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PM206 Health Services Management GSM London College

Introduction

To analyse the cause and ratios of deaths incurred in the mass population, there will be use of Epidemiology techniques. Therefore, in the present report, there will be demonstration of all the relevant facts and adequate analysis through various issues. There will be consideration of the reasons behind deaths incurred in the various categories of age group as pre analysing the records of South West Sydney LDH. However, to analyse the reason why, what and who are responsible behinds such issues will be identified with the help of Epidemiology

TASK 1

1.1 Analysing the death rates and population in the records of LGA

LGA

 

 

 

 

Age Group

0-24

25-64

65 and above

Total

Population

658656

359025

782955

1800636

Death

1756

2282

3589

7627

Death/10

439

570.5

897.25

1906.75

By considering the above analysis, it can be said that there are variations in the deaths as per age groups. Moreover, the population is more than 100 k and less than 500 k, then the numbers of deaths have been divided by 4.

1.2 Measuring the Crude Death Rates as on per 1000 for two population

 

LGA Population

 

 

LDH population

 

 

Age Group

Population

No. of deaths

crude death rates

Population

No. of deaths

crude death rates

0-24

658656

1756

2.666

619198

1598

2.581

25-64

359025

2282

6.356

316025

1893

5.990

65 and above

782955

3589

4.584

708955

6058

8.545

Total

1800636

7627

4.236

1644178

9559

5.814

 

In terms of analysing the Crude death rates of the proposed data set, it can be measured as to consider the two population groups (Leffler and et.al., 2017). Therefore, in accordance with LGA population there has been analysis is on the basis of per 1000 population. In relation with the crude death rates of both the organisations the LGA is having comparatively higher death rates in compared with LDH as in age group of 0-24 years. Thereafter, the age of more than 65 years represents the higher death rates in LDH.

1.3 Analysing the age adjusted death rates over two populations

 

 

LGA

 

LDH population

 

 

Age Group

Deaths

Population

Age specific rate

Population

No. of deaths

Age specific rate

0-24

1756

658656

2.666

619198

1598

2.581

25-64

2282

359025

6.356

316025

1893

5.990

65 and above

3589

782955

4.584

708955

6058

8.545

Total

7627

1800636

4.236

1644178

9559

5.814

In analysing the age specific rates, there has been consideration of two populations such as LGA and LDH. Therefore, LGA has death rates in the group of 0-24, 25-64 is comparative more than LDH. Thus, the deaths in LGA records are only less in the categories of 65 years and above. Therefore, there are 8.5 deaths on every 1000 population.

1.4 Demonstrating the purpose of implicating standardisation in measuring the mortality rates

The main purpose of implicating the standardisation in measuring the death rate of the data set is that it is the most convenient technique to analyse the reason behind deaths incurred in particular age groups (Tang, Croxen and et.al., 2017). Moreover, there will be appropriate analysis as to compare the population of two or more locations.

TASK 2

2.1 Identifying two main general factors that contribute to prevalence rates and cite academic support

By doing evaluation of South West Sydney LDH annual report, it has assessed that now death rates are increasing with the very high rates (Londero and Wanke, 2018). Report presented by the concerned authority clearly shows that due to cancer and circulatory disease death rates are increasing.

2.2. Identifying 2 general ways of decreasing prevalence

Report presented by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare clearly shows that survival prospects have improved among young individuals who are suffering from cancer. Hence, cancer is one of the main causes behind the death of young Australians. Hence, for decreasing prevalence of death rate there is need to organise campaigns which develop awareness among young people about the factors that may cause of cancer along with the symptoms. Such strategy is highly effectual which in turn enables individuals to come-up for check-ups when symptoms are assessed and take safety measures timely which in turn avoids death.

TASK 3

3.1 Constructing a 2 × 2 table and calculating row and column totals

On the basis of cited case situation, a new to assess pregnancy test has been introduced into the market. For testing the product trial was made on the cohort of 1173 women. Hence, it has assessed from such trial that true positive and false negative accounts for 963 & 63. On the other side, total negatives imply for 147. Out of 147, false positives and true negative were 64 & 83. The below depicted table shows that row total under the category of test positive and negative accounts for 1027 & 146 women respectively (McDonald, Kutty and Kaplan, 2017).

Pregnancy test 

Test positive

 

True positives

963

False positives

64

1027

Test negative

False negative

63

 

True negative

83

146

 

Total positives

1026

Total  negatives

147

Total population

1173

3.2. Calculating sensitivity and specificity of the concerned pregnancy test 

Sensitivity and specificity analysis

Sensitivity = a / a + c

Here:

 A: (true positive)

 A + C:  (True positive + False negative)

Specificity = d / b + d

Here:

 B: False positive

B + D: (False positive + True negative)

 

Positive

Negative

Test positive

 

963

64

Test negative

63

83

 

Sensitivity

963 / (963 + 63)

= .94

Specificity

83 / (64 + 83)

= .56

3.3 Interpreting findings derived through sensitivity and specificity evaluation 

Sensitivity evaluation presents that .94 probabilities which means that concerned test will less likely present false-positive results. On the basis of such value, it can be depicted that there is 94% chance that patient will be identified as positive. In contrast to this, specificity value presents probabilities that test will diagnose particular disease without giving false-positive results. By keeping in mind the outcome of specificity evaluation it can be mentioned that there is 56% chances pertaining to negative results.

