L/616/1805 Travel and Tourism Unit 21 HND in Hospitality Management


Tour operation consists those process and plan which support in giving different and better quality of visitors and effective tour packages to audience (Tour Operations Management, 2014). It renders various facilities through which visitors can visit different places within the outside the country. Travel and tourism industry have different sectors such as food and beverages, tourism lodgings, transportation, retail and so on. They also apply latest and current technologies and many other resources which output in quick development and progress of this sector (Allahyari, Salari and Vigo, 2015). It is a fastest flourishing industry worldwide and having significant involvement in the GDP of country. In this tour operation management mainly considered as planning, market evaluation, implementation and controlling of the activities and tasks to meet the companies objectives and retain the functions flow in professional manner. In present assignment, given organisation is Thomas Cook, it is an integrated travel and tourism industry related to financial service headquartered in London, UK. This report divided into different tasks which are cover effects of recent and current trends and stages which involve in developing holiday. Review of brochures and methods of distribution also involved in this project. At last, tactical and strategic decision making for operators also analysed in this study.

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Task 1

1.1 Influence of current and recent trends on travel industry

There are different kind of tour operators including domestic, outbound, direct sell, incoming and specialist. These are determined as below:

Inbound tour operator: It is a type of operators which are chiefly deals in inbound international visitors and render them effective facility related to sightseeing, transportation, accommodation, currency, entertainment and so on (Bagan and et. al., 2013) .

Outbound tour operators: Main role and responsibility of such operators is to advertise and promote tourism services and products in order to attract international clients. They sell tour package of domestic country to people of foreign nation.

Domestic tour operator: It is also main part of the tourist industry and role of this to control entire market. In this, operators develop their own place effectively.

Thomas Cook which is a travel and tourism sector in United kingdom has impacts of tendency in business activities and operations. There are several effects which are analysed by the company are determined as below:

Changes in technology: Traditional method to reservation or book ticket regarding the tour package is replaced with modern technology. Thomas Cook is applying mobile app, websites and many other internet sites to facilitate clients at door phase to deal with packages and tickets (Bhatia, 2012). Thus, it help the customers to obtain necessary information and data about tour packages.

Climate awareness: It is the role of manager is to handle the availability of tour packages about the awareness of climate at tour destination. In this business analysis the customer and better place where they can provide their effective services and products to the customers. For example: if a destination is more amazing and awesome to travel in winter, then, Thomas Cook conduct special programs to attract as well as aware large number of visitors regarding the sightly impression of environmental condition at destination.

Diversity: World and environment is flexible due to different variation in religions, culture, caste and many other modification. So, travelling agency has to analysed different business conditions and make goods as well as provide tour packages as per the customers taste, preferences, needs and many other (Chaumont and Yor, M., 2012). Thus, outputs of this in the happiness and satisfaction of visitors.

All these are main effects which are hinder on business operations and activities. It is the role of trade bodies including, Federation of Tour Operators and Association of Independent Tour Operators are determined as below:

Federation of Tour Operators: Main role and duty of this group is to ensure the long term growth and progress of tourism sector by causing legal authority and thought formers on the advantage to customers and many other stakeholders.

Association of Independent Tour Operators: It is a British based tourism industry that represents approximately 120 expert and autonomous tour operator. They have complete protection of consumer in destination. It also causing policy that impacts travel industry and its consumers.

Task 2

2.1 Timescale and stages involved in developing holidays

In order to developing effective holiday package, role of tour operators is to develop a proper stages which would assist in acquiring better outputs and implement the profitable and most appropriate tour package. Thomas cook would apply the different steps which are determined as below:

Market research: It is a first part of the research which is important for the tour operator in order to analysis customer and better destination where tourist are visit. It is essential activity in which company would be analysing and gathering necessary data regrading the market tendency as well as the attraction of the place (Dodds and Kuehnel, 2010). These informations are mainly related with weather conditions, events, culture, accommodation, main attractions, food, security and safety and many other.

Negotiations with many other marketers: After gathering entire information and data related to market, the management of Thomas cook deal with other vendors of tourism sector such as transport companies, airlines, hotels, car rentals, ground operators, sightseeing vendors and many other. Therefore, business entity discuss with marketers as per the needs of tour.

Cost assessment of the tour package: It is important and necessary part of the business activities and functions that effects on on its operations. Total cost of package consider the payroll, research, accommodation, tourism, local arrangement and many other expenses.

Planning and scheduling: It is the responsibility of Thomas cook and its operator is to plan entire journey and set an effective schedule for them. In this whole plans related to food, destination, activities, events are included which are effects on business operations and activities in an effective manner.

