Tourism planning plays a significant role in travel and tourism. They directly affect the GDP of a country that is why they are considered to be the most important key aspect for growth and development. Present report helps to understand the benefits of producing a tourism strategic plan. London is the best tourism destination which help to attract lot of tourism towards it. There are various attraction points which entice many people. A well-defined strategic tourism planning will be helpful to make good decision. The report provide a critical analysis of tourism planning and its benefits of implementation. The report also present one planning approach i.e. community based approach which target a group of people, it means that have right to participate in decision making that affect their lives too. The report also present how the reuse of one historic building will also contributes to strategic planning development and affect the tourism of that country. For example, Museum of London is the historic building which help in development of tourism and raise in the economy of the country.
A. Presenting the benefit of producing tourism strategic plans with an example
Tourism simply refers to the temporary movement of people from one destination to another in order to know the culture or tradition of those destinations. Tourism strategic plans provide both economic and non- economic benefits to any country. The primary aim of tourism industry is to achieve a balance between the interest of public and private sectors. In the recent era, tourism industry has become now more competitive and therefore, it is important to have the best strategic planning for it. Main purpose of strategic planning is to create plans of the action which help to achieve future goals. There are various benefits of tourism strategic planning. Some of them are mentioned as below:
- A good strategic planning will help to make good decision for the tourists and directly, it will help to increase GDP of a country (García-Villaverde and et.al., 2017).
- A well-developed strategic planning will be helpful at all the levels and even a good management is quite necessary for its benefits of tourism and help to mitigate all the problems.
- There are many countries which still not yet developed tourism strategic planning , but this will provide guidelines for its development and growth. On the other side, where tourism is already developed, strategic planning for tourism is needed to re-energize sector which will further help to improve its financial viability.
- A well strategic planning will be helpful to achieve the long term sustainable development and help to conserve resources such as natural, cultural and others for the future use (Tung, Tang and King, 2018).
- The biggest benefit of producing strategic planning is to increase GDP of a country and in future, it will also be helpful in understanding different culture and traditions of people.
- Strategic planning in tourism directly affects the social, cultural and economic factors. However, according to social factors, it directly impact on the tourism but there are limited change related to the demographic and urbanization. On the other hand, in cultural factors, they are directly linked to values of societies, global culture and the attitude of some people towards consumption. And economic factors creates impact on the economy of the state i.e. raise in the level of income and other (Huang and Coelho, 2017).
- The strategic planning helps to give a direction related to tourism. With proper and well defined strategic planning, different organization of a country will be helpful insights on market trends, products or services that will directly affect the success of a tourism industry.
- Another important benefit of strategic planning is that it provides a framework through which the area of tourism policy be acted upon and ensuring that the development reflects the local values and benefit upon the tourism plan.
- Having a good strategic plan for any country will help to identify or represent the need of their own visitor assets. It will also help to support and reflect the priorities of all strategies especially in cultural and communication strategy.
- On the other side, producing tourism strategic plan will deliver benefit to the state or country and build its existing support activities which includes the provision of visitors or promotional services, national program or events (Tsai and et.al., 2018).
For example, London in UK is consider the best tourism destination point because of having good strategic plans. Recently it is one the most attractive points in the world and as per the annual report the city attract more than 40 million of people at national as well as international visitors and this is so because of having great strategy plans related to tourism and implement those into specified time. The strategic plan of London is different from other, it can be achieved in focusing different area such as:
Pre- Visit Promotion: in this, convince more visitors to choose London by attracting during off- peak seasons and even direct them to visit this place once.
Visitors Experience and information: another step involved in the strategic planning is collect the information from visitors and guide them in order to improve the information such as provide better place for food experience and encouraging many visitors to explore the areas and connect with the city i.e. London and become Londoners (Isik, Dogru and Turk, 2018).
Infrastructure and amenities: this strategic plan will help to ensure that London accommodate growing number of visitors and they are more investing on the cultures and digital infrastructure as well. The state is well known for its best infrastructure that is why it become a most attractive point in the world.
Developing the infrastructure for business visit and events: it will also become a good strategic plan in order to attract customers. By conducting meeting or events in order to understand the drivers for growth and reviewing capacity will also help to attract many tourism towards London. By creating world- class business visitors experience will help to raise the GDP of London and becoming a most attractive business visit destination plan.
