Tourism is considered to be as the fastest growing sector in United kingdom. It is an industry which has made significant contribution towards economic development of nation. Sustainable tourism has assisted Tourism sector in achieving success and fostering growth. As all the sustainable practices are carried out by Travel companies which has positive impact on the society as well as environment. Tour and travel organisation has created many job opportunities for domestic people. In addition to this tourism sector in United Kingdom has supported other big and small companies in fostering growth and increasing profitability. The purpose of sustainable tourism practices is to do something good for the welfare of society and to gain customer loyalty. Sustainable business practices by tour and travel organisation has assisted firms in improving business performance. Sustainable strategies has drives organisation towards achievement of desired objectives. Sustainable tourism principle and practices are relevant to all kinds of tourism, types of destination. An effective sustainable development practices ensure that development is a positive experience for local people. Sustainable Tourism practices includes the effective as well as efficient utilisation of natural resources. It is very important for management in an enterprise to involve all stakeholders in the process aas without them executing the suitable practices and achieving the desired objectives will not be possible.
The purpose of an assignment is to develop the understanding about the different aspects of tourism. It emphasizes on identifying the way different stakeholder would be benefit from tourism development planning. The objective of an assignment is to gain knowledge about the different approaches to tourism planning. Study also have focus on identifying the impact of tourism on society as well as on environment.
1.1. Discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism development.
Analysing the way different stakeholder can benefit from planning of tourism development with reference to case study
The tourism industry in Qatar get various business opportunities as well as other benefits, as there are number of sports events are organised annually at destination. Some mega sports events such as FIFA world cup and swimming championship assist travel companies in fostering growth. It also helps business entities in increasing sales as well as profitability. It is very important for legal authority in Qatar to involve local people as well as other stakeholders in tourism planning (Litvin, Goldsmith and Pan,2008). As involvement or local people as well as other stakeholder is necessary in order to avoid the barrier which might occur in development and implementation of tourism plan. For example, mega Events such FIFA world cup and swimming championship has assisted tourism companies in increasing the profitability. During the such mega sports events approx.1.235 million tourist has visited Qatar (Kazak, 2017). Stakeholders such as Hotel owners, transportation managers, community people , government, restaurant owners,Tour operators, charitable institutions plays important role in tourism planning. Such stakeholders are responsible for hosting tourist and providing guest with suitable services and facilities. By fulfilling roles as well as roles in effective manner, these stakeholders can avail various benefits and opportunities which will help them in growing their business.
Government in Qatar - The governing authority generates revenues in form of taxes on the profit earned by tourism.
Local tour operator and tourism organisation- Qatar is considered to be as most popular destination where large number of visitors visit every years. Still increase in number of tourist is expected to grow in future as well which will lead to the increase in demand of products as well as services.
Event manager- These people get employment in terms of hosting as well as managing events.
Sponsors- Such people get the high return on the investment made by them.
Audiences- These are recognised as visitors or tourist. Audiences are provided with a chance to visit particular destination (Dwyer, ÄŒorak and TomljenoviÄ‡, 2017). These are those people those who play important role in growth of travel industry and development of destination.
Contractors and suppliers- These are those people that supplies goods and services to tour and travel company operating at particular destination. Contractors and suppliers get financial benefit.
1.2 Advantages as well as disadvantage of public and private organisation in context of tourism planning.
Partnership can be defined as a relationship which includes sharing of power, resources ,information with each other. Partnership between both private and public organisation is important in terms of organising, host as well as managing big sports or other events. Organising as well as hosting a big event required lot of financial as well as other resources. As both whether it is private or public companies doest not have sufficient resources to host events at large scale. Partnership between public and private enterprise is important in order to organise and host events in successful manner. The partnership between the public and private company is also crucial in order to resolves various issues which might occur in hosting an event in successful manner. It is also important in context of developing tourist places. Partnership is necessary in order to promote strategic thinking. In addition to this the major advantage of partnership strategy is that it enables both companies to share their powers , resources and information (Jackson,2008). Partnership between public and private organisation assist in eliminating the several obstacles which might occur in organising or hosting an event. The another advantage of partnership strategy is that it helps business entities in expanding the scope of operations. Strong and shared leadership helps in achieving the desired objectives is another benefit of partnership between public and private enterprise. It also allows organisation to share their responsibilities and aid companies in reducing the risk as well as costs Involved in completing the specific project.
