Performance Management And Control

Introduction to Performance management

Performance management and control is considered as the process through which managers and workers work together in order to plan, monitor and review the individual's work objectives and overall contribution towards the firm. However, it is essential for organization to set, agree and monitor performance targets which will assist in contributing to the achievement of organizational objectives (Van Dooren, Bouckaert and Halligan, 2015). In the present study, University of West London (UWL) has been taken into consideration and identifies the decision making model within firm. UWL inspires its students to become innovative professionals, connecting them to exciting and rewarding careers. Here, BREXIT issue is also taken into consideration while assessing the situation of UWL and then take decision making process for th

Centralised or Decentralised model

University of West London has been currently planning to organised into 3 faculties within which there are 8 schools. Thus, involving different schools into one universities involves varied range of decisions to be taken so that effective decision can be taken. There are two different types of decision making model such as centralisation and decentralisation. Within centralised organisation, it helps in delivering important information that is mainly reserved for top management (De Waal, 2013). Thus, such system helps in concentrating upon power in the upper levels of firm. UWL aims to take effective decision so that they can render best education facilities to students which would help them become creative and innovative professionals. However, such decision is autocratic and does not involve other employees to involve in decision making. Here, the top management of university decides regarding the education system and does not involve other people to take decision and control (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Centralisation is a comparatively older system of management and possess various benefits such as within such system policies and objectives are clear and provide employees a fair idea regarding the expectations of business. Top management usually comprises of experts who are likely to make best and effective decisions. However, it involves limited number of people while making decisions in relation to university. However, the main conflicts faced by UWL while undertaking centralised decision such as it requires to invest great deal of responsibility in relatively few people and is less effective as a solution to big issues (Ates and et. al., 2013).

Furthermore, another model of decision making that could be undertaken by university is decentralisation method which helps in taking decision by involving different levels of management. Here, decision making power is not just held with upper level but also involves lower level employees. Thus, top management includes continuous input of facts, information and ideas from the reporting line (Arnaboldi, Lapsley and Steccolini, 2015). It is considered as a democratic system so that effective decision can be undertaken to attain goals. Decentralisation is considered as the more democratic approach towards running an business in which every individual has certain level of autonomy. The main benefit of such type of system is that since workers are involved in decision making and setting objectives they own such conclusions and objectives. Here, morale and motivation level of workers are high and helps them to make effective decision making. Also, better choices are made so that expert decision can be made in relation to attain desired results (Khamooshi and Golafshani, 2014).

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Moreover, it can be evaluated that UWL follows decentralisation decision as there are numerous number of institutions fall under the university so that it is essential for them to involve each and every level of management within decision making process. Thus, it assists in identifying the current BREXIT issue which assesses that UK should remain the member of European Union or leave the EU (Fullerton, Kennedy and Widener, 2014). Thus, such issues identifies that through leaving the EU Britain and its universities will possess its own decision as well as greater control over its own economy. Hence, undertaken decentralisation decision making helps UWL to take effective decision and involve every level of management so that best decision can be taken. It does not just involve top management but decision making is shared with lower level staff as well so that effective decisions are been taken in favour of students to become them innovative professionals (Laureiro‐Martínez and et. al., 2015). However, the operations of University of West London are very wide as it involves different institutions so that decentralisation method is most suitable. It helps in maintaining a balance between strategic and tactical decisions by top management while operational decisions are made by lower level employees. Hence, it helps UWL to make effective decision in relation to students  so that it assists in inspiring students to become innovative professionals and connect with them to exciting and rewarding careers (Schultz and et. al., 2013).

However, earlier when there was no issue regarding BREXIT, university follow centralized system which helps them to make effective decision making at top management itself. But now when Britain is planning to exit from European Union it aids in making effective decisions for universities management to involve different employees to take effective decision. Thus, such prevailing issue of BREXIT assists UWL to undertake decentralisation control (de Waal and Kourtit, 2013). Hence, it provides options for management to involve each and every level in making decisions so that best results can be attained. Decentralised model for UWL is best suitable as it helps management to involve employees from different levels such as tactical and strategic decisions are taken by top management of university in favour of students expertise and help them to become innovative professionals. While, operational decisions are taken by lower members so that students does not face any type of issues (Frey, Homberg and Osterloh, 2013).

Thus, it can be stated that UWL should undertake decentralised decision making model which would benefit university in making effective decisions so that success can be attained. It has been recommended to the Vice Chancellor of the University of West London to preview the Brexit issue and then adopt decentralisation model to involve each layer into decision making and help students to become creative and innovative professionals (Esposito and et. al., 2013). As it involves different number of schools under UWL and in order to maintain the high quality education closely linked to employment helps in attaining desired results.