By, completing or following this strategic plan, any country become best attractive tourism plan and to sustain current growth, industry or government need to coordinate to build a foundation to a sector. This strategic planning is helpful to take best decision for the tourist and directly or indirectly it will help to raise in the income of a country. It has been analyzes that in UK, tourism ploicy are closely associated with many multi- companies partnership and they all are affect in decision- making process (Fong, Wong and Hong, 2018). Strategic planning have their own importance in the tourism and it is important for te stakeholders in the tourismindustry to make decisions, develop those and then implement those strategies in a manner that it directly affect to the tourist as well as the destination for the long- term point.
For the growth of any country, it is necessary to have proper strategic planning because it directly impact on the economy of a state. A well defined plans will creates a positive impact on tourist as well. Tourist visit different places in order to understand different cultures and traditions and this will help to make strong bonding for long term but on the other side, it also affect the environmental and social cultural environment too. Tourism planning finds a balance between price and benefits of these creates direct impact on the interest of tourism and local societies. These strategic plans should be in well defined manner such that they are realistic to implement (Wang and et.al., 2018). The tourist strategic plan should be produce in such a clear and defined set of goals and objectives that in short time only, the destination growth will be affected. However it is critically analyzed that without having proper defined goals and objectives, a destination will have nothing to return its tourist thriugh their activities, and even not able to show the progress.
In the context of London, it already set all the goals and objectives for the development and attraction of the visitors. Such as it also improve its policies and procedure which help to attract wide number of tourist. In tis way, tourist strategic plan will be helpful in improving its overall GDP as well as the economy of a country.
B. Evaluating community based planning approach for tourism development
Term planning refers to the process of determining goals, systematically selecting alternative course of actions and implementing the chosen alternatives. Similarly, in tourism, planning plays a crucial role as it helps in setting goals for tourism industry and evaluating different actions to fulfill the needs and demands of customers. Planning helps in providing a quality environment to visitors and thus, it is essential for any country, region or community. There are various types of approaches that can be followed while planning for tourism activities. These are Economic, Physical, Spatial, Community Based and Cooperative Approach.
Tourism is often criticized for the dominance of businesses by outsiders where local people usually get low end jobs and community feel alienated with no economic benefits. To reduce conflicts and for sustainable development of local regions, it is important to have Community Based Approach for planning tourism (Gascón, 2013).
Community Based Tourism:
It is defined as tourism owned and managed by local communities and planned to deliver wider community benefits. Community Based Tourism aims to include local communities in tourism for contributing to their well-being and help them in preserving those cultural and environmental assets. It helps in providing high possibility of job creation and generates entrepreneurial opportunities for local people from different backgrounds, experiences and skills. Community Based Plan is a broader aspect as it includes both rural and urban economies and provide opportunity for improved livelihood. It acts as a source of complementary income which farmers and local communities uses for improving their livelihood and preserving their culture and ecosystem (Hsiao and Zhang, 2017).
It acts as community development tool that strengthens the ability of rural communities to manage tourism and ensures participation of local people. Community Based Tourism is more effective than mass tourism as stronger communities have more political influence and power to raise awareness of their rights and defend the territories. To support sustainable tourism, it is important to have Community Based Approach of planning in tourism as ecotourism is a key to sustainable development in travel and tourism sector. Further, use of this approach helps in achieving conservation and the alleviation of poverty. Community based tourism is earning more popularity by being integrated into strategies for conservation and development (Salazar, 2012).
Community based tourism has great opportunities for rural and local people in the United Kingdom and Europe. The visitors are increasingly looking for authentic experience to interact with local people and community. Foreign travelers and clients are looking for hand on experience and needs to have better connection with people and places and hep to understand their culture. Cultural and Tourism Programs includes CBT activities. Further, European travelers and visitors add CBT activity in their holidays which provides opportunity for European cities and increase in market channels for local communities. Moreover, local communities are the important reasons that enable tourists to discover local habitats, wildlife, respect traditional culture, rituals and wisdom (Benjamin and Lapointe, 2017).