The major disadvantages of partnership between public as well as private firm is lack of control on activities during the project. Another drawback is that conflicts between two organisation or parties can have negative influence on operations or activities (Domínguez-Gómez and González-Gómez, 2017). Disputes between two business entity related to sharing of profit might have adverse effect on event or project.
2.1. Analyse features of tourism development planning at different levels.
It is important top analyse all the features of tourism while developing a planning at different levels that are been related to tourism development. There are basically four levels at which tourism planning is done, they are; International, National, Regional and Local level. Each level of planning has effective feature that supports other level of planning.
- International Level: This level off tourism planning involves international transportation services. It includes feature of qualitative service to be provide to all the foreign tourist and visitors. They are responsible for conducting tours for tourist at different countries. There aim is to develop major tourist attractions and facilities in neighbouring countries. The organisation such as Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has the mission to promote policies that will improve economical and social well- being of people around the world. The working of OCED along with government ids to drive out the economic, social and environmental change that impact the destination and tourism.
- National Level: At this level planing is done by national organisations. These organisations can either be private or public. They comprise of government, volunteers or private organisation that work with government. In UK there is a branch know as Visit Britain i.e. non-departmental public body funded by DCMS. The aim of these working bodies is to promote tourism within Britain. They dose by advertising the continent and accommodation services provided by hospitality industry within UK.
- Regional level: The regional planning is specifically done for cities or specific destinations like, London, Giant Causeway and Kent, etc. This includes regional entry points and tourist attractions. They promote the accommodation services provided within these cities. Further, they conduct Education and vocational programs at Regional level. The planning at this level is done to promote; location, marketing strategies for promotion and media advertising to promote specific destination.
- Local level: It is important for this level to work along with national and regional level planning. There strategic planning always rely on International bodies to promote the destination and protect attraction of that place. The plan includes regular water supply, sanitation and number of accommodation services and accessibilities to these facilities, etc.
Thus, all the different levels of tourism planning is interrelated with each other in order to achieve the sustainable development.
2.2. Evaluate the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development.
The tourism industry are among the highly growing industries and with increase in the economic development it has make more important to have interactive planning System and process. Tourism allows to create huge economic benefits to country, thus, it is important to have proper planning and development. Thus, the importance of interactive planning is as follows;
- The aim of planning is to ensure that organisation, communities at all level get involve in the plan order.
- This help in reducing corruption and increases transparency in planning.
- It helps to promote Sustainable development of tourism.
- The development of planning help in involving local communities and thus avoiding any conflicts among them.
- Thorough planning the government can identify the deficiency in meeting the environmental benchmark.
- This will help in getting feedbacks that can be used by government to improvised planning.
- The main aim of planning is economic development and growth in destinations.
- Planning in advance means that stakeholder can create benefits for local people. By developing socially, economically and environmentally.
- Interactive planning helps in setting a benchmark. These benchmarks help in examining and evaluating that whether attractions, services and facilities are fulfilling the expectation and demand.
- They help in monitoring that development of tourism should not result in environment degradation and loss of socio culture integrity of the area.
- This help in reducing the over budgets spending and minimising the negative impact on local communities and thus maximising the potential of destinations.
- Interactive planning help in reaching better decision by means of participative process and efforts of all the organisation who are involved in tourism planning.
2.3. Evaluate different methods available to measure tourist impact.
To evaluate the impact of tourism on the economy, environment and socio-culture there are different methods. They are Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM), Environmental Impact
Studies, Pro Poor Tourism; Responsible Tourism.
- Cambridge Economic Impact Model: This is an industry respected tool used for evaluating the impact of tourism of particular area. This model uses the data sources provided by the national tourism surveys and regionally based data held by Tourism of South East. The volume of visit is transferred into economic terms by estimating the amount of spending by visitors based on their average spend trip. This model is been applied to region, cities and local areas including beautiful destinations and environmentally designated areas. It indicate many things like, volume and value of day spent by the visitors. Direct visit expenditure by different sector, example; transport/travel, accommodation services, attractions and shopping.
- STEAM: Scarborough Tourism Economic Activity Monitor is the tourism impact modelling approach that measures the tourism from the local level. STEAM provides annual and month by month numeric report after studying the and comparing it with previous reports and information available. It shows the result regarding following things; Distribution of visitors spending. Amount generated from these spending. Total count of each visitors annually.
