In the modern era, management of human resource in organization has become one of the most crucial aspects of companies. Furthermore, firms are required to take care of areas such as employee motivation and retention in order to carry out smooth flow of operations and activities (Maslow, 2013). For this purpose different tools and techniques of motivation are used by businesses with an objective to carry manage workers and retain them for long run. The present research report is based on Marks & Spencer which is one of the leading clothing retailers in all across the globe. This study explains the use of different motivation theories to enhance the overall performance of Marks & Spencer’s employees.
It can be stated that over the past few years, the competition among businesses operating in the clothing retail industry has become so intense that it is no longer easy for companies to attract new customers and retain the old ones. Nowadays, businesses have started focusing upon need and demand of employees with an objective to enhance their skill set and make them more effective. The rationale behind this is that it helps companies to enhance their degree of customer satisfaction and carry out smooth flow of operations (Nuttin, 2014). Along with this, organizations are also using different types of motivation theories such as Maslow and Herzberg to motivate workers and encourage them to give their best.
Maslow theory of motivation
This theory of motivation was developed and presented by Abraham Maslow in the year 1940-50s. The main objective behind development of this theory was to identify key ways which can be used to encourage people in the organization to give their best towards success and accomplishment of aim and objectives. Furthermore, this theory developed by Abraham Maslow is considered as one of the most popular and effective theory in context of employee motivation. As per this theory employees in organization can be motivated in situations when their need and demand has been achieved in the best possible manner (Petri and Govern, 2012). This means it is required by employer to understand the need of employees working at different level of management and then take corrective measures for the satisfaction of those needs in order to motivate workers. However, it can be argued that for a business such as Marks & Spencer identification of employee needs is a very challenging task as all workers has different set of need and demand which needs to be taken care of.
According to this proposed theory of motivation, Marks & Spencer can enhance performance of its lower level employee by identifying and satisfying their needs such as physiological and safety. Further, these needs of employee can be of adequate food, air, shelter, drink, safety, protection and stability. The theory clearly highlights the fact that performance of people working in organization can be enhanced by satisfaction of all the above mentioned needs (Maslow, 2015). The rationale behind this is that need satisfaction act as driving force and encourages staff members to give their best towards success of organization. In his need hierarchy theory, Maslow presented that after fulfilment of physiological and safety needs, a person seeks for satisfying needs such as belongingness, love, esteem and at last self actualization (Latham, 2012). This means for the purpose of enhancing performance of employees and motivating them to give their best, it is required by Marks & Spencer to develop effective strategies and work towards accomplishment of needs of employee working at different managerial level.
This theory is considered as one of the most renowned theories in terms of employee motivation because of the fact that it directly takes nature of human being into consideration. on the contrary of this, it can be argued that the main drawback associated with the use of this theory is that it do not considered the social and cultural difference which exists among people in the organization (Kanfer and Chen, 2016). At the time of using this theory of motivation, it is required by Marks & Spencer to take care of the fact that different employees have different set of demand and needs. It can be also asserted that being a global brand, the selected business is required to consider the fact that it is not necessary that employee working in Marks & Spencer’s Singapore as same hierarchy of needs as that of a person working in Marks & Spencer’s UK.
Apart from this, it is also required by the selected business enterprise to focus on different needs of all its workers. Employee will feel motivated and their morale level will also get enhanced in situations where their personal and professional needs are being satisfied by their respective employer (Park and Ryoo, 2013). This will also support in developing a positive environment at workplace and will encourage high degree of coordination among people working in Marks & Spencer. Other than this, the use of Maslow needs hierarchy theory will also support the selected business enterprise to gain competitive advantage over other key player in the market.
Herzberg two factor theory of motivation
On the other side of this, Marks & Spencer’s can also motivate its workers by using theories such as Herzberg two factor theory. This theory was developed and proposed in the year 1959 by Frederick Herzberg with an objective to make people and organization aware about the key strategies which can be used to motivate and encourage employees. As per the theory, Herzberg laid emphasis on the fact that there are two different types of factor which exists in a business enterprise (Kim, Kim and Heo, 2015). One factor results in creating satisfaction among workers while the other causes sense of dissatisfaction among people in the organization. The factors are mainly classified into two categories which are below mentioned as:
Hygiene factor – Marks & Spencer is required to focus upon factors such as hygiene while carrying out its business practises and operations. In order to motivate people and encourage them to give their best, such kind of working conditions is very essential. Such conditions at workplace also results in creating sense of satisfaction among workers. As per the theory developed by Frederick Herzberg, the selected business will need to provide better and satisfactory pay to their employees (Band and Appliances, 2016). At the time of carrying out its business practices in different global markets, Marks & Spencer need to ensure that reasonable, satisfactory and appropriate pay is provided to all staff members. Furthermore, no form of discrimination should be carried out among employees at the time of defining and offering them with the pay.