As community contributes in time as well as labor, for poorest or rural community they cannot afford the expensive activities and that is why at least a part of the tourist income is set beside for the project which provide benefit for the community in near future. The community is aware of the commercial and social values that are placed on their natural or cultural heritage and even they foster the community which are based on the conservation of those resources. The main aim of intruding this approach is to deliver the best service and products to their tourist in order to encourage them to visit those places for a once (Zsarnoczky, 2018). The approach is helpful in improving the efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability of intervention where they have a potential to be more responsive to the need of a societies. CBT also build organizational capacity at local level and it also identifies the problems and plans and manages those projects that help in support local community for their collective actions.
For example: London is the best destination place which follow the community based approach. Initially, the tourism is not up to the mark and there is no raise in the income but when the strategic plan is made by using community based approach, the visitors are automatically affected (Olsen, Vogt and Andereck, 2018). Overall, this approach is helpful in delivering the best result to its livelihood by using different communities and this approach also help to attract wider as well as new number of tourist. This approach not only help to attract tourist by using various attraction points but also include the element of cultural and adventure tourism. The approach also helpful in many countries and generate more tourist participation in customs and habit of a particular social group. There are various local communities in the London which are able to identify different opportunities and they are participating in different industry. However, it has been concluded that in a country where the communities are involved in their design or implementation of facilities related to tourism are definitely help in the contribution of country's economic growth.
It is necessary to support the development of community based tourism with some special projects or programs because the importance of the participation of community representative is enhanced by the service providers in the tourism especially in private sectors (García-Villaverde, and et.al., 2017). This approach also decreases the gap between the social and economical gap of rural community and it is also a best practice that help in generating more income in their daily economic activities by using various resources such as cultural, natural and local etc. This approach also helpful to reduce the gap between rural and urban community by invite upper level of people to visit once in the rural or local resident.
Advantages of Community based tourism approach:
- this approach is helpful in reduce the poverty and help in employment generation.
- Another most important benefit of using Community based tourism approach is that it will helpful in transferring of decisions making to all communities.
- The CBT approach is also contributing to the development of regional department of tourism and lead to support the local bodies (Tung, Tang and King, 2018).
- This approach also helpful in infrastructural development such as roads, water, electricity and telecommunication and also helpful in super- structure development.
- The approach also support in the cultural preservation and in the development of health care facilities.
- Help in generating more income which directly affect the GDP of a country because most of the economy id generated by the outsiders so it will be helpful in local economy only.
- Tourist also contribute in the collection of tax revenue and as a result it will be helpful in improving the quality of financing community such as shopping facilities. Even many community events also helpful to attract wide number of tourist (Huang and Coelho, 2017).
- Community based tourism approach will provide social benefits and also generates the community identity by using tourism. A positive sense of community based approach also encourages local community in order to maintain their traditions and cultures.
Disadvantages of Community based tourism approach:
- Community based approach have many disadvantages and one of the most important disadvantages is it creates imbalance in the cultural destruction as well as environmental destruction as a result it sometimes creates gap between many communities.
- There is a loss of culture and it leads to age old rituals, their language, art, dance, food etc. and as result there is a destruction in natural habitats.
- It takes a lot of time and efforts in both side from a community and from the side of facilitators. Though it help to serve the large communities but still not whole communities are serve under this single approach that is why most of the state generally avoid to use this approach to attract more number of customers (Isik, Dogru and Turk, 2018).
- Generally, people/ community are not completely aware about their values and assets so it not easy to make them realize about their own culture which takes a lot of time.
- This approach also create a negative impact on the visitors and it help in reducing employment but it only support seasonal employment which help to raise the GDP for particular time only.
A. Presenting the reuse of historic building contributes to strategic tourism development
Now a days, many country uses their historical building in order to attract wide number of tourist. They promote the reuse of their building and make it attraction points for the visitors. In the same sense, when the term reuse of historic building are used it automatically understood that in particular ancient monuments there are old buildings which are transmitted to the upcoming generations (Olya and Al-ansi, 2018). The reuse of building which are used in ancient times are the main source which contributes to the strategic tourism development. They are the thing which creates an image of the region as a brand and this can be used as an effective tool of the adoption of leadership on the tourist area. The reuse of historic building is an important and strongest incentive tourist motive that help to attract wide number of visitors and on the another side, they are used to generate more profit and it will also influence the economic development of a country.
