Leadership is very essential for team building and team success. Leaders are basically a person who influence their team members and convince them to follow the steps which is planned by him. Leader's main duty is to assist its members in work and guide them in their task.
In this report the main focus is on the leadership style which is followed by Brendan hall and how he was successful in saving the life of the people. This report lays stress on every aspect of leadership and its style what are their pros and cons. even it tells about the criticism which are made by other authors (Gilmore and Pine, 2014). It gives emphasis on various factors which are attached to the leadership theories like the motivational aspects and the rewards which create a positive feeling in the team members to give their best. Lastly this report is based on the incident which was faced by Brendan hall and it further discusses how he was able to won his and its team member life from the storm.
There are several leadership theories which are made by the theorist and the researchers. But besides this, these styles are criticized by other researchers as they felt that the assumptions given in the theory are not correct. They think that this is the reason theory fails in the real life. Leadership styles and their criticism are:
Many researchers and theorist have criticized the theories of leadership as they say that only one type of leadership cannot be followed by in the particular situation. The style of leadership is based on the situation. It fluctuates and the leaders adopt the style according to circumstances of situation. Even this can be seen in the given case. First Mr. hall adopted negotiate leadership style where every team member have to take their own responsibility and decisions (Squire,2006) But then he felt that the situation is getting worse and this could be proving fatal for all the members. So he changed his leadership style according to the present condition. Then he adopted directive or authoritarian leadership style where he has to direct the members and the work was done according to his command. This proves that no leadership style can be adopted before hand as this is particularly based on the situation and even the perspective of the leader how he is predicting or understanding the situation
According to the theoretical aspect it is said that leaders are made on the basis of experience. It is regarded as more the experienced individual he would the more powerful leader. He can manage its team more properly then other individual. But the criticism is that leaders are made because they possess some leadership trait or quality which makes them different from all the members. In the given as Mr. Hall emerged as a leader because he inherited some leadership trait that aroused at this difficult situation. There were many persons who can have taken initiative regarding making the team members in following their command (Brown and et.al, 2011). But as it is rightly said that majority of the persons are followers and only few of them are initiator. Those few are the person who emerges as a leader in a group.
Most of the authors omit the leadership behavior and the effort taken up by the followers. They give stress on the motivational factor or the reward which is attached to it. This criticism is wrong as per the case study all the members knew that the reward for them is their life and the motivational factor was trying to save their own life. But still they were disheartened and lost their hope (Holloway, 2012).Because of the leadership of Brendan hall a light of hope emerged and they did lot of hard work to save their life. The criticism made by authors is wrong as leadership behavior plays a major role in motivating the members. Authors at the time of criticizing say that motivational factor is important but this factor has emerged by the leadership behavior so this limitation goes wrong.
An important criticism by the theorist was that the leader has to just follow its duties and responsibilities as it said that there is no relation between followers which can affect the leader's duty. It is believed that leadership rule is to know our team members effectively. This helps in making the task for the leaders as well for the team members. This was the major fault which was made by Mr. Hall as he was not familiar with his crew (.Leadership Styles .2014). This led him to difficulties as the time of selecting watch leaders he was confused as the two men who were given that job were not able to complement the skills which were present in Brendan. According to his perception he chooses the guy which was focused. Fortunately this turned out to be fruitful if not a serious problem could have been emerged. According to the leadership theory first the leaders have to perfectly know their team members so that it can assign duties and responsibility according to that and no failure can occur at the time of implementing its duty.
The main leadership theory which was applied by Mr. Hall was authoritarian leadership as according to the situation the crew members needed a man who can support and direct them to do the task. They were not in the position to make their own decision. At times this leadership theory is best for certain situation. The best theory which is considered is democratic leadership but in this case as democratic was applied but it failed to create any significance on the situation. The leadership style which is least suited for this situation is the laizzes -fair (Savage and et.al, 2010). The rights and power are in the hands of workers. Since the crew member did not know each other very well. So if this style was followed it can have created many problems and conflict among the members which will lead to sinking of the ship (Leadership theories. 2014). This style is suitable only when the members have trust on other members but without knowing this can be achieved. Even Mr. hall who emerged as the leader was not knowing its crew member and for him assigning duties and taking decisions would be the toughest job.
After critical analyzing the theory and the leadership style, transactional theory was also followed by Bernard. This theory gives emphasis on group working and the leader motivates the employees through reward. This happened at the end when Mr. Hall got a call about the worse situation which was faced by the other vessel at that time he trusted its team members and gave motivation to their crew by the reward they are going to reap that is their life (Leadership Theories. 2014). This is regarding as transactional leadership style. Even Bernard has not thought to change its style but without realizing this he changed according to the situation. This proves that leadership style changes according to the circumstances. With the changing situation many different styles were applied that were successful because with the change in situation the mindset of the individual also changes. Then the leader has to make changes in its style regarding the command and giving order to crew members.
There are different type's motivational motivation theories which are used to make the employees work efficiently for the goal of the organization. But this scenario is a different one as the leader has to motivate its team member to not to lose hope and save their life as well as others life. But in this case only one motivation theory has been highlighted which is used by Bernard (Kirkwood, 2009). There are several criticisms which are made by the researchers and the theorist.
The researchers say that the motivational factor is different for every individual as if one individual is motivated by money that does not mean this reward is the motivational factor of the other individual. According to this case, in broader sense positive as well as negative motivation factors can be used. Incentive theory can be applied as theory puts emphasis on two factor positive reinforcement and negative (Dowling, 2008). Some people are motivated through negative way as if they are made terrified about the situation that the storm can kill them. Through which they are motivated and this will even help them to win race.