TASK 4

4.1 Analysing the numbers of children with asthma exposed to parental cigarette smoke in relation with non-smoke

 

Children with smoking parents

Children with non-smoking parents

TOTAL

cumulative incidence

Children

26461.68

194052.32

220514

12.00%

Children with asthma

38810.464

9702.616

48513.08

80.00%

 

 

 

 

 

 

Risk ratio

15.00%

 

 

In relation with analysing the risks indulged with the asthma children as per the smoking habit of their parents. There has been 80% of the children are suffering from asthma in relation with analysing the total number of them. Moreover, the risk ratio has been identifies here is 15% which is 0.15. Therefore, 0.15 times the risk of asthma will impact the health of children.

4.2 Implicating the information to measure the relative risks

In accordance with analysing the relative effects of the risk involved with the asthmatic children. It has been analysed as:

% decrease= (RR-1) x 100

(1- 0.15) x 100 = 85%

However, in relation with analysing the relative risks of the proposed data set it can be said that there has been reduction of 85% of the risks (Measures of Association, 2017). Therefore, it is because the outcomes which was identifies as to have the risk ratio which is less than 1 and due to such impacts, there has been use of Reduction in risk formula to identify the decrease in risk

4.3 Determining the significance of relative risk

To analyse the adequate reasoning and data for better justification, there will be need of making the appropriate analysis through various techniques. There has been use of Epidemiology in context with identifying the prefect reasoning (Thrusfield, 2018). To identify the relative risks from the proposed data set, it can be said that there has been selection of risk ratio which indicates the decrease in the risk as of 85%. Moreover, the subject Asthmatic children due to their parents smoking habit has incurred risks to their health and which will be reduced as if the proportionate reduction in the numbers of smokers in the particular area.

TASK 5

Part A

I have been engaged in serving in two different hospitals. My role is to focus on drugs and alcohol service in predominantly work at inpatient unit. The units bring the holistic and short stay care for 3-5 days which helps in treating the people surviving from drugs and alcohol consumption. Organisation offers services to the adult patients which were more than the age of 18 years as well as for homeless people (Conley, 2018). The entity approaches thee Aboriginal and Torres Strait to have the adequate services and use the appropriate services for better health and care.

The treatment awarded to the patients is holistic, individualised and patient-centred on which the main role is played by patient to have appropriate treatment. The Allied Health and nursing staff provide Therapeutic services in 5 days a week. Thus, they consider on providing the services like, relaxation, mindfulness, coping skills, relapse prevention and self-esteem. There has been appointment of qualified, skilled and talented people to perform their duties and tasks as to bring the adequate health and care to patients (Murray and Leidy, 2017). It would be useful to gather and analyse epidemiological study regarding the patient cohort and substances engaged in and seeking detox from, for planning purposes. For example, epidemiological data sought would need to include:

  1. Number of clients seeking inpatient vs. outpatient services broken down into month, then annual review
  2. Gender of client
  3. Age of client
  4. Ethnic/cultural background
  5. Substance(s) seeking detox from
  6. Inpatient and/or outpatient service sought
  7. Intervention provided i.e. pharmacological treatment, outpatient services, post-discharge follow up, community services, allied health inpatient services.
  8. Location client resides in
  9. Follow up services referred to

This would assist in planning purposes from a management perspective in ensuring all staff are trained in providing these services etc.

Part B

In relation with analysing the various outcomes on the proposed variables, it can be said that there is need to have influences of Epidemiological techniques to analyse the statistical data and interpret it to have the adequate analysis.

5.1 Studying Hypothesis:

To address the variable in relation with analysing the various factors there is needed to have most appropriate analysis through all the gathered data. Moreover, by implicating the use of epidemiological techniques there are mainly two techniques which will be helpful in analysing the results such as experimental studies and observational studies (Londero and Wanke, 2018). There has been consideration of both factors which will be effective in analysing all the variable that will be effective in terms of making the adequate analysis over the issues and bringing the optimum outcomes.

5.2 Discussing this information is relation with using it for managerial perspectives

In order to make the adequate improvements in the operational efficiency of the business there is need to have appropriate increment in the performance of the business. Moreover, there will be use of such techniques in analysing the risks, costs and the efforts which are needed to be made by the professionals to retain the business gains (Cruz and et.al., 2017).

Conclusion

On the basis of above report, it can be said that there has been use of epidemiological statistics to identify various outcomes. Moreover, the use of these techniques which is helpful in measuring the data set. Therefore, there has been various methods that helps in making the adequate identification of several reasons behind the issues.

References

  • Conley, A., 2018. Methods: Data Analysis for Disaster Epidemiology. In Disaster Epidemiology (pp. 135-141).
  • Cruz, J. and et.al., 2017. A37 THE SPECTRUM OF COPD: EPIDEMIOLOGY TO OUTCOMES: A Systematic Review Of The Instruments And Psychometric Properties Of Measures Of Impact Of COPD On Caregivers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 195.
  • Leffler, E.M.  and et.al., 2017. Resistance to malaria through structural variation of red blood cell invasion receptors. Science, 356(6343), p.eaam6393.
  • Londero, A. T. and Wanke, B., 2018. Epidemiology and paracoccidioidomycosis infection. In Paracoccidioidomycosis (pp. 109-120). CRC press.
  • Londero, A. T. and Wanke, B., 2018. Epidemiology and paracoccidioidomycosis infection. In Paracoccidioidomycosis (pp. 109-120). CRC press.
  • McDonald, L. C., Kutty, P. K. and Kaplan, S. L., 2017. Clostridium difficile infection: Prevention and control. Up to. 324. pp.1-12.
  • Murray, L. and Leidy, N., 2017. A37 THE SPECTRUM OF COPD: EPIDEMIOLOGY TO OUTCOMES: The Short-Term Impact Of Symptom-Defined COPD Exacerbation Recovery On Health Status And Lung Function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 195
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