Performance measurement elements

Business is required to undertake effective measures for improving performance management so that all these elements could be incorporated into effective program and thus organizational goals can be attained. There are different elements that helps in improving performance management so that reliable measures could be attained (Wong and et. al., 2015). Further, it is essential for the Claude Littner Business School management to assess its performance and evaluate the objectives in order to attain desired results. Through managing performance effectively it helps in identifying the clear goals and thus implement the strategy so that business school can manage its operations in an effective manner and thus improve the operational effectiveness. Performance management program involves new initiatives and corrective actions so that desired goals can be attained (Ghamkhari and Mohsenian-Rad, 2013). Following are the different performance measurement elements which helps in evaluating the performance of the Claude Littner Business School such as-

Simple to use- If Claude Littner School faces issues in order to improve the performance management and thus it helps school to take minimum action so that they can attain goal and give feedback (Metcald. 2015). Also, complicated system produces good results when everyone was involved and is dedicated to spend the time so that best results can be provided. Here, the evaluation and the evaluator requires to assess the ability to choose from a range of selections and undertake effective rating scale method to measure the performance (Van Dooren, Bouckaert and Halligan, 2015).

Accessible anywhere anytime- There are various individuals that work from remote locations outside the office premises so that it is essential for institution to provide such system that needs to be web based and accessible even outside the school which helps in improving the performance of school. Thus, it helps in offering effective capabilities and modules that helps in improving the performance management so that financial system can be improved (De Waal, 2013).

Ongoing feedback- In order to evaluate the performance of Claude Littner School it helps in designing the system and providing ongoing performance feedback so that best results can be attained (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Hence, it is essential for school to maintain the system so that appropriate goals can be attained. Collecting feedback regarding improving the performance evaluation helps employees to provide better feedback so that no damage can be obtained by students.

Reporting- It also assesses that the system should possess robust data collection and reporting capabilities for evaluation assists in monitoring and tracking completion so that effective performance measurement can be done. Hence, it helps in attaining best results for cited school (Ates and et. al., 2013).

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Easy to interpret results- Further, such system helps in interpreting the results effectively so that management of school assists in improving the performance evaluation and accomplish the task effectively and efficiently (Fullerton, Kennedy and Widener, 2014). Further, it assists in improving the performance system of firm so that best results can be attained.

Further, it can be assessed that through different performance measurement elements helps Claude Littner Business School helps in identifying the success of school and the areas in which business aims to improve its performance. Thus, it is essential for organization to enhance its performance and evaluate the different measures so that success rate can be enhanced. Further, it also undertakes different performance measurement elements which helps Claude Littner Business School to undertake effective measures so that operations of firm can be improved in an effective way. Different elements of performance measurement helps business to identify its current strengths and potential so that business success can be attained (Laureiro‐Martínez and et. al., 2015). Further, it assists in improving the output of business so that effective results can be attained.

Successful performance management helps in valuing the business circumstances so that participation of individual can be improved. Hence, it helps in identifying the business performance and thus achieve success. Through implementing the performance management program it assists in outlining the measures and monitor the feedback so that appropriate decision can be taken (Metcald. 2015). There are various organizations that fails to optimally manage performance and thus develop appropriate outcomes so that working can be carried out effectively. Here, communication also plays a critical role that assists in identifying the performance evaluation requirements and thus attain maximum outcomes. Further, it is considered as the real dilemma that results into getting or seek to improve and integrate the various performance measurement elements into more purposeful and directed program. Hence, evaluating the performance measurement methods helps in achieving best results so that success can be attained in an effective way (Ghamkhari and Mohsenian-Rad, 2013).

Further, it can be assessed that cited school needs to assess its current performance measurement program and identify the requirements to improve so that appropriate results can be attained (de Waal and Kourtit, 2013). It also helps in assessing the elements that helps in improving business performance and satisfy the requirement of management as well as students in order to attain organizational goals and improve its performance.


It can be concluded from the study that it involves different decision making process that helps organization to make decisions in favour of workers. Here, University of West London undertakes decentralisation decision making model that helps them to allocate decisions among different levels of management. For instance, tactical and strategic decisions are taken by the top management while operational decisions are undertaken by lower level employees. It helps firm to involve different individuals in taking decision so that success can be attained in an effective and efficient way. Further, BREXIT issue also affects the decisions of UWL that aids business to take crucial decisions through involving different individuals and achieve goals.


  • Arnaboldi, M., Lapsley, I. and Steccolini, I., 2015. Performance management in the public sector: The ultimate challenge. Financial Accountability & Management. 31(1). pp.1-22.
  • Ates, A. and et. al., 2013. The development of SME managerial practice for effective performance management. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development. 20(1). pp.28-54.
  • de Waal, A. and Kourtit, K., 2013. Performance measurement and management in practice: Advantages, disadvantages and reasons for use.International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 62(5). pp.446-473.
  • De Waal, A., 2013. Strategic Performance Management: A managerial and behavioral approach. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Esposito, V. and et. al., 2013. Dealing with knowledge in the Italian public universities: the role of performance management systems. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 14(3). pp.431-450.
  • Frey, B.S., Homberg, F. and Osterloh, M., 2013. Organizational control systems and pay-for-performance in the public service. Organization Studies. 34(7). pp.949-972.
  • Fullerton, R.R., Kennedy, F.A. and Widener, S.K., 2014. Lean manufacturing and firm performance: The incremental contribution of lean management accounting practices. Journal of Operations Management. 32(7). pp.414-428.
  • Ghamkhari, M. and Mohsenian-Rad, H., 2013. Energy and performance management of green data centers: A profit maximization approach. IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid. 4(2). pp.1017-1025.
  • Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Pearson.
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