Administrative staff: It is next phase which is important for the company to gain maximum amount of sales as well as attract large number of customers towards tour package (ErdoÄŸan, Laporte and Calvo, 2014). In order to render effective service, travel industry would hire a temporary candidates whose are having proper knowledge regarding sense of ethics, good humor, destination and decision making ability about easily convincing customers.

Evaluation of post package growth and development: With the implementation of effective tour package, Thomas cook analysis the package with the support of clients comments and many other parameters such as marketing activities, customers interest in the package.

2.2 Different approach of contracting various elements and types of tour operator

In order to render best and effective facility to the visitors and deals out the tour package, Thomas cook come up into prior agreements with various vendors of hospitality industry such as hotels and airlines at the proposed places like France and UK for students for 6 days (Fei and et. al., 2014). In this tour manager obtain into agreements prior one year. Thus they can provide and negotiate with the marketers and earn maximum amount of money. There are different kind of contact but Thomas cook mainly apply Ad hoc and fixed contract. These are determined as below:

Fixed contract: In this contract, Thomas cook mainly emphasis on selecting collective and qualitative methods via the sale ratio. They increase their capacity through maximising the turnover and revenue. With the use of this agreement, tour manager of the company can aware about the benefits of off weather by rendering more advantage and many other offers to their target customers (Figliozzi, 2010). Under this, business entity is normally taking uncertainty factor namely UN-utilized. Beside this, they are also capable and responsible to pay the accurate amount of capital to the dealer who are giving same kind of services.

Ad hoc: It is also important and another part of contract which is mainly included as the essential way of scheduling for the necessary resources for the tour package. As per this agreement, cost facility has been fix according to the activities, it is developed in the journey either daily and hourly. It is essential and beneficial for the Thomas cook in handling all resource of finance and obtains the substantiation by email and many other aspects.

2.3 Calculating the cost of entire holiday plan

As per the mentioned information in given assignment has been identified the cost of tour package for UKCBS students and Other than UKCB students (Flores-Garza and et. al., 2017). These is important for the visitors to visit different destination effectively.

Tour package per person for 7 days

For UKCBS students




Entry ticket




Break fast






Price of tour package


Add: Additional charges @40% of the price


Total price of tour package


As per shown above table that described the cost of entry ticket, accommodation, breakfast, transport, dinner and price of tour package for UKCBS student. Beside this, they charge 40% of the price. So that total cost of the tour package is £250.00 which is appropriate for the student to visit happily.

Tour package per person for 7 days

Other than UKCB students




Entry ticket




Break fast






Price of tour package


Add: Additional charges @40% of the price


Total price of tour package


From the above mentioned table that determined the cost of tour package for other UKCB student. In this cost of entry ticket is £80.00, accommodation price is £45.00, dinner cost is £15.00, transport, £90.00, thus net value of tour package is £250 which is increase by 40%. so that total price of tour package is £350.00 which is appropriate for the UKCB students.

Task 3

3.1 Evaluate Planning Decision related with designing of selected brochure

In order to develop market plan and awareness that Thomas cook has created for student, in this administration take following judgements for designing the effective brochure (Frenzel and Blakeman, 2015). It will assist business entity to target the large number of customer group and gain competitive benefits. There are some decision that will be seized by Thomas cook management. These are determined as below:

Format of Brochure: It is one of the best and essential part of planning attractive brochure in an effective and efficient manner. It plays vital role and responsibility as the people become attracted towards the data that given by Thomas cook. In order to develop such plan, administration could apply Z format in order to put data in various class which will be easier informal for visitors to analysis and know. In this format of brochure, administration will render the information or data regarding transportation service, destinations specification, price, contract, accommodation as well as the plan duration including the goodwill (Gibson, 2012). This format develop the state of mind and prosecute the target clients.

Paper quality: It is next part which is important for the tour operator of Thomas Cook. For planning the brochure administration of enterprise will take an effective decision regarding the paper quality as per the brand perspective. In addition, travel and tourism industry will planned the smooth and glossy paper with aim for implementing brochure.

Content: It is another important and essential part which is beneficial for them to make an effective decision regarding the formatting, so in this administration would sized decision regarding the matter of brochure. In the part of content, tour manager of Thomas cook will includes the challengers informations and plans that has been given to clients, furthermore, business entity will sized the judgement regarding the languages as per the target audience to implement the content in an effective and efficient manner (Ha and et. al., 2013).

