Introduction to Management Information System
A management information system is process of information provided through the computers to manage and to provide support to the decision made by the managers in an organization. it is an system which helps to give support to organization in decision making. Is the combination of man and the machine which both makes an effort to provides information. In organization MIS helps to make decisions and to provide help regarding the information needed to them. And for the public sector the MIS is made to provide services to the people. MIS manages the organisation effectively and efficiently. It is the system to manage the all data's in the organisation. The MIS have primary components like Hardware, Software,Data / information, design, development, people (Fountas and et.al., 2015). MIS are been introduce to the organization so that the organization can get the information regarding the situation and can manage the data at one place. Before the introduction of the MIS in the organisation the data's are been written and place it in a file so. Now after introducing the MIS systems in the organization the data are been saved in the computer it is easy and safe way to keep the data. The information of the organisation and the details of the employees are been saved. If we need the information them we don't have to search in all the files in this we only have to just click and take it. MIS helps in all areas of the organization like in marketing, finance, production,personnel. And it is also help in forecasting and in idea of future planning. It helps the management to get correct ideas in planning and organising, staffing, directing, coordinating, co
The other benefits of MIS is that the organisation can get to know there strength and weakness due to the working processes and employees performances. And these information can provide a lot of help in improving the organisation. By the records of the employees we can get to know that which of the employees are performing well then they can get appreciations or the best employee fame (Dumais and et.al., 2016). MIS works in the manufacturing area also so the product can be made perfectly and it can provide more information regarding the production and full details of the product, in marketing process it provides the information which creates the product more attractive and MIS in finance helps to calculate the amounts and helps to solve the problems in accounting the financial status. Role of MIS in the organization is as compared to the heart in human body. MIS is fully depends on the hardware and software of it. If we want it work properly then has to take care to it properly. It is necessary in organisation because now all the organization is based on computers all level of people have to do there given task in it.
Difference between Structured and Semi-Structured Decisions
Structured decision making process is a approach which helps in identifying the alternatives, evaluating as well as analysing the trade-offs. Along with this they have to make the appropriate decision in the complex and difficult situations which are occur in front of the employees. It is a flexible process which make the things simple and easy and also manage all the complex situations. It is a typical process which involve one or two decisions with the different participants but they are using the tools for engaging the large groups. Structure decision making process includes the actual decision makers which empowered by the decision makers so that they can make formal or informal proxy (Schwalbe, 2015). This process helps in identifying, weighing as well as incorporating the values which helps in quantifying the different factors. For completing this process proper time is to be needed as it depends on the complexity as well as contentiousness of the decision. This process can be applied to any process which helps in making the correct decision. In achieving the goal of, the decision which is made by the structured process that is accepted by the members of all employees. This process helps in creating transparency so that staff members can not face any problem and achieve targets. These decisions are routine in nature and also repetitive. Moreover, it takes less time so that they can develop the alternatives in the designing phase.
Semi structured decisions are those decisions which are taken in the middle between the structured as well as unstructured decisions which requires the some human judgements and at the same time they have to make some agreements by using the proper solution method. This process have a area which they have to focus by using the decision support system. It is a form of structured data that does not provide the proper confirmation with the models which are related to the formal structure and they are associated with the relational databases along with the other forms of the data tables (Link and et.al., 2017). Moreover, they have to separate the semantic elements as well as enforce the hierarchies of records along with the fields within the data which is used by the business entity to make the appropriate decisions. This is a recurring decision and provide the dynamic decision environment with a reliable data on the current position. Along with this less reliable projects of the future states of the environment which helps in attaining the actual objectives as well as assist in improving performance in the market place. It helps in managing the current data and projections so that they can identify the appropriate decisions which are to be made. To make the relevant decisions, they have to prepare appropriate budgets and make production according to that which helps in attaining goals (Weaver and et.al., 2016).
Decision Support System and Decision Making Process
Decision support system is a computer based information system that supports the business or the activities which are related to the organisational decision making. It deals with the semi-structured problems. These problems arise when managers in the business entity are faced with the decisions in which they cover all the aspects that cover the task. This helps in making appropriate decision and also assist in resolving the problem which arise in the company. This system includes the models, tools which are related to data manipulation as well as the ability so that they can handle the uncertainty and risk. It involves the information along with the decision technology. Many organisation are using decision support system which helps in improving the decision making (Dwivedi and et.al., 2015). They can attain the best possible outcomes of the conventional system of information or data which are not sufficient to support the response activities in the business organisation so that they can make complex decisions. It is an interactive, flexible and adaptable computer based information system so that they can develop their software which helps in supporting to provide solution to resolve the problems. Along with this they have to improve the decision making by using the management problem which are non-structured. It helps in attaining benefits by using the capabilities of Decision support system at all level of administration. It is a specific information system of computer that support the business and the decision making activities of the firm. It is a interactive software system which intended to help decision makers which use the accurate and useful information from the raw data, documents, personal knowledge as well as business models so that they can identify the obstacles and by making correct and relevant decision they can resolve the problems or issues which they are facing (Cherry and Jacob, 2016).