A significant criticism was made on the Maslow hierarchy need theory that in many cases people are deprived of the lower needs but still the want to achieve self actualization need. Some individual are passionate about money so they give less importance to the love factor (Savage and et.al, 2010). As per the case, if the cream member were hungry also they would pray for their safety as this was the main priority which came to their mind. This proves that motivation level changes according to the priority of the individual. First the motivation factor for the entire crew member was to win the race because of the storm their reward was changes from wining to saving their life. Even motivational theories depend upon the reward which is associated to the factor. Even the theory is also criticized about the fact that people does not know their satisfaction level as it cannot be measured (Brown and et.al, 2011). After achieving the first stage they can even turn back at the zero level. So measure satisfaction is not possible for every human being.
The criticism was given on the two factor theory which says that motivator for an individual it can be a de-motivator for the other one. If leader is motivating its team member by saying him negatives things it might be that other member's gets de -motivated by the factors which are referred to as the motivator for other one. In this case it is very risky as all the team has to work together to achieve success (Sims, 2007). Even the motivation factor depends upon the trait of the individual. If the member has strong will power he can be motivated through by providing a push back. While in case of a weak person it needs more motivation to perform the task. Even the theory also says that the factors which are responsible for motivators as in case recognition or praise by the leader. It can be a de- motivator factor for the other individual as it lacks the inter relationship aspect between the individual. This is not in case of Mr. Hall as there priority is to beat the storm and win (Wilton, 2010).
Mr. Hall mostly applied the leadership theory for saving their life. The team members were de -motivated and have lost the ray of hope. At that self determination theory can have applied as in this theory it focuses on the self determination of the members and this focuses on self motivation factor. This theory tells as how the individual behavior can be motivated to and at what extent. Humans have the tendency to grow but they need a push analyze their ability. In the starting when Mr. Hall emerged as a leader it has made the individual self motivated and self- determined to achieve the results (Vallaster, 2005). This would have helped him to make the further journey easier. In between when the member was losing their confidence that would have not been happened. But researchers have criticized that if the members are already motivated and self determined than they need not require any motivation factor or the leader as they are already motivated. But according to the case if there was no leader than the ship would have sunk as they were motivated to save their life but with that they needed a guider or the person which can direct them to how to do the task (Brown and et.al,2011).
Motivation is not only motivating the individual top their task effectively but also the leader should understand the condition and circumstances of the individual then only action can take. This happened as one of the team member was terrified and he felt that one can die. By seeing his situation they commanded him to stay down after sometime when he got courage and motivation then he worked unexpectedly well. This is also how the leader can motivate crew member by understanding his situation (Wilton, 2010).
Achievement motivation is one of the theories that can be applied to the given case. This theory suggest that how the individual is directed towards achievement. In this case Bernard had to take certain measures which can make the crew members to make their performance effective. At the most crucial time Mr. Hall would have created certain components which can make the team members more competent and motivated to their work (Kerr and Rifkin, 2013). This theory focuses on the environment in which they are performing their activity. If the environment is made comfortable for the individual they will stay motivated and achieve the results. This can be done by Brendan by giving recognition and positive feedback that can solve their problem. At this time when it is impossible for the any individual to stay stable so they can have made small attainable goal (.Motivation Theories: Individual Needs. 2014).
Theory which was used by Mr. Hall was goal setting theory as the goal was the safety of every individual. This theory was beneficial as no motivators were required to make the crew members work. According to the priority it motivated the team members with confidence and even helps them to stay calm and not to lose hope. In between the motivators factors were the recognition by Bernard and trust which he has created on the members. This made them overcome the challenge easily (Squire, 2006). This was possible only because of the team working and the motivational factor which was entailed in by Mr. Hall in the crew members.
From this it can be said that motivation can be increased or decreased by the reward which is attached to it. In this case the reward was the life of all crew members and their safety. For motivational factors rewards or bait are essential so that they can be self motivated and self determined to meet the targets (Holloway, 2012). This made them won the race. From this it can be interpreted that when goal are divided into small task then it is easy to achieve the desired results. They wanted to save their life but making this thing possible they won the race.
From this report it can be concluded that there are various leadership styles and theories but according to the situation it should be adapted so that desired result can be achieved. Besides the criticism by the researchers and the theorist there are pros and cons of every style but if it is practiced effectively then the limitations can be overcome. This has been proved through the case of Mr. Hall as how he had managed to make their leadership effective. Wherein case of motivation Bernard could have applied motivational theories so that the team member would be fully motivated and had not lost the confidence at the end. Lastly it can be referred that through effective motivation and leadership theory they have finally achieved success as their life as well as the race that was their ultimate goal.
- Brown,R., and et.al. 2011. Using virtual worlds for collaborative business process modeling. Business Process Management Journal.
- Dowling, P., 2008. International Human Resource Management: Managing People in a Multinational Context. Cengage Learning EMEA.
- Gilmore, J. H. and Pine, B. J., 2014. A leader's guide to innovation in the experience economy. Strategy & Leadership.
- Holloway, M., 2012. Motivational interviewing and acquired brain injury", Social Care and Neurodisability.
- Kerr, H., and Rifkin, G., 2013. Reward Systems: Does Yours Measure Up?. Harvard Business Press.
- Kirkwood, J., 2009. Motivational factors in a pushpull theory of entrepreneurship. Gender in Management: An International Journal.
- Savage, G., and et.al., 2010. Strategic Human Resource Management in Health Care. Emerald Group Publishing
- Sigalas, C., and et.al. 2013. Developing a measure of competitive advantage. Journal of Strategy and Management.
- Sims, R., 2007. Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities. IAP.
- Squire, B., 2006. Business in Context. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.
- Vallaster, C., 2005. Strategy and Human Resource Management. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
- Wilton, N., 2010. An Introduction to Human Resource Management. SAGE.