Graphics and colours: This factor highly effects on the design and plan of brochure that maximise awareness of people in order to read brochure properly. Including this, Thomas cook administration will make effective judgement regarding the selection of colour and graphics as per the locations and summer session that have been chosen for travel and tourism industry.

3.2 Suitability of alternatives related with traditional brochures

The classical methods for promoting tourism products and facility in market were traditional brochures attract large number of customer's towards products. There are chiefly four kind of tour manager who are perform the business operations as per the resources and capacity to meet with long term goals and objectives of organisation. Variation in marketing tool related to globalisation as well as utilisation of internet related services has emphasised tour managers in order to choose the various ways to render data via brochure. For instance: Outbound tour enterprise like apply the online option for advertising the tour packages and achieve more attention of clients. By applying the email activities and functions that, administration of such enterprise could render the information or data regarding the plan with better design and full data about the accommodation, transportation, local sightseeing and many other (KhairatP0F and Maher, A., 2012) Apart from that, TUI is an inbound organisation that deal with international visitors in direct way. In this they can apply E-Brochures for advertising and rendering data to target audience easily.

On the other hand, ground and domestic level tour manager could apply traditional brochure. Main aim of using this tool is to providing necessary data regarding the transportation and recommendation, both are main facility which is render by Thomas cook. For instance: domestic tour organisation is Kuoni that provide high service quality for local people and developing tour package for niche place which could be advertised via traditional marketing aspect of brochure. Such type of advertising is essential and beneficial for the company to easily attract large number of the visitors as well as gain maximum amount of money in limited time duration. In addition, advertisement via email and website are core concepts and key tendency in the tourism sector to achieve competitive benefits and reach maximum number of clients.

3.3 Different methods of distribution used in order to sell tour package

For delivery of brochures and data regarding the plan and package that has been implemented by Thomas cook and many other organisation which are determined as below:

Direct selling: I is a type of distribution which is essential and beneficial for the company to sell their tour packages to the customers who are interested for visiting different destination. By applying this method, an enterprise will capable in order to make long lasting and strong relation with target audience and maintain them by rendering the package or plan as per the requirement and demands. This approach basically utilised by the domestic and ground level tour operation with aim to develop awareness regarding the services and products in various class and evaluate the requirement of customers who are targeted (Lee, Kim and Park, 2013). Furthermore, option of direct selling for brochure distribution will assist the business to obtain attention of customers and gather their commend regarding the selection of plan and service. This will assist to chance service and operation planning to gain new standard as well as maintain strong relation with clients.

Online: It is another essential and main technique's which is important for the Thomas cook to maximise their sales and revenues in limited time duration. This method is highly used by the Thomas cook because they are outbound enterprise. This technique's highly support business organisation to cover entire area where they can offer their quality products and services to the customers at reasonable cost. This tool also helped to save time and cost of company as well as increase sales in given time period. For instance: this technique's could also be applied by Thomas cook for selling their tour package brochure encompassed by different customers. In order to use appropriate approach for selling the tour packages is essential to make apply of online and direct sales approach (Lopes, Souza and da Cunha, 2013). All the same, both type of distribution approaches are used by the Thomas cook with motive to develop awareness and effect the judgement of large number of clients but maximum level of rivalry is impacting business scheme and local tour manager.

Hiring Agents: It is another beneficial tool for company to give important information to the clients towards tourism products and services. In this Thomas cook recruit large number of person from outer who produce their goods in market on the interest of enterprise. In this they have an agreement with tour manager in way of lead period of time and maximising revenues. This kind of agent mainly render guidance and support to travellers which further help in exploring specific nation.

Task 4

4.1 Strategic decision made by different tour operator

The tour operators such as Thomas Cook planning to apply various type of strategies in their business which help them to increase their business globally. They take various decisions which help them to achieve customer satisfaction, increasing profit, expansion of business and help in achieving goodwill (Mak, 2011). These decision are taken by them daily which are related with fixing the prices of offered tour package, identification of consumer segments, developing and designing brochures etc. Thomas Cook made strategic decision which is very important it help the organisation to face efficiently in any emergency and crisis in the business occurs. The business of tour and travel is flexible and for this appropriate strategy is required for smooth running of business. Various strategic decisions are made by Thomas Cook are as follow:-

Distribution decision:- These focus on establishing a system that in its basic level allow customers to gain access and purchase a marketer's product. Under this marketer's may find that getting to the point at which a customer can acquire a product is complicated, time consuming, and expensive. These decision are adopted by Thomas cook for satisfying the demand of its customers by making available need at a committed time. These helps in organisation to attract and retain its loyal customers.