- Pro Poor Tourism:The term pro poor means to developed economic policies that help in economic growth for the benefits of poor people. The concept Pro Poor Tourism is used by developing countries as means to improve local economy for the local people. This act as linkages between the tourism business and poor people. The aim of this concept is to reduced poverty and increase the participation of poor people (Meyer, 2013).
- Environmental Impact Studies: It shows that proposed plan or development will not have the negative impact on the natural features or ecological functions. Their purpose is to ensure that the developed plans dose not have the negative impact and to identify the appropriate mitigation and compensation for unfavourable impacts.
- Responsible Tourism: This concept is based on “ making better place for people to live in and better places to visit for”. Responsible tourism engaged hoteliers, government, local people and tourists to take actions and responsibilities to make tourism more sustainable.
3.1. Justify introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development.
The concept of sustainability in tourism development means to meet the needs of current tourist along with host regions and enhancing opportunities for future. This is defined as “ development that meets the needs of future without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (BrazytÄ—, Weber and Schaffner,2017). Thus, the introduction of sustainability in tourism is important as it helps in achieving the following things;
- Environmental Sustainability:This means to ensure that resources available in particular area must be preserved so that in a future it can be used by both local and tourist. It is important to protect both natural and build-up environment of an area. If this would not be protected and developed then there would be no existence of tourism. The fundamental of reduce, reuse and recycle would help in getting sustainable development (Polprasert, and et. al., 2017).
- Socio-Cultural Diversity:It refers to minimising the negative impacts that caused by the increase congestion and overcrowding in cities or country. The impacts can be reduced by promoting cultural exchange and preserving the local traditions and beliefs of the local communities. The increase in the involvement of local communities in tourism brings more benefits like, it would provide a genuine experience to tourists and visitors. Along with this it would provide local commuters a sense of pride and ownership which help in increasing the sustainability of the region (Boltze and Tuan, 2016).
- Economic Sustainability:The sustainable tourism helps in increasing the economic development of the region. This means to reduce down the leakages and increase and build linkages. This would help in promoting local economy and boost them to developed hotels and other accommodation services to increase tourism. Further, it would help in retaining the money within country.
3.2. Analyse factors that may prevent/hinder sustainable tourism development.
There are certain factors that hinder sustainable tourism development. These factors can be classified as follows;
- Cost:The major factor that affects in sustainable development is the cost. Tourism should be affordable. Thus, the cost is the primary factors that affects both local and international travellers. Cost dose not only refers to the price of tickets but it also includes all the expenses incurred while travelling.
- Lack of Amenities:Another factor which causes hindrance is the lack of amenities. Travellers comes up with expectation of access to amenities like, Sanitation, Easy access to the public transport, clean and safe drinking water, Access to reliable medical camps and Easy process of visa. The host country should provide these amenities to attract tourism within country (Baxter and et. al., 2018).
- Safety:It is an important factor as visitors would not be attracted to the place/country if it do not provide safety. The safe and stable environment plays a key role in achieving sustainable development. The change in political structure can cause unrest within country and thus hampers in promoting tourism.
- Crime Rates:Country who is exposed to major crime rates dose not attract visitors. They are the significance barriers in attaining the sustainable development. The local government should assured the control over increasing crime rates so that unrest or lockouts can be reduced within countries (Di Giacomo, Guthrie and Farneti, 2017).
- Global Warming:This factor plays a crucial role in sustainable development. The changes in global climatic conditions results in increasing amount of temperature, rainfall , conditions of drought and sea level rise due to melting glaciers. This creates a direct impact on the weather of country. Further, these changes will impact the natural biodiversity and local ecological system of the area (Kos-ÅabÄ™dowicz, 2017).
- Depleting resources:The depletion in the resources has caused a major harm to tourism within UK. The availability of required resources is not enough to meet the needs and demands of tourist. Thus, it causes hindrance in sustainable development. Government agencies should work along with local communities to retain the resources. available.