Apart from this, the salaries, wages and other related benefits provided to workers also need to be competitive as per the standard of industry. On the other side of this, Marks & Spencer also required to concentrate upon its overall management procedures and policies. As per the theory developed by Herzberg, fair and transparent working policies also play a very important role in the entire process of motivating people in a business enterprise.
Other than this, fringe benefits, physical working conditions, status, interpersonal relations and job security are the key elements or hygienic factor which results in creating sense of satisfaction among workers and motivating them towards giving their best. It can be stated that while carrying out its business operations, it is required by Marks & Spencer to ensure that working conditions provided to staff members are safe, hygienic and clean in the best possible manner. It can be also argued that if focus is not laid upon the above mentioned elements the chances of increasing dissatisfaction among workers directly increases to a great level (Ghazi, Shahzada and Khan, 2013). The selected business enterprise will also need to make efforts to retain the status of all its workers and to develop a good interpersonal relationship among them. Furthermore, lack of trust and coordination among workers may directly results in increasing rate of turnover and lowering down the morale level of employees. In the modern era, retaining employees for long run is considered as one of the most complicated task for businesses. Management of Marks & Spencer need to provide job security to workers and also need to lay emphasis on their personal and professional growth.
Apart from hygienic factors, it is required by Marks & Spencer to focus upon some key motivational factors. These factors directly results in developing sense of satisfaction among staff members and also encourages them to give their best towards accomplishment of organizational goals. It can be expressed that while carrying out their operations and activities, the brand needs to ensure that the efforts and hard work of staff members is recognized and appreciated in the best possible manner (Yusoff, Kian and Idris, 2013). While carrying out the assigned task and activities employees at Marks & Spencer should actually feel sense of achievement. This will directly boost up their morale and will also results in enhancing the overall degree of positivity.
However, it can be critically argued that management of selected business enterprise also need to lay emphasis on providing higher responsibilities and authorities to their employees. Thus, it can be stated that the use of Herzberg two factor theory is beneficial for long term growth and success of companies such as Marks & Spencer. On the contrary of this, it can be critically argued that the main drawback associated with the theory is that it assumes that there is a correlation between productivity and employee satisfaction and this cannot be same. There are certain situations when workers are able to give their best but they are not satisfied internally.
From the above carried out discussion, it has been observed by the researcher that both the theories play very important role in enhancing the overall performance of people in a business enterprise. The use of motivation theories helps in accomplishment of businesses objectives and also contributes in long term success of a company.
It can be stated that the use of employee motivation will allow Marks & Spencer to satisfy need of all its workers and encourage them to put more efforts. In terms of staff members, it can be stated that use of motivational theories will enhance overall productivity as they provide employees with adequate job satisfied (Maslow, 2013). Furthermore, employees with higher morale and motivation level are always able to deliver desired and satisfactory performance for the long term success of businesses such as Marks & Spencer.
The use of Maslow and Herzberg two factor theory will also allow Marks & Spencer to develop an open and positive working environment. It can be also stated that there is a direct relations who exist among employee performance and motivation. For example employees with high motivation and morale level are being able to deliver satisfactory and more effective performance for the success of organization. It also helps international businesses such as Marks & Spencer to deal with issues such as high rate of employee turnover and intense competition in the marketplace (Kanfer. and Chen, 2016). The use of different motivational theories will allow selected business enterprise to encourage creative ideas and suggestions which can be used to deliver more satisfactory products and services to clients. However, at the time of rewarding employees, the business will be required to use a fair and transparent system so that workers can stay motivated for long run.
From the above carried out research report, it can be concluded that the use motivational theory can play very important role in enhancing the overall performance of people in the organization. Furthermore, it can be also inferred that Maslow need hierarchy theory is completely different from Herzberg two factor theory. As per Maslow theory, it is required by companies such as Marks & Spencer to identify the need of employee and take corrective measures for the satisfaction of the same. On the other side of this, Herzberg two factor theory encourages the company to focus upon two major factors which are motivators and hygiene.
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- Nuttin, J., 2014. Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Psychology Press.
- Petri, H.L. and Govern, J.M., 2012. Motivation: Theory, research, and application. Cengage Learning.
- Maslow, A.H., 2015. A theory of Human Motivation. Classics of Organization Theory, 50, p.142.
- Kanfer, R. and Chen, G., 2016. Motivation in organizational behavior: History, advances and prospects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, pp.6-19.
- Latham, G.P., 2012. Work motivation: History, theory, research, and practice. Sage.