Segmenting, targeting and positioning:- In this , this company find out the targeted consumers so that tour packages are increased by keeping in the view of positioned clients (Milanfar, 2013). This is the very important decision for company because all the other decisions are fully depend on this. Company made these decision after analysing the competition which are running in the market and the various services which is to offered to its targeted customers. This help in achieving their desires in a pre defined manner.

Promotional strategy:- This include the decisions which help in promoting the various tools and techniques. It help in increase awareness, create interest, and help in create brand loyalty. This can be done through promotion, direct marketing publicity, exhibitions and trade shows and help in increasing overall profitability of the business which depends on these decision. This help in increasing income for the organisation. Thus this company helps is making very strong promotional decisions which help in increasing growth and goodwill of the organisation.

Consumer relation:-The strategic decision of Thomas Cook related to customer relation includes services which is related with customers. They are trying to give their services at minimum prices (Naji-Azimi and et. al., 2012). They make these decision according to choice of customers so that they can gain trust of them. These decision are made by company in order to retain its current and future customer so that they maintain goodwill in market. This includes providing better health and safety of customers which help in achieving the demands of the customers.

Pricing strategy:- Thomas cook uses various pricing strategies so that they attract more customers for buying their products which help in increasing the sale of company. The main objective of these decisions is to retain and attract its customers. Due to this company able to take decisions of the pricing according to the quality of products.

Demand Forecasting:-This is important technique of strategic decision which help in analyses future of company. It is important decision taken by this company. It is futuristic method which help in analyses the future uncertainty that affects the business operations and functioning. With the help of this Thomas & Cook can easily assess the future demands of its product or services in the market place. This also help in fill the gap between supply and demand.

4.2 Compare the Tactical Decision

Tactical decisions are short and medium term decisions . Sometimes wrong strategy could take business in wrong direction which leads to failure. This strategies are usually place for longer period of time and tactics are more changeable. These are short term decision which may influence the organisation for shorter time period (Nolz and et. al., 2010). There are various type of these decisions which are made for organisation in their day to day operations. This include arrangement of facilities, food and negotiation with service provider etc. The comparison of tactical decisions taken by this company are as follow:-

Pricing strategy:- Thomas cook is good organisation in terms of financial condition. The financial conditions of company is good so that company is using this strategy. The company is delivering economical products to its customers with good discount schemes which help in attract more customers. This focuses more on customer satisfaction which help in profit maximizing. The pricing strategy of this company is consumer-oriented. The company is mainly focus on maximizing of its profit.

Currency rates:- The Thomas cook is an international tour operator which help in dealing the customers of different nations. Because of its expansion in international level of business they are directly influences by the fluctuations in the currency rates between the countries. To face this problem this company make short decisions which help in avoiding loss that occurs due to some problems (Nolz and et. al., 2010). On the other hand this company deals in national level so that they not face any fluctuation problem in future. Therefore , company not adopted these decisions to overcome with this problems.

Government support:- This company work at various international level and they have to often face the interruption of the government of various countries when they make plan for tour. This company , Thomas cook is requires to take various decisions which help the organisation to deal accordingly with the government of various countries (Allahyari, Salari and Vigo, 2015). These company made such decisions which help the government of their nation and which help in gain support of their government in promoting the business.

Under this economic recession and growth also impact the tactical decision of Thomas & Cook because the flow of disposable income and money of target customers effects its decision in both positive and negative way. Due to fluctuation in exchange or currency rates has major effect on these decisions of this firm as they prepare Itinerary by considering their exchange rates.


From the above mentioned report, it can be concluded that tour operation management is essential part of the travel and tourism industry. The development and recent tendency in the travel sector are essential for the business entity. There are different methods are used by the company in order to sell their tour package to the visitors in an effective manner. Stage and time scales which are also beneficial for them to produce tour package to the customers in an effective and efficient manner. There are two approaches of contract such as Ad hoc and Fixed contract which is applied by the travelling industry to agreement with another organisation. Cost of holiday plan For UKCBS students and Other than UKCB students are different for the students. In order to implement an attractive brochure, tour operator make an essential decision which support to attract maximum number of customers towards business services and products. There are mainly two type of decision such as tactical and strategic which are made by tour operator with motive to increase their sales and revenues.


  • Allahyari, S., Salari, M. and Vigo, D., 2015. A hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for the multi-depot covering tour vehicle routing problem. European Journal of Operational Research. 242(3). pp.756-768.
  • Bagan, P. and et. al., 2013. Nutritional status and postoperative outcome after pneumonectomy for lung cancer. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 95(2). pp.392-396.
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