it has also presented as a proceeding line for further comparative analysis. InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) thinks to commence a Resort known as the largest lavishing hotel in Lhasa. These projects are a capable of different conflicts. London supported Free Tibet has a political agenda to start a campaign to protest these improvement arguing that they marginalize the value of heritage situated in Tibet.
Whilst there are many recognizable elements of cultural industry which hinder conservation in the UK, it is difficult to know particular policy or opening aimed at these conflicts. In part this is due to the disintegration of public policy making, marketing and delivery systems in both the tourism industry and in cultural services at national and local government levels are suffering.
2.1 Assess the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers.
The case after observing and experiencing the trip to the British Museum and The Natural History Museum. Knowing culture is crucial in the 19th century as compared to in the 20th century. Economic realities in development of culture attraction and heritage had caused a shift from diversion to improvement. This is mirrored in data viewing the dramatically enhanced purpose of culture as a travel incentive. The chief verifiable of the task is the classification of the purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the needs of different customers based on the example of British Museum and The Natural History Museum. They are:
- Higher steady of education, in the study it has been shown that the individual with enlighten education categories are more likely to be culturally oriented.
- The more numbers of females in the social groups in positions of power and authority, because women are actually more culturally-familiarized than men.
- Less leisure time but a greater emphasis on quality time experiences which cultural facilities and events offer.
- Greater health and appearance state of mind, with concerns for the effects of ultraviolet rays efforts holidaymaker to seek out more indoor cultural chances.
The lowermost purpose says that any cultural artifacts and tourism sector understand just how important cultural tourism is, and what they have to offer as commendable partners with tourism operators in improvement and cultural tourism terminus. A further source of interest in castles and stately homes has been their increasing involvement in the summer music scene, with many now offering exhibitions styled events, or even fully fledged festivals have also added visitor numbers, yet again primarily a response to improving the visitor experience with populist exhibitions and improvements to their permanent displays. Major events at the UKŸs two leading museums, British Museum and The Natural History Museum featuring best-loved such as Gilbert, George and a Renoir Landscapes exhibition (Page and Connell, 2006).
3.1 Evaluate the impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites
There are two types of ownership:
Sole proprietorship: In sole proprietorship there is a single person doing the business and takes profits. For example, Corner Shop is a sole ownership that has been serving variety of products and services and thus, its mission is to be the master for shoppers by delivering brand value in terms of superior quality, better customer service etc. Its vision involves making an international presence in food, conventional store, sanitary etc. By keeping all these in mind, the organizational purpose is to make global interest by expanding dramatically and to earn more profit in the long run.
Partnership: the partnership is that type of ownership where there are more than two type of organization is to establish itself within domestic and international arena. Its business goal is to gain profitability and stability, thereby, accelerating the wealth of its share owner. Thus, its organizational purpose is to render more customers by supplying qualified services.
Impact of this ownership on management of heritage and cultural sites are:
Booming partnerships needs a repositioning of the kinship of culture to other tourism operators to relocate beyond the sponsorship, memberships and donations, to also include the given the profile and importance of the cultural tourist. To know what culture has to offer and communicating it effectively to potential partners in the tourism industry may therefore help to move their perception of donations and sponsorship away from philanthropy and toward investment (Heritage and the UK tourism economy, 2013). These are potentially even more successful if such methods also solve problems of tourism operators and meet wider community needs such as downtown revitalization. The impacts are:
Bank Borrowings – It can be explained like when banks find it low-budget for borrowing money from Bank of England, and then British Museum and The Natural History Museums can further borrow the same from banks on low-budget rate of interest. The cost of borrowing becomes costlier for these museums, when situation is vice versa.
Foreign Exchange rate – There is a chiselled relation between interest rates and value of pounds. When Banks of London makes cost of tourism cheaper, then economy starts to see more money flowing out there. In this case, services become cheaper and income for British Museum and The Natural History Museum rises (Evans and Graeme, 2003).
Traveller’s Demand – Fiscal policy is associated with the tax and it impacts on demand of passengers by affecting the disposable income they have to pay. Travellers’ become more alert for their budget plan when taxable services increase and this can affect the income generation of British Museum and The Natural History Museums as well.
Investment Decisions – Fiscal policy puts a major impact on risk to be taken by British Museum and The Natural History Museum. When there is an introduction of tax bonus for employee’s grooming, then these museum may feel assured in hiring more individuals.
Cost of Doing Business – Fiscal policy can also hike interest rates for which British Museum and The Natural History Museum may have to pay more for lines of credit. Higher rates in interest is known to raise the value of pounds which gives cultural heritages like British Museum and The Natural History Museum more purchasing power for holidaymaker in international market.