3.3. Analyse different stages in planning for sustainability.
To plan for sustainability in development of tourism there are different stages. They are as follows:
- Identifying the issues:To start planning for sustainability the first step would be to find out the issues which are hindering the process. These issues can be identified using various tools like; conducting surveys, asking questionnaires, through reports and studies. The issues like; licensing laws, the conflicts among the local communities, degradation of environment by specific hotels, etc (Babu, Kaur and Rajendran, 2018).
- Planning for objectives:The objective of achieving Environment sustainability within country. The aim is to use ecological methods in tourism. It will lay emphasises on Eco-friendly techniques of producing goods and services to visitors. The use of low emission vehicle within public transport.
- Policy:The government has launched certain policies to be followed by people and company who are working within tourism industry. This includes attracting stakeholders within country to invest and will addressed in order to meet their objectives. All the governing bodies i.e., local authorities, tour operators, business organisation and national park authorities would consider developing a plan and policies for sustainable development.
- Developing plan for improving infrastructure:This involves providing details regarding to visitor's interest, motive to visit the place and needs of visitor will be considered while developing plans for infrastructure. Although, UK has good infrastructure but the speciality within the regions should be addressed and the plan must be formulate to improved the present infrastructure. The government should promote the use of low emission vehicles in public transport.
- Feedback:The successful implementation of plan can only be monitor through feedbacks. Government along with other tourist operators should implement a strong feedback mechanism. This would help in identifying the loopholes within plans. These feedbacks would act as benchmarks on which government would evaluate their performances and measures.
4.1. Evaluate methods of resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future well being of a developing tourism destination.
The issue of conflicts arises due to difference in the needs and demands of government and stakeholders. In order to attain sustainable development within tourism. It is important for government of UK to resolve conflicts to achieve sustainable development. These conflicts can be resolved through;
- Negotiation: This method involves clear cut communication and interaction with parties involved in the tourism sector. This means parties who are approaching for negotiation should introduce offer that would be favourable to all the parties. For instances; the UK government should introduce plan that benefits all the parties involved in. They can make negotiation by introducing certain amount of share for stakeholders in tourism business.
- Improving guest-host relationship: Another method through which conflicts can be reduced is strengthening the guest-host relationship. This can be done through offering quality services to visitors by enhancing the package and improving it logistics delivery. Further, it will help in boosting tourism within country. This will reduce down the conflicts and stress among local communities and the visitors.
- Use of technology: The technical up gradation can help in bringing down the conflicts. The use of advanced and innovative technologies can help to reduce problems with regard to environment. The use of technology will bring down the wastage of paper and duplication of efforts. Thus, promoting sustainable development (Kazak, 2017).
- Setting up a Control Mechanism: The use of control mechanism help in checking the plans and policies developed for sustainable tourism. This help in checking the issues and loop holes. They help in evaluating and developing plans to reduce these conflicts arise within different parties involved.
4.2. Analyse the implications of balancing supply and demand.
The implications of balancing supply and demand will result in the better understanding of tourism industry. Demand in tourism sector refers to the number of people wants to travel and use tourist facilities and services at a particular location. When this implied following results are generated, that are;
- This help in setting up a development plan at that particular place. The demand generated at any place help in shaping the development of that country/region.
- It help in forecasting the future trends within tourism sector.
- It is used to predict price for particular services/ product offered within tourism sector.
- The determinants of demands like, elasticity help in evaluating the types of visitors, for instance; income and price elasticity of business and leisure tourism is higher in compare to other kinds of tourism.
- This help in designing marketing strategies for tourism sector (Huh and Chang, 2017).
- Further, special events are affected by seasonality of demand. The tourism is present only for certain period.
Law of Supply in tourism industry: Tourism supply consists of mix of attractions. This supply shapes demand of tourism within a country. The supply includes all kinds of services in infrastructure like; telecommunications, transportation and accommodation to visitors, etc. The proper balancing of supply and demand in tourism of UK can provide benefits to country.
There are four laws to implicate between supply and demand (How to manipulate the law of supply and demand…and make a lot more money. 2012).
- If demand increases and supply remain unchanged then it leads to higher equilibrium prices and quantity. This causes problems of shortage of services provided by tourism industry. It leads to increase in prices of products/services.
- If demand decreases and supply remains unchanged, then it leads to lower equilibrium prices and quantity.
- If supply increases and demands remain unchanged, then it leads to lower equilibrium prices and higher quantity. This creates problem of surplus as demand for the same remains unchanged. This force down to reduce prices of products/services provided by tourism sector.