By using this, the employees can assess the current information assets. Along with this they have to compare the sales figures and the figures which are related to projected revenue as it helps in making the assumptions for improving the sales of new product. Decision making is the process of making choices by identifying the decisions as well as gathering the information and assessing the alternative suggestions so that they can resolve the issues. This decision making process helps in making more deliberate so that the employees can make appropriate decisions by organising the relevant information as well as defining the alternatives. By using decision making process, they can make appropriate decisions. First manager of the company have to identify the problem or opportunity. Then they have to gather the information and analyse the situation which occur in the company while making decisions. They have to develop the options as well as generate possible solutions. After that the employees have to evaluate the alternatives and these options, staff members have to select one. Last step is to implement the plan in making relevant decisions (Baltzan and Phillips, 2016).
Executive Support system and Executive Information System
Executive support system is a software that allows the users so that they can transform the enterprise data into the quickly accessible as well as reports which is on the executive level such as billing, accounting as well as staffing departments. This software helps in enhancing the decision making process for the executives. Moreover, it is a reporting tool which allows Company in organising the data into useful summarized reports. Some executive support system tools also provide the analysis which helps in attaining the best possible outcomes and by that they can improve the performance. Executive Support System mainly deals with the data which is related to key departments like billing, accounting, scheduling, staffing etc. This software provides help the business entity in forecasting the data and also prepare for the future. It improves the personal efficiency along with the increment in control of Company. This software helps in attaining the competitive advantage among the competitors (Beadles and et.al., 2015). ESS represents both challenges as well as opportunities so that employees can improve their working processes. Company have to develop the software so that the staff members can analyse their decisions properly that they are correct or not. It focuses on the interactive tools which assist in doing assessment, those which can be used by the end users personally.
Executive information system is same as executive support system which is a type of information which assist in doing the management and this helps in making the decision making needs. To achieve the goals of Company, staff members can use internal and external information. This system helps in providing the support to the senior level managers so that they can make correct decisions. When the senior managers of Company make the strategic and best decisions they can improve the long term performance of the business entity. This type of system includes the various hardware, software, data, procedures along with the people. Executive information system play a important and necessary role in obtaining the data by using the different sources, so that employees can do the integration and aggregation of this data. This information system is a computer based system which serves or provide the data to the top level. These systems depends on some factors and they are internal as well as external factors. Internal factors needs the accurate information in a specified time. Along with this they have to improve the communication and access to the operational data (Cordray and et.al., 2015). External factors helps in increasing and intensifying the global competition. Along with this it succour in changing the business environment. Along with this they needs to be more proactive. These software helps in producing the correct and relevant information. Moreover, it offers the secure, reliable along with the confidential access procedure.
Transaction Processing System
Transaction processing system (TPS) is a information processing system which helps in doing the business transactions which involve the collection, modification as well as retrieval of all transaction data. It is a system which is used to capture and the process which having a detailed information as it is necessary so that they can update their data on the fundamental operations of the business entity. A transaction is essentially a single event which helps in making some changes in the company. There are several types of transactions (Chong-mao and et.al., 2015). For example, customer orders, receipts, invoices, payments, etc. The actual processing of doing the transactions which includes the collection, editing, manipulation along with the storage of data. By doing proper processing of the transaction they can attain maximum results so that they can update and also make the changes which assist in reflecting the new conditions at the time when the employees are doing last processed transactions. There are different type of the transaction processing system which includes payroll, inventory control, order entry, accounts payable etc. It produce the valuable inputs into the distinctive system in the business organisation like management information system or decision support system. A transaction processing system tracks the routine operations but does not provide so much support for making the correct decisions. There are two ways by which they are doing the process transactions using the batches and in real time. In a batch processing system, transactions are accumulated over a period of time as well as processed on a single unit. The time period in a batch system, there is some delay between the actual event as well as processing of the transaction so that they can update the records of the organisation. In a real time processing system, transactions are processed immediately as well as they occur without any delay to accumulate the transactions. It is also known as online transaction processing. The staff members have to maintain the records as it reflects the status of the business entity. Transaction Processing System is a type of processing system which helps in gathering information, software as well as hardware combination, which supports Transaction processing (Lallmahamood, 2015). It is a type of computer processing in which they are doing each individual task which called transaction and they are worked upon and executed as when it comes. The response to requests is immediate. A transaction Processing System is used to collect, store, retrieve as well as modify the transactions which are executed by an organization.
After summing up the above report it has been observed that the employees of the business entity have to use management information system which helps in managing all data of the company so that they can make appropriate decisions. Moreover, they can use executive support system as well as executive information system as they are same and a tool which helps in managing all data and present it in a report so that the employees can attain best possible outcomes. For making the correct decisions they can use structured or semi- structured decision making which helps in attaining the goals and objectives and improve the performance in the market place.
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