There are many reasons which affect the oownership on the management of heritage and cultural sites through working practices and culture in different nations. These things can also generate positive and negative impacts in the countries. British Museum and The Natural History Museum is concentrated towards multi-faith policies in nation. Government of United Kingdom renders good facilities for foreign citizens to live in this nation. So, organization makes its culture and working practices as per the current situation of the nation. In this way, British Museum and The Natural History Museum is getting positive feedback from its employees in UK. These things are enhancing the performance of organization in the cultural industry. On the other hand, British Museum and The Natural History Museum are achieving negative response with the utilization of Britain policies because Japanese people do not consider fully open culture and working practices in Japan. These people want to follow only their job style in this nation (Grimwade and Carter, 2000).
Thus, they do not work with this museum. Organization also considers for recruiting young people for better efficiency in the nation. Corporation is achieving higher profits due to increasing rate of youngsters in UK. On the contrary, frequency of young employees is decreasing in Japan in comparison to United Kingdom. So, these policies also affect the performance of British Museum and The Natural History Museum. Corporation is unable to earn high profit in this nation. Organization is running its operations successfully due to domestic rules and regulations in London. It helps to increase its speed and efficiency in UK. Corporation is facing many complexities regarding international policies, trades and tariffs. These things are reducing the profit of organization in London (Swarbrooke, 2002).
3.2 Analyze roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry.
Roles and responsibilities of organizations in the heritage and cultural industry. Operatives are at the ground level but their work is still very important. It needs to be carried out with care and precision in maintaining the heritage. In a cultural industry the operatives will works as the checkout operatives.The formal roles of members of an organisation will usually be set out in an organisational chart which sets out the span of control of the various levels of supervision. The informal roles that people play are less easy to map out but are also very important.
Role and responsibilities of National trust
Role- It is playing an important role in protecting heritage places which encompass historical monuments like buildings, gardens etc. it is one the largest land owner in the UK and due to its best efforts historical places are in good condition in UK.
Responsibility- Taking care of historical properties is the main responsibility of the national trust. In this regard it is performing several activities in past years. It is National trust active role due to which historical monuments of the UK are in well condition.
Role- Its main role is to distribute funds among the communities groups and charitable projects. It looks after distribution of funds among several groups and makes sure that funds will be allocated among several groups in proper manner.
Responsibility- Its main responsibility is to make sure that funds received by the Lottery fund will remain safe and utilized in proper manner. Lottery fund is taking care of both things and it is fulfilling its responsibility in proper manner.
From the following report it is emphasized that protection of Culture heritage is very important for the present and future generation both. Therefore, it is also concluded that growth and development of the heritage and culture within the travel and tourism sector is very important. In this report various purpose of heritage and culture attraction in meeting the needs of customers and organization are concluded. It is also concluded that how understanding the purpose of heritage and culture in the organization is beneficial for the company to resolve various potential conflicts. In this report role, responsibilities, ownership of the organization towards the growth and protection of the heritage and culture environment is discussed. In this report impact of different types of ownership on the management of heritage and culture sites are interpreted. In this project roles and responsibilities of the organization towards the heritage and culture industry is analyse in order to protect the culture. In this role of methods of interpretation within the heritage and culture industry is also discussed. At last various methods and media for interpretation within the heritage and culture industry for the tourists are evaluated.
- Beaver, A., 2005. A Dictionary of Travel and Tourism Terminology. CABI.
- Burns, M. P., 2010. Tourism and Visual Culture Methods and cases. CABI.
- Carman, J., 2003. Archaeology and Heritage: An Introduction. Continuum.
- Cheng, M. E., 2011. Service quality of Macao's world heritage site. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 5(1). pp.57 – 68.
- Duhme, L., 2012. Cultural Tourism: Case Study Portugal. Diplomica Verlag.
- Evans and Graeme., 2003. Hard-branding the cultural city – from Prado to Prada.International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. 27 (2). pp.417-440.
- Farmaki, A., 2013. Dark tourism revisited: a supply/demand conceptualization. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research. 7(3). pp.281 – 292.
- Goulding, C., 2001. Heritage, nostalgia, and the “grey” consumer. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science. 5(6/7/8). pp.177 – 199.
- Grimwade, G. and Carter, B., 2000. Managing small heritage sites with interpretation and Community involvement. International journal of heritage studies. 6. pp. 33-48.
- Leslie, D. and Sigala, M., 2006. International Cultural Tourism. Routledge.
- Page, S.J. and Connell, J., 2006. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. 2nd ed. Thomson Learning.