Every country has their own historic building which are the best attraction point for the tourist and it is necessary to preserve them because they are the only thing in a country which help to attract international tourist and they even contributed large amount of economy for the welfare of the country (Fong, Wong and Hong, 2018). In the context of UK, it also have many historic building which can be re use and helpful to attract large number of visitors. Some of them are as follows, Big Ben, River Thames, London Eye, Tower of London and Museum of London etc. These places are the main attraction points which are quite helpful for the tourist. In order to be able to reuse the ancient historic building which are consider unique and non- reusable cultural resources and there is a need to preserve those buildings. As they contribute in economy as well as non- economic development so it is must to use all those values and resources in order to conserve it.
This historic building not only contribute in the economic development but also gives local population to be a proud of the unique heritage and gives a n opportunities to share those with new visitors or tourist. In UK there are so many historic building such as monuments, museum, parks which have their own significance and are used in the development of tourism. The reuse of historical building or objects are helpful in successful development of tourism and on the same time creation of natural and historical parks are made in order to rescue the most valuable monuments and cultural complex and it is necessary to preserve or restore those items, so that the future generation will gain some information related to past or history (Paraskevas and Brookes, 2018). As per the annual report of UK, it has been analyzed that tourism affect a large amount of proportion in the GDP of a country so it is necessary to maintain the development of tourism for a country because it directly affect the income.
In order to make reuse of those historic building well with the history of the site, it is important to ensure the use of correct approach and it has been also observed that new building fabrics and layers are used without erasing existing ones. The process of turning the old building into new is exactly similar to preservation and conservation and this provides an opportunities to maintain or preserve those old building otherwise can be lost and also make available for the future generation. Every country has various historical places that help in developing number of tourist and those historical building may be museum, parks, bungalow, monuments etc. UK is one of the best tourist place and it have many building which can be reuse in order to maximize number of tourist. But with good and well strategic planning, the chances of development in tourism will be increases that is why it uses a strategy of reuse of historic building (Wang and et.al., 2018).
Monuments are the most important documents in the world of history. In recent times, a special agreement has been signed in order to preserve, conserve or restoration of all the historic building. The re- utilization of famous historical building with tourism reason creates a positive impact and the main reason of reuse the historical building is to recovery the old rural and industrial building and it is very necessary to get new improved building because whole tourism is affected by this. However, the monuments are the old form which are created from an authentic material. The authenticity or transformation of those historic building is represented by the forms, material and new techniques and to preserve those for future generations. This is the only reason and it is essential to preserve at least one options for the authenticity. The use of old historic building is another way to attract new visitors or tourist.
One of the best example of reuse the historical building in London is the Museum of London. The reuse of this building contributes a big amount in the economy of a country. There are varieties of items available in it which are quite famous in all over the world. The museum contain a Coach of Lord Mayor which takes to the street in whole city only in November and this is a main reason that tourist mostly visit London specially in November. The museum display more than 7000 objects and the reuse of this historic place will be helpful for the research scholars and it can be use in education purpose (Prebensen, Chen and Uysal, 2018). The reuse of London Museum can be done by adapting innovative approach to its design and the galleries may be redesign in the modern way which help to attract number of tourist. In current scenario, Museum of London comprises wide gallery which consist of lot of pictures, arts, models, and diagrams with strong archaeological discoveries. The historical building of London is the main attraction point for tourist and for local people it is a proud to have a unique heritage building in their own state.
By summing up above report it has been concluded that tourism planning is necessary key aspect in travel and tourism industry. Tourist plays an significant role and it is necessary to maintain the ratio for the proper growth and development. There are various benefits of well defined strategic planning such as it help to raise in the GDP of a country and also help to understand different culture and traditions of different state. The report also describe the London is the best tourist destination point which produce tourism strategic plans and as a result it contributes in the economy of a country. Further it also present community based approach which is quite useful strategy which help to target different communities that may be rural or urban in order to preserve their environmental or cultural assets. But on the other side this approach help in reducing poverty and providing seasonal employment.
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