- If supply decreases and demand remains unchanged, then it leads to higher equilibrium prices and lower quantity.
Thus, balanced between supply and demand should be implicated appropriately. it is important to have balanced supply and demand for sustainable growth.
4.3. Evaluate the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism.
The term enclave tourism refers to planning of tour in a destination where activities of tourist are planned and congregated in one small geographical area. There are certain moral and ethical issues are their regarding enclave tourism. These are;
- The enclave tourism provides all the required services inclusively. This take away the chance of local business to serve visitors.
- The promotion of enclave tourism leads to less contribution to economy of United Kingdom.
- The local hotels and restaurants do not get a chance to promote the values and culture of their country (Hartman, Paris, C. M. and Blache-Cohen, 2014).
- Companies who are engaged in enclave tourism do not pay their tax on time. This hampers the growth of economy.
- Further, enclave tourism destroys the ecological balance and natural beauty of country.
- Another issue that has risen due to enclave tourism i.e. the visitors do not get chance to explore the native environment of UK.
- The waste products that released from hotel affects the nature of UK. More over companies are least interested in preserving the nature, which in turns harm the natural vegetation, wildlife and people of the country (Weaver and Jin, 2016).
5.1. Compare current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination.
There are certain factors that affects development in tourism in a developing countries and an emerging destinations. To understand the issues associated with tourism development here is the comparison between Philippines and Iceland.
Philippines is a South East Asian country surrounded by 7000 islands that supports rich culture of flora and fauna. This attracts large number of foreign tourist all round the world. Iceland is the emerging destination with dramatic landscapes including volcanoes, geysers, hot springs and lava fields. Both the country suffers from similar climatic issues and environmental factors. They contribute immensely in development of tourism within country. Philippines suffers from large number of cyclones and earthquakes that hits country every year. Similarly, the dramatic landscape of Iceland creates a major hindrance in development of tourism. Further, the economy of both the nations is subjected to high volatility (Spenceley and Meyer, 2012).
The tourism infrastructure in Philippines is comparatively poor and tourists in Philippines faces certain transport issues like, lodging facilities, language issues, etc. The tourism policy of country is not clearly defined. Further, government takes less initiative to remove barriers causing hindrances in tourism of country. But, the infrastructure of Iceland is improved and better with clear defined tourism polices. The government takes much initiative to boost the tourism of country and remove obstacles and barriers within tourism industry. Though Iceland suffers from the global warming crises and environmental issues. More over the language is a main problem faced by tourist as the people over there uses Icelandic language and only few people in the country knowns English. Thus, it creates barrier in tourism development.
5.2. Evaluate with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these destinations.
There are certain recommendations to improve situations within development of tourism in Philippines are (Hunt and Stronza,2014):
- Better connectivity of roads and highways within country.
- Steps should be taken to improve the transport facilities.
- Government of Philippines should make strong and sound policy to support tourism within country.
- Philippines government should developed more shelter camps in case of any natural calamities.
- The heritage and culture should be preserved.
Recommendations to improve situations in Iceland within development of tourism.
- The language barrier should be removed by making people learn English so that tourist can communicate easily with locals.
- Government should make strong plans to encourage growth and development of economy.
- It should provide local guides to visitors so that tourist can explore the native culture and tradition of country.
- Further, government should implement more strict rules and regulations for preserving the ecological climate of Iceland (Mair and Whitford, 2013).
Tourism plays an essential role in development of countries economy. Tourism industry within UK supports various activities for the development and growth of country. To support tourism industry in a long run sustainable development of tourism is important. This report discussed the benefits of stakeholders in planning for tourism. It discusses about different approaches to tourism planning and development. It includes the features of tourism like, economical, social, environmental, etc. at different levels of planning i.e. international, National, Regional and Local level. Further, it emphasis on the needs for planning of sustainable tourism. Various methods has been discussed to evaluate the impact of tourism on country. These are, Cambridge Economic Impact Model, STEAM, Environmental Impact Studies, Pro Poor Tourism and Responsible Tourism. The implications of balance supply and demand force has been discussed along with the moral and ethical issues that causes due to enclave tourism. Lastly, report discusses the recommendation and solutions to be implemented for future development of tourism in Philippines and Iceland.
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